*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(19): 10845-10852, 2020 May 21.*

##### RESUMO

We present a state-of-the-art quantum chemical study of mixed cation-cation interaction (CCI) driven complexes composed of uranyl and neptunyl units. Specifically, we consider the stability of the D-shaped and T-shaped structural rearrangements in CCIs, various oxidation states of the uranium and neptunium atom (v and vi), as well as a different number of unpaired electrons. Furthermore, we scrutinize the nuclear quadrupole interactions of the bare actinyl subunits and the most stable mixed CCI clusters. The electric field gradients (and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants) of neptunyls are reported for the first time. The characteristic features of the nuclear quadrupole interactions for the bare neptunyl ions are very similar to those predicted for uranyls. When the CCI clusters are formed, a considerable asymmetry is introduced compared to the bare actinyl cations. Most importantly, we are able to distinguish different types of CCIs with respect to their structural arrangement and their total charge by analyzing the electric field gradients at the uranium and neptunium nuclei.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(35): 19039-19053, 2019 Sep 21.*

##### RESUMO

We scrutinize the performance of different variants of equation of motion coupled cluster (EOM-CC) methods to predict electronic excitation energies and excited state potential energy surfaces in closed-shell actinide species. We focus our analysis on various recently presented pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) models [J. Chem. Phys., 2016, 23, 234105 and J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2019, 15, 18-24] and compare their performance to the conventional EOM-CCSD approach and to the completely renormalized EOM-CCSD with perturbative triples ansatz. Since the single-reference pCCD model allows us to efficiently describe static/nondynamic electron correlation, while dynamical electron correlation is accounted for a posteriori, the investigated pCCD-based methods represent a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost. Such a feature is particularly advantageous when modelling electronic structures of actinide-containing compounds with stretched bonds. Our work demonstrates that EOM-pCCD-based methods reliably predict electronic spectra of small actinide building blocks containing thorium, uranium, and protactinium atoms. Specifically, the standard errors in adiabatic and vertical excitation energies obtained by the conventional EOM-CCSD approach are reduced by a factor of 2 when employing the EOM-pCCD-LCCSD variant resulting in a mean error of 0.05 eV and a standard deviation of 0.25 eV.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(7): 4021-4035, 2019 Jul 09.*

##### RESUMO

In this paper, we scrutinize the ability of seniority-zero wave function-based methods to model different types of noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonds, dispersion, and mixed noncovalent interactions as well as prototypical model systems with various contributions of dynamic and static electron correlation effects. Specifically, we focus on the pair Coupled Cluster Doubles (pCCD) ansatz combined with two different flavors of dynamic energy corrections, (i) based on a perturbation theory correction and (ii) on a linearized coupled cluster ansatz on top of pCCD. We benchmark these approaches against the A24 data set [ Rezác and Hobza J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013 , 9 , 2151 - 2155 .] extrapolated to the basis set limit and some model noncovalent complexes that feature covalent bond breaking. By dissecting different types of interactions in the A24 data set within the Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT) framework, we demonstrate that pCCD can be classified as a dispersion-free method. Furthermore, we found that both flavors of post-pCCD approaches represent encouraging and computationally more efficient alternatives to standard electronic structure methods to model weakly bound systems, resulting in small statistical errors. Finally, a linearized coupled cluster correction on top of pCCD proved to be most reliable for the majority of investigated systems, featuring smaller nonparallelity errors compared to perturbation-theory-based approaches.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(2): 744-759, 2019 Jan 02.*

##### RESUMO

Understanding the binding mechanism in neptunyl clusters formed due to cation-cation interactions is of crucial importance in nuclear waste reprocessing and related areas of research. Since experimental manipulations with such species are often rather limited, we have to rely on quantum-chemical predictions of their electronic structures and spectroscopic parameters. In this work, we present a state-of-the-art quantum chemical study of the T-shaped and diamond-shaped neptunyl(v) and neptunyl(vi) dimers. Specifically, we scrutinize their molecular structures, (implicit and explicit) solvation effects, the interplay of static and dynamical correlation, and the influence of spin-orbit coupling on the ground state and lowest-lying excited states for different total spin states and total charges of the neptunyl dications. Furthermore, we use the picture of interacting orbitals (quantum entanglement and correlation analysis) to identify strongly correlated orbitals in the cation-cation complexes that should be included in complete active space calculations. Most importantly, our study highlights the complex interplay of correlation effects and relativistic corrections in the description of the ground and lowest-lying excited states of neptunyl dications.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(36): 23424-23432, 2018 Sep 19.*

##### RESUMO

We present a comprehensive relativistic coupled cluster study of the electronic structures of the ThO and ThS molecules in the spinor basis. Specifically, we use the single-reference coupled cluster and the multi-reference Fock Space Coupled Cluster (FSCC) methods to model their ground and electronically-excited states. Two variants of the FSCC method have been investigated: (a) one where the electronic spectrum is obtained from sector (1,1) of the Fock space, and (b) another where the excited states come from the doubly attached electronic states to the doubly charged systems (ThO2+ and ThS2+), that is, from sector (0,2) of the Fock space. Our study provides a reliable set of spectroscopic parameters such as bond lengths, excitation energies, and vibrational frequencies, as well as a detailed analysis of the electron correlation effects in the ThO and ThS molecules. Finally, we examine the first ionization potential and electron affinity of the above mentioned molecules.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 13(12): 5966-5983, 2017 Dec 12.*

##### RESUMO

Wave functions restricted to electron-pair states are promising models to describe static/nondynamic electron correlation effects encountered, for instance, in bond-dissociation processes and transition-metal and actinide chemistry. To reach spectroscopic accuracy, however, the missing dynamic electron correlation effects that cannot be described by electron-pair states need to be included a posteriori. In this Article, we extend the previously presented perturbation theory models with an Antisymmetric Product of 1-reference orbital Geminal (AP1roG) reference function that allows us to describe both static/nondynamic and dynamic electron correlation effects. Specifically, our perturbation theory models combine a diagonal and off-diagonal zero-order Hamiltonian, a single-reference and multireference dual state, and different excitation operators used to construct the projection manifold. We benchmark all proposed models as well as an a posteriori Linearized Coupled Cluster correction on top of AP1roG against CR-CC(2,3) reference data for reaction energies of several closed-shell molecules that are extrapolated to the basis set limit. Moreover, we test the performance of our new methods for multiple bond breaking processes in the homonuclear N2, C2, and F2 dimers as well as the heteronuclear BN, CO, and CN+ dimers against MRCI-SD, MRCI-SD+Q, and CR-CC(2,3) reference data. Our numerical results indicate that the best performance is obtained from a Linearized Coupled Cluster correction as well as second-order perturbation theory corrections employing a diagonal and off-diagonal zero-order Hamiltonian and a single-determinant dual state. These dynamic corrections on top of AP1roG provide substantial improvements for binding energies and spectroscopic properties obtained with the AP1roG approach, while allowing us to approach chemical accuracy for reaction energies involving closed-shell species.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(6): 4317-4329, 2017 Feb 08.*

##### RESUMO

Actinide-containing complexes present formidable challenges for electronic structure methods due to the large number of degenerate or quasi-degenerate electronic states arising from partially occupied 5f and 6d shells. Conventional multi-reference methods can treat active spaces that are often at the upper limit of what is required for a proper treatment of species with complex electronic structures, leaving no room for verifying their suitability. In this work we address the issue of properly defining the active spaces in such calculations, and introduce a protocol to determine optimal active spaces based on the use of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group algorithm and concepts of quantum information theory. We apply the protocol to elucidate the electronic structure and bonding mechanism of volatile plutonium oxides (PuO3 and PuO2(OH)2), species associated with nuclear safety issues for which little is known about the electronic structure and energetics. We show how, within a scalar relativistic framework, orbital-pair correlations can be used to guide the definition of optimal active spaces which provide an accurate description of static/non-dynamic electron correlation, as well as to analyse the chemical bonding beyond a simple orbital model. From this bonding analysis we are able to show that the addition of oxo- or hydroxo-groups to the plutonium dioxide species considerably changes the π-bonding mechanism with respect to the bare triatomics, resulting in bent structures with a considerable multi-reference character.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(27): 18305-11, 2016 Jul 21.*

##### RESUMO

We present a state-of-the-art computational study of the uranyl(vi) and uranyl(v) cation-cation interactions (dications) in aqueous solution. Reliable electronic structures of two interacting uranyl(vi) and uranyl(v) subunits as well as those of the uranyl(vi) and uranyl(v) clusters are presented for the first time. Our theoretical study elucidates the impact of cation-cation interactions on changes in the molecular structure as well as changes in vibrational and UV-Vis spectra of the bare uranyl(vi) and uranyl(v) moieties for different total spin-states and total charges of the dications.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(22): 14427-36, 2015 Jun 14.*

##### RESUMO

We present the first application of the variationally orbital optimized antisymmetric product of 1-reference orbital geminals (vOO-AP1roG) method to singlet-state actinide chemistry. We assess the accuracy and reliability of the AP1roG ansatz in modelling the ground-state electronic structure of small actinide compounds by comparing it to standard quantum chemistry approaches. Our study of the ground state spectroscopic constants (bond lengths and vibrational frequencies) and potential energy curves of actinide oxides (UO2(2+) and ThO2) as well as the energetic stability of ThC2 isomers reveals that vOO-AP1roG describes the electronic structure of heavy-element compounds accurately, at mean-field computational cost.

*J Chem Phys ; 141(4): 041107, 2014 Jul 28.*

##### RESUMO

We present a study of the electronic structure of the [UO2](+), [UO2](2 +), [UO2](3 +), NUO, [NUO](+), [NUO](2 +), [NUN](-), NUN, and [NUN](+) molecules with the intermediate Hamiltonian Fock-space coupled cluster method. The accuracy of mean-field approaches based on the eXact-2-Component Hamiltonian to incorporate spin-orbit coupling and Gaunt interactions are compared to results obtained with the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. Furthermore, we assess the reliability of calculations employing approximate density functionals in describing electronic spectra and quantities useful in rationalizing Uranium (VI) species reactivity (hardness, electronegativity, and electrophilicity).

*J Chem Phys ; 140(21): 214114, 2014 Jun 07.*

##### RESUMO

We present a new, non-variational orbital-optimization scheme for the antisymmetric product of one-reference orbital geminal wave function. Our approach is motivated by the observation that an orbital-optimized seniority-zero configuration interaction (CI) expansion yields similar results to an orbital-optimized seniority-zero-plus-two CI expansion [L. Bytautas, T. M. Henderson, C. A. Jimenez-Hoyos, J. K. Ellis, and G. E. Scuseria, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 044119 (2011)]. A numerical analysis is performed for the C2 and LiF molecules, for the CH2 singlet diradical as well as for the symmetric stretching of hypothetical (linear) hydrogen chains. For these test cases, the proposed orbital-optimization protocol yields similar results to its variational orbital optimization counterpart, but prevents symmetry-breaking of molecular orbitals in most cases.

*J Phys Chem A ; 118(39): 9058-68, 2014 Oct 02.*

##### RESUMO

We present a systematic theoretical study on the dissociation of diatomic molecules and their spectroscopic constants using our recently presented geminal-based wave function ansätze. Specifically, the performance of the antisymmetric product of rank two geminals (APr2G), the antisymmetric product of 1-reference-orbital geminals (AP1roG) and its orbital-optimized variant (OO-AP1roG) are assessed against standard quantum chemistry methods. Our study indicates that these new geminal-based approaches provide a cheap, robust, and accurate alternative for the description of bond-breaking processes in closed-shell systems requiring only mean-field-like computational cost. In particular, the spectroscopic constants obtained from OO-AP1roG are in very good agreement with reference theoretical and experimental data.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(19): 8872-80, 2014 May 21.*

##### RESUMO

The chemical bond is an important local concept to understand chemical compounds and processes. Unfortunately, like most local concepts, the chemical bond and the bond order do not correspond to any physical observable and thus cannot be determined as an expectation value of a quantum chemical operator. We recently demonstrated [Boguslawski et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2013, 9, 2959-2973] that one- and two-orbital-based entanglement measures can be applied to interpret electronic wave functions in terms of orbital correlation. Orbital entanglement emerged as a powerful tool to provide a qualitative understanding of bond-forming and bond-breaking processes, and allowed for an estimation of bond orders of simple diatomic molecules beyond the classical bonding models. In this article we demonstrate that the orbital entanglement analysis can be extended to polyatomic molecules to understand chemical bonding.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 10(11): 4873-82, 2014 Nov 11.*

##### RESUMO

We introduce new nonvariational orbital optimization schemes for the antisymmetric product of one-reference orbital geminal (AP1roG) wave function (also known as pair-coupled cluster doubles) that are extensions to our recently proposed projected seniority-two (PS2-AP1roG) orbital optimization method [ J. Chem. Phys. 2014 , 140 , 214114 )]. These approaches represent less stringent approximations to the PS2-AP1roG ansatz and prove to be more robust approximations to the variational orbital optimization scheme than PS2-AP1roG. The performance of the proposed orbital optimization techniques is illustrated for a number of well-known multireference problems: the insertion of Be into H2, the automerization process of cyclobutadiene, the stability of the monocyclic form of pyridyne, and the aromatic stability of benzene.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(2): 719-27, 2014 Jan 14.*

##### RESUMO

The accurate description of the complexation of the CUO molecule by Ne and Ar noble gas matrices represents a challenging task for present-day quantum chemistry. Especially, the accurate prediction of the spin ground state of different CUO-noble-gas complexes remains elusive. In this work, the interaction of the CUO unit with the surrounding noble gas matrices is investigated in terms of complexation energies and dissected into its molecular orbital quantum entanglement patterns. Our analysis elucidates the anticipated singlet-triplet ground-state reversal of the CUO molecule diluted in different noble gas matrices and demonstrates that the strongest uranium-noble gas interaction is found for CUOAr4 in its triplet configuration.

*J Chem Phys ; 139(3): 034301, 2013 Jul 21.*

##### RESUMO

We present an EOMCCSD (equation of motion coupled cluster with singles and doubles) study of excited states of the small [UO2](2+) and [UO2](+) model systems as well as the larger U(VI)O2(saldien) complex. In addition, the triples contribution within the EOMCCSDT and CR-EOMCCSD(T) (completely renormalized EOMCCSD with non-iterative triples) approaches for the [UO2](2+) and [UO2](+) systems as well as the active-space variant of the CR-EOMCCSD(T) method-CR-EOMCCSd(t)-for the U(VI)O2(saldien) molecule are investigated. The coupled cluster data were employed as benchmark to choose the "best" appropriate exchange-correlation functional for subsequent time-dependent density functional (TD-DFT) studies on the transition energies for closed-shell species. Furthermore, the influence of the saldien ligands on the electronic structure and excitation energies of the [UO2](+) molecule is discussed. The electronic excitations as well as their oscillator dipole strengths modeled with TD-DFT approach using the CAM-B3LYP exchange-correlation functional for the [U(V)O2(saldien)](-) with explicit inclusion of two dimethyl sulfoxide molecules are in good agreement with the experimental data of Takao et al. [Inorg. Chem. 49, 2349 (2010)].

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 9(7): 2959-73, 2013 Jul 09.*

##### RESUMO

The accurate calculation of the (differential) correlation energy is central to the quantum chemical description of bond-formation and bond-dissociation processes. In order to estimate the quality of single- and multireference approaches for this purpose, various diagnostic tools have been developed. In this work, we elaborate on our previous observation [J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2012, 3, 3129] that one- and two-orbital-based entanglement measures provide quantitative means for the assessment and classification of electron correlation effects among molecular orbitals. The dissociation behavior of some prototypical diatomic molecules features all types of correlation effects relevant for chemical bonding. We demonstrate that our entanglement analysis is convenient to dissect these electron correlation effects and to provide a conceptual understanding of bond-forming and bond-breaking processes from the point of view of quantum information theory.

*J Chem Phys ; 137(8): 084308, 2012 Aug 28.*

##### RESUMO

The electronic spectrum of the CUO molecule was investigated with the IHFSCC-SD (intermediate Hamiltonian Fock-space coupled cluster with singles and doubles) method and with TD-DFT (time-dependent density functional theory) employing the PBE and PBE0 exchange-correlation functionals. The importance of both spin-orbit coupling and correlation effects on the low-lying excited-states of this molecule are analyzed and discussed. Noble gas matrix effects on the energy ordering and vibrational frequencies of the lowest electronic states of the CUO molecule were investigated with density functional theory (DFT) and TD-DFT in a supermolecular as well as a frozen density embedding (FDE) subsystem approach. This data is used to test the suitability of the FDE approach to model the influence of different matrices on the vertical electronic transitions of this molecule. The most suitable potential was chosen to perform relativistic wave function theory in density functional theory calculations to study the vertical electronic spectra of the CUO and CUONg(4) with the IHFSCC-SD method.

*J Phys Chem A ; 116(27): 7397-404, 2012 Jul 12.*

##### RESUMO

Four-component relativistic time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used to study charge-transfer (CT) excitation energies of the uranyl molecule as well as the uranyl tetrachloride complex. Adiabatic excitation energies and vibrational frequencies of the excited states are calculated for the lower energy range of the spectrum. The results for TD-DFT with the CAM-B3LYP exchange-correlation functional for the [UO(2)Cl(4)](2-) system are in good agreement with the experimentally observed spectrum of this species and agree also rather well with other theoretical data. Use of the global hybrid B3LYP gives qualitatively correct results, while use of the BLYP functional yields results that are qualitatively wrong due to the too low CT states calculated with this functional. The applicability of the overlap diagnostic of Peach et al. (J. Chem. Phys.2008, 128, 044118) to identify such CT excitations is investigated for a wide range of vertical transitions using results obtained with three different approximate exchange-correlation functionals: BLYP, B3LYP, and CAM-B3LYP.

##### Assuntos

Cloretos/química , Compostos de Urânio/química , Transferência de Energia , Modelos Moleculares , Teoria Quântica , Eletricidade Estática , Termodinâmica , Fatores de Tempo , Vibração*J Phys Chem Lett ; 3(21): 3129-35, 2012 Nov 01.*

##### RESUMO

Electron correlation effects are essential for an accurate ab initio description of molecules. A quantitative a priori knowledge of the single- or multireference nature of electronic structures as well as of the dominant contributions to the correlation energy can facilitate the decision regarding the optimum quantum chemical method of choice. We propose concepts from quantum information theory as orbital entanglement measures that allow us to evaluate the single- and multireference character of any molecular structure in a given orbital basis set. By studying these measures we can detect possible artifacts of small active spaces.