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1.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(6): 696-707, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the value of electroanatomical voltage mapping (EAVM) to distinguish cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) from arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) in patients with ventricular tachycardia from the right ventricle (RV). BACKGROUND: CS can mimic ARVC. Because scar in ARVC is predominantly subepicardial, this study hypothesized that the relative sizes of endocardial low bipolar voltage (BV) to low unipolar voltage (UV) areas may distinguish CS from ARVC. METHODS: Patients with CS affecting the RV (n = 14), patients with gene-positive ARVC (n = 13), and a reference group of patients without structural heart disease (n = 9) who underwent RV endocardial EAVM were included. RV region-specific BV and UV cutoffs were derived from control subjects. In CS and ARVC, segmental involvement was determined and low-voltage areas were measured, using <1.5 mV for BV and <3.9 mV, <4.4 mV, and <5.5 mV for UV. The ratio between low BV and low UV area was calculated generating 3 parameters: Ratio3.9, Ratio4.4 and Ratio5.5, respectively. RESULTS: In control subjects, BV and UV varied significantly among RV regions. The basal septum was involved in 71% of CS patients and in none of ARVC patients. Ratio5.5 discriminated CS from ARVC the best. An algorithm including Ratio5.5 ≥0.45 and basal septal involvement identified CS with 93% sensitivity and 85% specificity. This was validated in a separate population (CS [n = 6], ARVC [n = 10]) with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: EAVM provides detailed information about scar characteristics and scar distribution in the RV. An algorithm combining Ratio5.5 (area BV <1.5 mV/area UV <5.5 mV) and bipolar basal septal involvement allows accurate diagnosis of (isolated) CS in patients presenting with monomorphic ventricular tachycardia from the RV.

3.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in LMNA cause an arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (cardiolaminopathy) with high risk of ventricular tachycardia (VT). However, the natural history of VT amongst patients with cardiolaminopathy is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: To describe the longitudinal burden and progression of VT, including change in tachycardia cycle length (TCL), response to anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP), and prognostic significance of high-burden VT (> 5 episodes of VT at any device interrogation) in cardiolaminopathy patients. METHODS: Patients with cardiolaminopathy and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) were identified from a single center database. Serial device interrogations and the medical record were used to collect VT burden, TCL and response to ATP. RESULTS: Cardiolaminopathy patients with primary (n=27) or secondary prevention (n=16) ICDs were followed for 2 (IQR 1,5) years. VT burden was substantially higher in patients receiving secondary prevention ICDs (28±40.9 vs. 3.6±7.3 episodes per 100 patient years, p<0.001). ATP was highly effective (94%) at terminating VT except in short TCL (< 250 ms) where ATP failed in 60%. Amongst patients with recurrent VT, the TCL increased by 112±93.6 ms during follow up. Inappropriate shocks were rare (0.4% of all therapies). Median time to transplantation, ventricular assist device or death was 18 months (IQR 0.7, 27.1) in patients with high-burden VT. CONCLUSION: In cardiolaminopathy, VT is recurrent and highly responsive to ATP which supports the use of transvenous ICDs iteratively programmed to manage VT of various TCLs. The onset of high-burden VT indicates poor prognosis and should warrant referral to a heart failure specialist.

4.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(5): 484-490, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to report a multicenter series of left-sided catheter ablations performed by using intravenous direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) as an alternative to heparin. BACKGROUND: Amidst a looming worldwide shortage of heparin, there are insufficient data to guide nonheparin-based peri-procedural anticoagulation in patients undergoing catheter ablation. METHODS: This study reviewed all catheter ablations at 6 institutions between 2006 and 2019 to assess the safety and efficacy of DTIs for left-sided radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. RESULTS: In total, 53 patients (age 63.0 ± 9.3 years, 68% male, CHA2DS2-VASc [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, sex category] score 2.8 ± 1.6, left ventricular ejection fraction 46 ± 15%) underwent ablation with DTIs (75% bivalirudin, 25% argatroban) due to heparin contraindication(s) (72% heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, 21% heparin allergy, 4% protamine reaction, and 4% religious reasons). The patient's usual oral anticoagulant was continued without interruption in 69%. Procedures were performed for atrial fibrillation (64%) or ventricular tachycardia/premature ventricular contractions (36%). Transseptal puncture was undertaken in 81%, and a contact force-sensing catheter was used in 70%. Vascular ultrasound was used in 71%, and femoral arterial access was gained in 36%. A bolus followed by infusion was used in all but 4 cases, and activated clotting time was monitored peri-procedurally in 72%, with 32% receiving additional boluses. Procedure duration was 216 ± 116 min, and ablation time was 51 ± 22 min. No major bleeding or embolic complications were observed. Four patients had minor self-limiting bleeding complications, including a small pericardial effusion (<1 cm), a small groin hematoma, and hematuria. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter series, intravenous DTIs were safely used as an alternative to heparin for left-sided catheter ablation.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960344

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984466

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

7.
Europace ; 22(3): 450-495, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995197

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

8.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(1): e155-e205, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102616

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

9.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(1): e2-e154, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085023

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

11.
J Arrhythm ; 35(3): 323-484, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293696

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

12.
Circulation ; 140(4): 293-302, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An accurate estimation of the risk of life-threatening (LT) ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VTA) in patients with LMNA mutations is crucial to select candidates for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. METHODS: We included 839 adult patients with LMNA mutations, including 660 from a French nationwide registry in the development sample, and 179 from other countries, referred to 5 tertiary centers for cardiomyopathies, in the validation sample. LTVTA was defined as (1) sudden cardiac death or (2) implantable cardioverter defibrillator-treated or hemodynamically unstable VTA. The prognostic model was derived using the Fine-Gray regression model. The net reclassification was compared with current clinical practice guidelines. The results are presented as means (SD) or medians [interquartile range]. RESULTS: We included 444 patients, 40.6 (14.1) years of age, in the derivation sample and 145 patients, 38.2 (15.0) years, in the validation sample, of whom 86 (19.3%) and 34 (23.4%) experienced LTVTA over 3.6 [1.0-7.2] and 5.1 [2.0-9.3] years of follow-up, respectively. Predictors of LTVTA in the derivation sample were: male sex, nonmissense LMNA mutation, first degree and higher atrioventricular block, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and left ventricular ejection fraction (https://lmna-risk-vta.fr). In the derivation sample, C-index (95% CI) of the model was 0.776 (0.711-0.842), and the calibration slope 0.827. In the external validation sample, the C-index was 0.800 (0.642-0.959), and the calibration slope was 1.082 (95% CI, 0.643-1.522). A 5-year estimated risk threshold ≥7% predicted 96.2% of LTVTA and net reclassified 28.8% of patients with LTVTA in comparison with the guidelines-based approach. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with the current standard of care, this risk prediction model for LTVTA in laminopathies significantly facilitated the choice of candidates for implantable cardioverter defibrillators. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03058185.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Taquicardia Ventricular/patologia , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
13.
Europace ; 21(8): 1143-1144, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075787

RESUMO

Ventricular arrhythmias are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and come in a variety of forms, from single premature ventricular complexes to sustained ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Rapid developments have taken place over the past decade in our understanding of these arrhythmias and in our ability to diagnose and treat them. The field of catheter ablation has progressed with the development of new methods and tools, and with the publication of large clinical trials. Therefore, global cardiac electrophysiology professional societies undertook to outline recommendations and best practices for these procedures in a document that will update and replace the 2009 EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias. An expert writing group, after reviewing and discussing the literature, including a systematic review and meta-analysis published in conjunction with this document, and drawing on their own experience, drafted and voted on recommendations and summarized current knowledge and practice in the field. Each recommendation is presented in knowledge byte format and is accompanied by supportive text and references. Further sections provide a practical synopsis of the various techniques and of the specific ventricular arrhythmia sites and substrates encountered in the electrophysiology lab. The purpose of this document is to help electrophysiologists around the world to appropriately select patients for catheter ablation, to perform procedures in a safe and efficacious manner, and to provide follow-up and adjunctive care in order to obtain the best possible outcomes for patients with ventricular arrhythmias.

14.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 55(1): 55-62, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020468

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Targets for substrate-based catheter ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) include sites with fractionated and late potentials (LPs). We hypothesized that in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the pacing mode may influence the timing of abnormal electrograms (EGMs) relative to the surface QRS complex. METHODS: We assessed bipolar EGM characteristics in left ventricular low bipolar voltage areas (< 1.5 mV) from 10 patients with coronary disease and a CRT device undergoing catheter ablation for VT. EGMs at 81 sites were analyzed during three different pacing modes (biventricular (BiV), right ventricular (RV)-only, and left ventricular (LV)-only) pacing. RESULTS: Stimulus to end of local electrogram duration (Stim-to-eEGM) depended significantly on the stimulation site (BiV, LV, or RV, p = 0.032). Single-chamber pacing unmasked LPs, not present during BiV pacing, in three patients. In another three patients, a concomitant increase in stimulus to end of surface QRS duration caused by single-site pacing compensated for the increase in Stim-to-eEGM duration, thereby prohibiting LP unmasking. CONCLUSION: The sequence of ventricular activation, as determined by the pacing site in patients with CRT devices, has a major influence on the detection of late potentials during substrate-guided ablation. Further study is warranted to define the optimal approaches, including the rhythm, for substrate mapping, but our findings suggest that BiV pacing may be most likely to obscure detection of late potentials as compared to single-site pacing.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Cicatriz/cirurgia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Idoso , Cicatriz/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia , Mapeamento Epicárdico , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia
15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(12): 1413-1425, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation is effective for eliminating most drug-refractory ventricular arrhythmias (VA). However, a major reason for procedural failure is arrhythmia originating deep within the myocardium where it is inaccessible to conventional endocardial or epicardial approaches. Affected patients have limited therapeutic options. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the safety and outcome of a novel radiofrequency ablation catheter that used an extendable/retractable 27-g needle capable of targeting deep arrhythmia (intramural) substrate. METHODS: Patients who failed at least one prior catheter ablation procedure for sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) or nonsustained VA with associated left ventricular dysfunction were enrolled at 3 centers. The target was sustained monomorphic VT in 26 patients, including 8 with recent VT storm or VT requiring intravenous medication, and 5 with incessant VA associated with ventricular dysfunction. RESULTS: Needle ablation was performed in 31 patients (median of 2 failed prior ablation procedures; 71% nonischemic heart disease). After a median of 15 needle lesions/patient, ablation abolished at least 1 inducible VT in 19 of 26 VT patients (73%), and suppressed ambient arrhythmia in 4 of 5 nonsustained arrhythmia patients. At the 6-month follow-up, 48% of patients were free of recurrent arrhythmia and another 19% were improved. Procedure-related complications included a single pericardial effusion treated with percutaneous drainage and a left ventricular pacing lead dislodgement with no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recurrent ventricular arrhythmias refractory to medications and conventional catheter ablation, intramural needle radiofrequency ablation offers significant arrhythmia control with an acceptable procedural risk.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas/métodos , Taquicardia Ventricular , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Derrame Pericárdico/etiologia , Derrame Pericárdico/terapia , Retratamento/métodos , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/terapia
16.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(7): 1021-1027, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation for polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation (PMVT/VF) may target triggering premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). Targeting ventricular scar has also been suggested, but data are limited. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the electrophysiological findings and ablation outcomes for patients with PMVT/VF and structural heart disease (SHD) compared to those with idiopathic VF. METHODS: Data from 32 consecutive patients (13 idiopathic VF, 19 SHD) with recurrent PMVT/VF who underwent catheter ablation were reviewed. RESULTS: A low-voltage area of myocardial scar was present in 15 of 19 patients with SHD. Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (SMVT) associated with scar was inducible and targeted in 8, 3 of whom had previous SMVT episodes separate from PMVT/VF episodes and 5 had no history of SMVT. Triggering PVCs were identified in 11 patients and arose from an area of endocardial scar in 6. Only scar ablation was performed in 8 patients who did not have triggering PVCs. All idiopathic VF patients underwent PVC ablation only. During a median of 540 days, 74% of SHD patients and 77% of idiopathic VF patients were free of recurrence, including 75% of those with only PVC ablation, 86% of those with scar plus PVC ablation, and 63% of those with only scar ablation. CONCLUSION: Patients with recurrent PMVT/VF and SHD often have a low-voltage scar associated with PVCs or inducible SMVT, which may also be the substrate for PMVT/VF. When present, substrate ablation targeting scar is a reasonable option for treatment of PMVT/VF even if PVCs are absent.

17.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(1): 104-112, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the incidence and significance of atrioventricular (AV) block associated with ventricular arrhythmia (VA) ablation. BACKGROUND: Attempted ablation of VAs that arise from the septum carries a risk of AV block. METHODS: Data from 1,418 patients who had catheter ablation for drug-refractory VAs were evaluated. Two analyses were conducted. The first analysis assessed the patient and procedure characteristics associated with ablation-induced AV block. The second analysis investigated outcome differences between patients with and without AV block. For the second analysis, patients with AV block (Group I) were compared with a 1:2 propensity score-matched control group (Group II) and with patients with pre-existing AV block before ablation (Group III). RESULTS: Twenty-one (1.6%) patients developed AV block. In multivariable analysis, nonischemic cardiomyopathy (odds ratio: 3.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.32 to 8.40; p = 0.011) and transcoronary ethanol ablation (odds ratio: 46.50; 95% confidence interval: 14.10 to 153.00; p < 0.001) were independently associated with AV block. Subsequent to the AV block, 9 patients were upgraded from an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator to cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D), 2 had de novo CRT-D implantation, 5 had pre-existing CRT-D, and 5 had pacing without CRT. VAs recurred in 33% of patients in Group I, 17% in Group II (log-rank p = 0.842), and 35% in Group III (p = 0.636). The composite outcome of heart failure hospitalization, heart transplantation, or death occurred in 29% of patients in Group I, 17% in Group II (p = 0.723), and 45% in Group III (p = 0.303). CONCLUSIONS: Complete AV block occurs in fewer than 2% of patients undergoing VA ablation and does not appear to be associated with the worse outcome of heart failure hospitalization, heart transplantation, or death.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas , Bloqueio Atrioventricular , Ablação por Cateter , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/etiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Heart Lung Circ ; 28(1): 123-133, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554598

RESUMO

Cardiac electrical storm (ES) is characterised by three or more discrete episodes of ventricular arrhythmia within 24hours, or incessant ventricular arrhythmia for more than 12hours. ES is a distinct medical emergency that portends a significant increase in mortality risk and often presages progressive heart failure. ES is also associated with psychological morbidity from multiple implanted cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks and exponential health resource utilisation. Up to 30% of ICD recipients may experience storm in follow-up, with the risk higher in patients with a secondary prevention ICD indication. Storm recurs in a high proportion of patients after an initial episode, and multiple storm clusters may occur in follow-up. The mechanism of storm remains elusive but is likely influenced by a complex interplay of inciting triggers (e.g., ischaemia, electrolyte disturbances), with autonomic perturbations acting on a vulnerable structural and electrophysiologic substrate. Triggers can be identified only in a minority of patients. An emergent treatment approach is warranted, if possible with emergent transfer to a high-volume centre for ventricular arrhythmia management with a multi-modality approach including ICD reprogramming, sympathetic blockade (sedation, intubation, ventilation, beta blockers), and anti-arrhythmic drugs, and adjunctive intervention techniques, such as catheter ablation and neuraxial modulation (e.g., thoracic epidural anaesthesia, stellate ganglion block). Outcomes of catheter ablation of ES are excellent with resolution of storm in over 90% of patients at 1year with a low complication rate (∼2%). ES may occur in the absence of structural heart disease in the context of channelopathies, Brugada syndrome, early repolarisation and premature ventricular contraction-induced ventricular fibrillation. There are unique treatment approaches to these conditions that must be recognised. This state-of-the-art review will summarise the incidence, mechanism, and multi-modality treatment of ES in the contemporary era.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Humanos
19.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(7 Pt 1): 1177-1184, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the utility of left ventricular (LV) entropy, a novel measure of myocardial heterogeneity, for predicting cardiovascular events in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). BACKGROUND: Current risk stratification for ventricular arrhythmia in patients with DCM is imprecise. LV entropy is a measure of myocardial heterogeneity derived from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging that assesses the probability distribution of pixel signal intensities in the LV myocardium. METHODS: A registry-based cohort of primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients with DCM had their LV entropy, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) presence, and LGE mass measured on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were followed from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement for arrhythmic events (appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, ventricular arrhythmia, or sudden cardiac death), end-stage heart failure events (cardiac death, transplantation, or ventricular assist device placement), and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: One hundred thirty patients (mean age 55 years, 83% men, LV ejection fraction 29%, mean LV entropy 5.58 ± 0.72, LGE present in 57%) were followed for a median of 3.2 years. Eighteen (14.0%) experienced arrhythmic events, 17 (13.1%) experienced end-stage heart failure events, and 7 (5.4%) died. LV entropy provided substantial improvement of predictive ability when added to a model containing clinical variables and LGE mass (hazard ratio: 3.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.42 to 8.82; p = 0.007; net reclassification index = 0.345, p = 0.04). For end-stage heart failure events, LV entropy did not improve the model containing clinical variables and LGE mass (hazard ratio: 2.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.78 to 5.28; p = 0.14). Automated LV entropy measurement has excellent intraobserver (mean difference 0.04) and interobserver (mean difference 0.03) agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Automated LV entropy measurement is a novel marker for risk stratification toward ventricular arrhythmia in patients with DCM.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Prevenção Primária/instrumentação , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/mortalidade , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Cardioversão Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Cardioversão Elétrica/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(4): 536-543, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The comparative efficacy of antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy vs ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We compared outcomes of AAD and/or ß-blocker (BB) therapy with those of VT ablation (with AAD/BB) in patients with ARVC who had recurrent VT. METHODS: In a multicenter retrospective study, 110 patients with ARVC (mean age 38 ± 17 years; 91[83%] men) with a minimum of 3 VT episodes were included; 77 (70%) were initially treated with AAD/BB and 32 (29%) underwent ablation. Subsequently, 43 of the 77 patients treated with AAD/BB alone also underwent ablation. Overall, 75 patients underwent ablation. RESULTS: When comparing initial AAD/BB therapy (n = 77) and VT ablation (n = 32) after ≥3 VT episodes, a single ablation procedure rendered 35% of patients free of VT at 3 years compared with 28% of AAD/BB-only-treated patients (P = .46). Of the 77 AAD/BB-only-treated patients, 43 subsequently underwent ablation. For all 75 patients who underwent ablation, 56% were VT-free at 3 years after the last ablation procedure. Epicardial ablation was used in 40/75 (53%) and was associated with lower VT recurrence after the last ablation procedure (endocardial/epicardial vs endocardial-only; 71% vs 47% 3-year VT-free survival; P = .05). Importantly, there was no difference in survival free of death or transplantation between the ablation- and AAD/BB-only-treated patients (P = .61). CONCLUSION: In patients with ARVC and a high VT burden, mortality and transplantation-free survival are not significantly different between drug- and ablation-treated patients. These patients have a high risk of recurrent VT despite drug therapy. Combined endocardial/epicardial ablation is associated with reduced VT recurrence as compared with endocardial-only ablation.

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