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1.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357490

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, with hyperandrogenism present in up to 90% of affected women. Some evidence suggests a link between vitamin D deficiency and PCOS features via insulin resistance and inflammation. Our aim was to explore the relationship between biochemical markers of vitamin D status and androgens in women with PCOS. This cross-sectional study used bio-banked samples from 46 pre-menopausal women with PCOS (mean ± SD: age 30 ± 6 years; BMI 29 ± 6 kg/m2). We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and calculated the free androgen index (FAI) and bioavailable and free 25(OH)D. Fasting glucose and insulin were used to calculate the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and body fat percentage was determined via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was measured as a marker of inflammation. DBP was positively associated with total 25(OH)D and expectedly, negatively associated with free 25(OH)D. There were no associations between vitamin D metabolites and total testosterone, SHBG or FAI, even after adjusting for age, body fat percentage, HOMA-IR and hs-CRP. We found no associations between vitamin D metabolites and androgens in women with PCOS. Studies that have identified a vitamin D-androgen link have largely relied on methodology with numerous pitfalls; future studies should exclusively use gold-standard measures to confirm these findings in this population.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349442

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes (GDM) increases the risk of pregnancy complications. However, these risks are not the same for all affected women and may be mediated by inter-related factors including ethnicity, body mass index and gestational weight gain. This study was conducted to identify, compare, and critically appraise prognostic prediction models for pregnancy complications in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). A systematic review of prognostic prediction models for pregnancy complications in women with GDM was conducted. Critical appraisal was conducted using the prediction model risk of bias assessment tool (PROBAST). Five prediction modelling studies were identified, from which ten prognostic models primarily intended to predict pregnancy complications related to GDM were developed. While the composition of the pregnancy complications predicted varied, the delivery of a large-for-gestational age neonate was the subject of prediction in four studies, either alone or as a component of a composite outcome. Glycaemic measures and body mass index were selected as predictors in four studies. Model evaluation was limited to internal validation in four studies and not reported in the fifth. Performance was inadequately reported with no useful measures of calibration nor formal evaluation of clinical usefulness. Critical appraisal using PROBAST revealed that all studies were subject to a high risk of bias overall driven by methodologic limitations in statistical analysis. This review demonstrates the potential for prediction models to provide an individualised absolute risk of pregnancy complications for women affected by GDM. However, at present, a lack of external validation and high risk of bias limit clinical application. Future model development and validation should utilise the latest methodological advances in prediction modelling to achieve the evolution required to create a useful clinical tool. Such a tool may enhance clinical decision-making and support a risk-stratified approach to the management of GDM. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42019115223.

3.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 116: 104678, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361187

RESUMO

PURPOSE: PCOS is associated with increased risk for depression and anxiety but its association with other psychiatric disorders is less clear, especially in community drawn populations. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in women with PCOS and examine the factors associated with psychiatric disorders in this population. METHOD: A cross-sectional analysis of survey data was performed in community-recruited women born 1989-95 from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). 760 and 7910 women with and without self-reported PCOS were included. The outcomes examined were self-reported depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar affective disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, borderline personality disorder and other disorders. The main explanatory variable was self-reported PCOS status. Other factors examined included adverse childhood experience scale (ACES), social support, perceived stress, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Chi-square tests were used to examine the differences in prevalence between groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess factors associated with psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Women with PCOS reported a significantly higher prevalence of the psychiatric disorders examined, compared with women without PCOS. PCOS was significantly associated with depression (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.7), anxiety (adjusted OR 1.2, 95 % CI 1.0-1.5), post-traumatic stress disorder (adjusted OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.1-1.9) and obsessive compulsive disorder (adjusted OR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.2-2.5). More women with PCOS reported adverse childhood experiences (ACES ≥4: 19.3 % vs 9.2 %) and this was the strongest factor associated with psychiatric disorders (ACES ≥4: adjusted OR 2.9, 95 % CI 2.4-3.5). CONCLUSIONS: Women with PCOS had higher prevalence of various psychiatric conditions and adverse childhood experiences compared with women without PCOS. ACES was the strongest correlate of psychiatric disorders. These findings support PCOS is a reproductive, metabolic and psychological disorder and reinforces guideline recommendations to assess psychological wellbeing for in women with PCOS.

4.
J Clin Med ; 9(3)2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197374

RESUMO

In this article, we describe the process of establishing agreed international pregnancy research priorities to address the global issues of unhealthy lifestyles and rising maternal obesity. We focus specifically on the prevention of maternal obesity to improve related clinical pregnancy and long-term complications. A team of multidisciplinary, international experts in preconception and pregnancy health, including consumers, were invited to form the Health in Preconception, Pregnancy and Postpartum (HiPPP) Global Alliance. As an initial activity, a priority setting process was completed to generate pregnancy research priorities in this field. Research, practice and policy gaps were identified and enhanced through expert and consumer consultation, followed by a modified Delphi process and Nominal Group Technique, including an international workshop. Research priorities identified included optimising: (1) healthy diet and nutrition; (2) gestational weight management; (3) screening for and managing pregnancy complications and pre-existing conditions; (4) physical activity; (5) mental health; and (6) postpartum (including intrapartum) care. Given extensive past research in many of these areas, research priorities here recognised the need to advance pregnancy research towards pragmatic implementation research. This work has set the agenda for large-scale, collaborative, multidisciplinary, implementation research to address the major public health and clinical issue of maternal obesity prevention.

5.
Obes Rev ; 21(4): e12990, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914234

RESUMO

The established efficacy in postpartum lifestyle interventions has not been translated into better outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis assess the penetration (the proportion of women invited within the target population), implementation (fidelity), participation (the proportion of those invited who enrolled), and effect (weight loss compared to controls) (PIPE) of randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions in postpartum women (within two years after birth). MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, and other databases and clinical trial registries were searched up to the 3rd of May 2019. Data was extracted from published reports and missing data was obtained from study authors. The quality of the studies was appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool (2·0). Main outcomes were the PIPE impact metrics and changes in body weight. Thirty-six trials (49 publications) were included (n=5,315 women). One study provided sufficient information to calculate the population penetration rate (2·5%). All studies provided implementation (fidelity) information, but over half had low program fidelity. The participation rate was calculated for nine studies (0·94% to 86%). There was significant change in body weight (mean difference (MD) (95% confidence interval, CI) of -2·33 (-3·10 to -1·56). This highlights the inadequacy of conventional RCTs to inform implementation. Future research should broaden methods to pragmatic trials.

6.
Med J Aust ; 212(4): 190-190.e1, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903614
7.
Pediatr Res ; 87(2): 353-361, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627209

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by hormonal imbalance and ovarian dysfunction, often starts during adolescence. Inconsistent diagnostic criteria, variable provider knowledge, and lack of consensus pose specific challenges for the care of women with PCOS. These factors encourage inaccurate diagnosis with both under and overdiagnosis. This unfavorable diagnostic experience exasperates affected women and limits timely opportunities for intervention to minimize associated comorbidities, especially during the transition from pediatric to adult care. Recognition of these issues in the care of adolescents and women with PCOS inspired the development of the International Evidence-Based PCOS Guidelines, which emphasize the prevention, screening, and treatment of PCOS across the reproductive lifespan. The Guidelines and accompanying meta-analyses focus on three major categories of associated comorbidities: (1) reproductive; (2) metabolic; and (3) psychological. With the exception of infertility, this article considers common manifestations and comorbidities associated with PCOS throughout the lifecycle. Healthy lifestyle interventions with prevention of excess weight gain comprise the primary intervention for all comorbidities. Hence, early identification of girls "at risk" for PCOS and those with PCOS is a priority. Extensive guidelines for provider and patient education aim to decrease the medical, psychosocial, and economic burdens attributable to PCOS and its associated comorbidities.

8.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810312

RESUMO

The preconception period is a key public health and clinical opportunity for obesity prevention. This paper describes the development of international preconception priorities to guide research and translation activities for maternal obesity prevention and improve clinical pregnancy outcomes. Stakeholders of international standing in preconception and pregnancy health formed the multidisciplinary Health in Preconception, Pregnancy, and Postpartum (HiPPP) Global Alliance. The Alliance undertook a priority setting process including three rounds of priority ranking and facilitated group discussion using Modified Delphi and Nominal Group Techniques to determine key research areas. Initial priority areas were based on a systematic review of international and national clinical practice guidelines, World Health Organization recommendations on preconception and pregnancy care, and consumer and expert input from HiPPP members. Five preconception research priorities and four overarching principles were identified. The priorities were: healthy diet and nutrition; weight management; physical activity; planned pregnancy; and physical, mental and psychosocial health. The principles were: operating in the context of broader preconception/antenatal priorities; social determinants; family health; and cultural considerations. These priorities provide a road map to progress research and translation activities in preconception health with future efforts required to advance evidence-translation and implementation to impact clinical outcomes.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preconception is a critical time for the establishment of healthy lifestyle behaviours and psychological well-being to reduce adverse maternal and offspring outcomes. This study aimed to explore relationships between preconception lifestyle and psychological factors and prospectively assessed short- (currently trying to conceive) and long-term (future parenthood aspirations) pregnancy intentions. METHODS: Data from Wave 3 (age 25-30 years; n = 7656) and Wave 5 (age 31-36 years; n = 4735) from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health were used. Pregnancy intentions and parenthood aspirations were evaluated. Logistic regressions explored cross-sectional associations between demographic, lifestyle and psychological factors and pregnancy intentions/parenthood aspirations. RESULTS: In multivariable models, parity and marital status were associated consistently with pregnancy intentions and parenthood aspirations. Few lifestyle behaviours and no psychological factors were associated with pregnancy intentions. Alcohol intake was the only behaviour associated with aspirations to have a first child. Aspirations for a second/subsequent child were associated negatively with physical activity, sitting time, diet quality, lower anxiety and higher stress. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that women are not changing their behaviours when they form a decision to try to conceive. Interventions are needed that address women's preconception needs, to optimise lifestyle and improve health outcomes for women and their families.


Assuntos
Intenção , Estilo de Vida , Gravidez/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
10.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775244

RESUMO

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have many risk factors associated with perinatal mental disorders, but research in this area is scarce. This study aims to compare the prevalence of common perinatal mental disorders in women with and without PCOS, and examine the relationship between PCOS and common perinatal mental disorders. We performed a cross-sectional study on self-reported data of 5239 women born between 1973 to 1978 in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Compared with women not reporting PCOS, women reporting PCOS had higher prevalence of antenatal depression (8.9% vs. 4.4%, p < 0.001), antenatal anxiety (11.7% vs. 5.6%, p < 0.001), postnatal depression (26.8% vs. 18.6%, p < 0.001) and postnatal anxiety (18.4% vs. 12.0%, p < 0.001). PCOS was positively associated with antenatal depression and/or anxiety (adjusted odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.6) but not postnatal depression and/or anxiety after controlling for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, reproductive history, obstetric complications and pre-existing depression and anxiety. General perinatal guidelines currently do not recognize PCOS as a risk factor and the international evidence based PCOS guideline noted inadequate evidence in this area. This paper addresses the gap in literature and highlights the need to screen for common perinatal mental disorders in women with PCOS.

12.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 270, 2019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is increasingly common and has significant implications during pregnancy and for the long-term health of the mother and offspring. However, it is a heterogeneous condition with inter-related factors including ethnicity, body mass index and gestational weight gain significantly modifying the absolute risk of complications at an individual level. Predicting the risk of pregnancy complications for an individual woman with GDM presents a useful adjunct to therapeutic decision-making and patient education. Diagnostic prediction models for GDM are prevalent. In contrast, prediction models for risk of complications in those with GDM are relatively novel. This study will systematically review published prognostic prediction models for pregnancy complications in women with GDM, describe their characteristics, compare performance and assess methodological quality and applicability. METHODS: Studies will be identified by searching MEDLINE and Embase electronic databases. Title and abstract screening, full-text review and data extraction will be completed independently by two reviewers. The included studies will be systematically assessed for risk of bias and applicability using appropriate tools designed for prediction modelling studies. Extracted data will be tabulated to facilitate qualitative comparison of published prediction models. Quantitative data on predictive performance of these models will be synthesised with meta-analyses if appropriate. DISCUSSION: This review will identify and summarise all published prognostic prediction models for pregnancy complications in women with GDM. We will compare model performance across different settings and populations with meta-analysis if appropriate. This work will guide subsequent phases in the prognosis research framework: further model development, external validation and model updating, and impact assessment. The ultimate model will estimate the absolute risk of pregnancy complications for women with GDM and will be implemented into routine care as an evidence-based GDM complication risk prediction model. It is anticipated to offer value to women and their clinicians with individualised risk assessment and may assist decision-making. Ultimately, this systematic review is an important step towards a personalised risk-stratified model-of-care for GDM to allow preventative and therapeutic interventions for the maximal benefit to women and their offspring, whilst sparing expense and harm for those at low risk. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42019115223.

13.
J Clin Med ; 8(10)2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623391

RESUMO

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition with mechanisms likely to involve the interaction between genetics and lifestyle. Familial clustering of PCOS symptoms is well documented, providing evidence for a genetic contribution to the condition. This overview aims firstly to systematically summarise the current literature surrounding genetics and PCOS, and secondly, to assess the methodological quality of current systematic reviews and identify limitations. Four databases were searched to identify candidate gene systematic reviews, and quality was assessed with the AMSTAR tool. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were identified by a semi structured literature search. Of the candidate gene systematic reviews, 17 were of high to moderate quality and four were of low quality. A total of 19 gene loci have been associated with risk of PCOS in GWAS, and 11 of these have been replicated across two different ancestries. Gene loci were located in the neuroendocrine, metabolic, and reproductive pathways. Overall, the gene loci with the most robust findings were THADA, FSHR, INS-VNTR, and DENND1A, that now require validation. This overview also identified limitations of the current literature and important methodological considerations for future genetic studies. Much work remains to identify causal variants and functional relevance of genes associated with PCOS.

14.
Med Sci (Basel) ; 7(9)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510088

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility in women of reproductive age. Lifestyle change is considered the first line treatment for the management of infertile anovulatory women with PCOS, and weight loss for those who are overweight or obese. First line medical ovulation induction therapy to improve fertility outcomes is letrozole, whilst other less efficacious ovulation induction agents, such as clomiphene citrate, metformin, and metformin combined with clomiphene citrate, may also be considered. Metformin combined with clomiphene citrate is more effective than clomiphene citrate alone. In obese women with PCOS, clomiphene citrate could be used in preference to metformin alone whilst clomiphene citrate could be added to metformin alone in order to improve reproductive outcome in all women with PCOS. Gonadotrophins, which are more effective than clomiphene citrate in therapy naïve women with PCOS, can be considered a first line therapy in the presence of ultrasound monitoring, following counselling on the cost and the potential risk of multiple pregnancy.

15.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 59(6): 867-873, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is complex with reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. Infertility is a prevalent presenting feature of PCOS with approximately 75% of these women suffering infertility due to anovulation, making PCOS by far the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. Previous guidelines either lacked rigorous evidence-based processes, did not engage consumer and international multidisciplinary perspectives, or were outdated. AIMS: This review paper aims to provide a brief update on the best available and most current research evidence supporting the treatment of PCOS which informed the recommendations in the assessment and treatment of infertility section of the international evidence-based guideline on PCOS 2018. MATERIALS AND METHODS: International evidence-based guideline development engaged professional societies and consumer organisations with multidisciplinary experts and women with PCOS directly involved at all stages. RESULTS: Lifestyle change alone is considered the first-line treatment for the management of infertile anovulatory PCOS women who are overweight or obese. Letrozole should now be considered first-line pharmacological treatment for ovulation induction to improve fertility outcomes. Clomiphene citrate alone and metformin alone could also be used as first-line pharmacological therapy, although both are less effective than letrozole and metformin is less effective than clomiphene citrate in obese women. Gonadotrophins or laparoscopic ovarian surgery are usually second-line ovulation induction therapies. In the absence of an absolute indication for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) / intracytoplasmic sperm injection, women with PCOS and anovulatory infertility could be offered IVF as third-line therapy where first- or second-line ovulation induction therapies have failed. CONCLUSION: This review provides the best available evidence informing recommendations (along with clinical expertise and consumer preference) which provide clinicians with clear advice on best practice for the management of infertile women with PCOS.

17.
Med J Aust ; 211(5): 224-229, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318068

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Representatives appointed by relevant Australian medical societies used a systematic approach for adaptation of guidelines (ADAPTE) to formulate clinical consensus recommendations on assessment and management of bone health in women with oestrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer receiving endocrine therapy. The current evidence suggests that women receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors and pre-menopausal woman treated with tamoxifen have accelerated bone loss and that women receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors have increased fracture risk. Both bisphosphonates and denosumab prevent bone loss; additionally, denosumab has proven anti-fracture benefit in post-menopausal women receiving aromatase inhibitors for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: Women considering endocrine therapy need fracture risk assessment, including clinical risk factors, biochemistry and bone mineral density measurement, with monitoring based on risk factors. Weight-bearing exercise and vitamin D and calcium sufficiency are recommended routinely. Anti-resorptive treatment is indicated in women with prevalent or incident clinical or morphometric fragility fractures, and should be considered in women with a T score (or Z score in women aged < 50 years) of < - 2.0 at any site, or if annual bone loss is ≥ 5%, considering baseline bone mineral density and other fracture risk factors. Duration of anti-resorptive treatment can be individualised based on absolute fracture risk. Relative to their skeletal benefits, risks of adverse events with anti-resorptive treatments are low. CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT AS RESULT OF THE POSITION STATEMENT: Skeletal health should be considered in the decision-making process regarding choice and duration of endocrine therapy. Before and during endocrine therapy, skeletal health should be assessed regularly, optimised by non-pharmacological intervention and, where indicated, anti-resorptive treatment, in an individualised, multidisciplinary approach.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Austrália , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Sociedades Médicas , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
18.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219685, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To address guideline-practice gaps and improve management of patients with both diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD), we involved patients, health professionals and patient advocacy groups in the co-design and implementation of an integrated diabetes-kidney service. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we explored the experiences of patients and health-care providers, within this integrated diabetes and kidney service. METHODS: 5 focus groups and 2 semi-structured interviews were conducted amongst attending patients, referring primary health professionals, and attending specialist health professionals. Maximal variation sampling was used for both patients and referring primary health professionals to ensure an equal representation of males and females, and patients of different CKD stages. All discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, before being thematically analysed independently by 2 researchers. RESULTS: The mean age (SD) for specialist health professionals, primary care professionals and patients who participated was 45 (11), 44 (15) and 68 (5) years with men being 50%, 80% and 76% of the participants respectively. Key strengths of the diabetes and kidney service were noted to be better integration of care and a perception of improved health and management of health. Whilst some aspects of access such as time between referral and initial appointment and having fewer appointments improved, other aspects such as in-clinic waiting times and parking remained problematic. Specialist health professionals noted that health professional education could be improved. Patient self-management was also noted by to be an issue with some patients requesting more information and some health professionals expressing difficulty in empowering some patients. CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals and patients reported that a co-designed integrated diabetes kidney service improved integration of care and improved health and management of health. However, some aspects of the process of care, health professional education and patient self-management remained challenging.

19.
Sports Med ; 49(8): 1143-1157, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166000

RESUMO

In this opinion piece, we summarize, discuss implications of implementation, and critically evaluate our 2018 evidence-based guideline recommendations for exercise and physical activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We developed recommendations as part of a larger international guideline development project. The overall guideline scope and priorities were informed by extensive health professional and consumer engagement. The lifestyle guideline development group responsible for the exercise recommendations included experts in endocrinology, exercise physiology, gynecology, dietetics, and obstetrics, alongside consumers. Extensive online communications and two face-to-face meetings addressed five prioritized clinical questions related to lifestyle, including the role of exercise as therapy for women with PCOS. The guideline recommendations were formulated based on one narrative and two evidence-based reviews, before consensus voting within the guideline panel. The development process was in accordance with the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II, and used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework to assess evidence quality, desirable and undesirable consequences, feasibility, acceptability, cost, implementation, and recommendation strength. Given the evidence for exercise as therapy in PCOS being of low quality, a consensus recommendation was made based on current exercise guidelines for the general population. Women with PCOS and clinicians are forced to adopt generic approaches when recommending exercise therapy that perpetuates clinical management with pharmacological solutions. The current status of evidence highlights the need for greater international co-operation between researchers and funding agencies to address key clinical knowledge gaps around exercise therapy in PCOS to generate evidence for appropriate, scalable, and sustainable best practice approaches.

20.
Med Sci (Basel) ; 7(7)2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247909

RESUMO

In clomiphene-citrate-resistant anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and no other infertility factors, either metformin combined with clomiphene citrate or gonadotrophins could be used as a second-line pharmacological therapy, although gonadotrophins are more effective. Gonadotrophins could also be used as a second-line pharmacological therapy in anovulatory women with PCOS and clomiphene-citrate-failure. Laparoscopic ovarian surgery can also be used as a second-line therapy for ovulation induction in anovulatory women with clomiphene-citrate-resistant PCOS and no other infertility factors. The usefulness of letrozole as a second-line pharmacological treatment for ovulation induction in clomiphene-citrate-resistant women with PCOS requires further research. In terms of improving fertility, both pharmacological anti-obesity agents and bariatric surgery should be considered an experimental therapy in anovulatory women with PCOS and no other infertility factors. Where first- or second-line ovulation induction therapies have failed, in vitro fertilization (IVF)/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) could be offered as a third-line therapy in women with PCOS in the absence of an absolute indication for IVF/ICSI. For women with PCOS undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol is preferred and an elective frozen embryo transfer strategy could be considered. In assisted conception units with sufficient expertise, in-vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes could be offered to women with PCOS.

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