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1.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While there is evidence for an association of child abuse with suicidality in the course of life, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) provides a theoretical framework to investigate this relationship. The present study examines how different subtypes of child abuse are related to suicidal ideation and to attempts in the context of the IPTS. METHODS: 146 psychiatric inpatients (M = 37.9 years, 62% female) with an acute suicidal crisis (n = 71) or a recent suicide attempt (n = 74) were examined at baseline (T0) and six (T1) months later. We measured emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, the constructs of the IPTS (thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and capability for suicide) and suicidal ideation as well as suicide attempts. Using the statistics program R, a network analysis of all named constructs was conducted. Centrality measures were computed. RESULTS: Emotional abuse was the most central kind of abuse in the network and had a direct relationship with suicide attempts and an indirect relationship with suicidal ideation via perceived burdensomeness. Physical and sexual abuse showed no significant relations with the different constructs of the IPTS. CONCLUSION: The major limitation of this study was the modest sample size which reduced the number of variables able to be included in the network. Regarding child abuse, the results underline that emotional abuse plays a central role in this network and may be important for suicide risk assessment. Future research should address this topic in a larger sample. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Emotional abuse was the most central kind of abuse in this network analysis. Sexual abuse was the only kind of abuse with a direct relation to suicidal ideation. Capability for suicide had just a marginal position in the network analysis. Early interventions addressing the effects of child abuse are recommended. Replications in larger samples and with more relevant variables are needed.

2.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-36, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evidence for a genetic influence on psychological treatment outcome so far has been inconsistent, likely due to the focus on candidate genes and the heterogeneity of the disorders treated. Using polygenic risk scores (PRS) in homogenous patient samples may increase the chance of detecting genetic influences. METHODS: A sample of 342 phobic patients treated either for clinically relevant dental fear (n = 189) or other (mixed) phobic fears (n = 153) underwent highly standardized exposure-based CBT. A brief five-session format was used to treat dental fear, whereas longer multi-session treatments were used with the mixed-fear cohort. PRS were calculated based on large genetic studies of Neuroticism, Educational Attainment (EA), Intelligence, and four psychopathology domains. We compared PRS of post-treatment and follow-up remitters and non-remitters and regressed PRS on fear reduction percentages. RESULTS: In the dental fear cohort, EA PRS were associated with treatment outcomes, i.e. drop-out, short- and long-term remission state, fear reduction, and attendance of subsequent dental appointments. In the mixed fear treatment cohort, no gene effects were observable. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate the importance of EA-related traits for outcomes following brief, but not long, standardized exposure-based CBT. Such use of PRS may help inform selection and tailoring of treatments.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687121

RESUMO

A substantial proportion of suicide attempts seem to be realized in a sudden manner. However, it is unclear how suicide attempters showing a rapid transition from the decision to die to acting differ from suicide attempters showing a slower transition regarding their suicidal history. The main aim of this study was to determine the proportion of suicide attempters, who reported a rapid transition (≤5, ≤10, ≤180 min) between their decision to die and their actual attempt. Furthermore, attempter groups (≤ vs. >5, ≤ vs. >10 and ≤ vs. >180 min) were compared regarding suicidal history (ideation, plans, and number of lifetime as well as 12 month suicide attempts) as well as depression, hopelessness and trait impulsivity. In total, 118 inpatients (62.7% female; age: M = 38.71, SD = 14.71) hospitalized due to a recent suicide attempt were assessed using structured clinical interview measures assessing suicidal history and self-report instruments. Thirty-six percent reported a time period of ≤5 min, 44% a time period of ≤10 min and 73% a time period of ≤180 min between their decision to die and their attempt. Participants with a rapid transition (≤5, ≤10, ≤180 min) did not differ from participants with a slower transition (>5, >10, >180 min) regarding suicidal history, depression, hopelessness and trait impulsivity. Taken together, a rapid transition seems common, but nevertheless, rapidly realized suicide attempts cannot necessarily be characterized as impulsive.

4.
Psychol Assess ; 33(4): 287-299, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507799

RESUMO

Assessment of implicit self-associations with death, measured by a death Implicit Association Test (IAT), has shown promise for the prediction of suicide risk. The present study examined whether the performance on the death IAT is associated with lifetime, recent, or future suicide attempt status as well as self-report measures of suicide risk factors (e.g., perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness) in two inpatient samples with low versus high severity of suicidality. Furthermore, we investigated whether explicit suicidal ideation and implicit associations with death predict recent and future suicide attempt status. Seventy-one depressed inpatients with recent/lifetime suicidal ideation (first sample) as well as 226 inpatients with a recent suicide attempt or a severe suicidal crisis (second sample) were interviewed on lifetime suicidal ideation and behavior, completed self-report measures (i.e., suicidal ideation, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness), and conducted the death IAT. The second sample was also interviewed and completed self-report measures longitudinally, 6, 9, and 12 months later. The IAT was conducted twice in this sample, at the beginning of the assessment (T0) as well as 12 months later (T3). Implicit associations with death neither differ between lifetime suicide ideators, single attempters, and multiple attempters, nor between recent and future nonattempters and attempters. IAT scores were unrelated to other suicide risk factors. Neither the IAT scores nor the interaction of IAT scores and explicitly stated suicidal ideation was predictive of recent or future suicide attempts. The present study points to a limited utility of the death IAT for the prediction of suicide risk. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(11)2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207776

RESUMO

Suicide is one of the most critical public health concerns in the world and the second cause of death among young people in many countries. However, to date, no study can diagnose suicide ideation/behavior among university students in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region using a machine learning approach. Therefore, stability feature selection and stacked ensembled decision trees were employed in this classification problem. A total of 573 university students responded to a battery of questionnaires. Three-fold cross-validation with a variety of performance indices was sued. The proposed diagnostic system had excellent balanced diagnosis accuracy (AUC = 0.90 [CI 95%: 0.86-0.93]) with a high correlation between predicted and observed class labels, fair discriminant power, and excellent class labeling agreement rate. Results showed that 23 items out of all items could accurately diagnose suicide ideation/behavior. These items were psychological problems and how to experience trauma, from the demographic variables, nine items from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5), two items from Post Traumatic Growth (PTG), two items from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), six items from the Positive Mental Health (PMH) questionnaire, and one item related to social support. Such features could be used as a screening tool to identify young adults who are at risk of suicide ideation/behavior.

6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 478, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high place phenomenon, that is, a sudden urge to jump when in a high place, is an experience known to many people, that has rarely been studied. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of the high place phenomenon in a non-clinical and a clinical German sample. Furthermore, clinical correlates of the experience were assessed. METHODS: The study sample comprised 276 participants (67% female; Mage = 32.08, SDage = 10.73) who took part in an online assessment and 94 patients (73.4% female; Mage = 49.26, SDage = 13.32) suffering from clinically relevant fear of flying. Participants filled out questionnaires on experiences with the high place phenomenon, depression, anxiety, suicide ideation and anxiety sensitivity. RESULTS: The high place phenomenon was known to nearly 60% of the online sample and to 45% of the patient sample. Suicide ideation as well as anxiety sensitivity were positively associated with experiences with the high place phenomenon in the online sample. Depression, anxiety and suicide ideation were unrelated to experiences with the phenomenon in the patient sample. CONCLUSION: The high place phenomenon is commonly reported by (lifetime/current) suicide ideators. However, it is also a common experience in individuals who have never suffered from suicide ideation. It is therefore cautioned not to interpret such experiences as an expression of a hidden death wish.

7.
Behav Res Ther ; 135: 103735, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038799

RESUMO

Recent research suggests that exposure-based large-group one-session treatments (LG-OSTs) may represent useful and efficient treatment options for different types of phobic fear. Although there are effective single session- and small group-interventions for the treatment of clinically relevant Fear of Flying (FoF), no LG-OST for this type of phobic fear has been realized so far. The present study aimed to investigate feasibility and efficacy of an LG-OST for the treatment of clinically relevant FoF. Two months after an initial diagnostics to assess FoF severity and confirm the underlying diagnoses (89% specific flight phobia; 10% agoraphobia), 138 patients attended the LG-OST consisting of psychoeducation, imparting of a breathing technique and a joint 2 ½ hour exposure flight in a chartered airplane (Airbus A320). FoF again was assessed at pre- and post-treatment as well as at 6-months follow-up with the latter again containing clinical diagnostics. Only a small decrease in FoF emerged in the pre-treatment interval. From pre-to post-treatment however, substantial reductions in FoF were observed with a large mean 'intention-to-treat' effect size of Cohen's d = 1.42 that remained stable over time (mean d = 1.44). At follow-up, 71% of the patients were rated as fully (55%) or partially remitted (16%). Also concerning the treatment of clinically relevant FoF, a LG-OST proved feasible and effective. Therefore, LG-OST can be regarded as a highly efficient and promising treatment tool which in terms of efficiency combines the advantages of one-session individual and group treatments.

8.
BJPsych Open ; 6(5): e113, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interpersonal theory of suicide (IPTS) is one of the most intensively researched contemporary theories on the development of suicidal ideation and behaviour. However, there is a lack of carefully conducted prospective studies. AIMS: To evaluate the main predictions of the IPTS regarding the importance of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and capability for suicide in predicting future suicide attempts in a prospective design. METHOD: Psychiatric in-patients (n = 308; 53.6% (n = 165) female; mean age 36.82 years, s.d. = 14.30, range 18-81) admitted for severe suicidal ideation (n = 145, 47.1%) or a suicide attempt completed self-report measures of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, capability for suicide, hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation as well as interviews on suicide intent and suicide attempts and were followed up for 12 months. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis were conducted. RESULTS: The interaction of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and capability for suicide was not predictive of future suicide attempts, but perceived burdensomeness showed a significant main effect (z = 3.49, P < 0.01; OR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.59-3.58) and moderate performance in screening for future suicide attempts (area under the curve AUC = 0.729, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results challenge the theoretical validity of the IPTS and its clinical utility - at least within the methodological limitations of the current study. Yet, findings underscore the importance of perceived burdensomeness in understanding suicidal ideation and behaviour.

9.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; : e13330, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Since individuals afflicted with cancer are at an elevated risk of dying by suicide, understanding suicide-related ideation and behaviours is critical in identifying vulnerable patients. The interpersonal theory of suicide (IPTS) provides a framework to research risk factors for suicide and has been validated in different samples. The aim of this scoping review is to study literature related to IPTS and cancer patients. METHODS: This scoping review was registered with the OPEN Science Framework (osf.io/92465). The databases PsycINFO, Web of Science, PubMed and PubMed Central were searched. Eligible research needed to use a minimum of one psychometric element to measure at least one of the factors of the IPTS in individuals with cancer. RESULTS: Ninety-six studies were identified and screened. Eligible research included individuals with cancer and the use of at least one measurement of at least one of the factors of the IPTS. Overall, four articles met the inclusion criteria and three studies found significant associations of components of the IPTS and suicidal ideation/behaviour. CONCLUSION: While these initial findings support the notion that the IPTS is relevant for individuals with cancer as well, a direct validation of the IPTS in cancer patients is needed.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816347

RESUMO

Although there is evidence for an association of child abuse with lifetime suicidal behaviour, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In recent research, we found this relationship to be indirect and mediated by capability for suicide (CS). Emotional and sexual abuse were directly associated with CS. Based on the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide, the result for emotional abuse was surprising and raised the question for a missing link in this association. Consequently, this study examines nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) as an additional mediator (M1 ) between child abuse (X), pain tolerance (M2 ), and suicide attempts (Y). We included 308 psychiatric inpatients (M = 36.9 years, 53% female) with either an acute suicidal crisis (n = 146) or a recent suicide attempt (n = 157). For the assessment, we used the Childhood Trauma Screener (CTS), the German version of the self-injurious thoughts and behaviours interview (SITBI-G), the German Capability for Suicide Questionnaire (GCSQ), and a pressure algometer for measuring pain tolerance objectively. Serial mediator analyses were applied. All types of abuse showed relationships with NSSI, which itself was connected to suicidal behaviour in almost all models, whereas pain tolerance did not show the expected relations. The results suggest that NSSI is an important predictor for suicide attempts and should be considered in suicide risk assessment. Future research should address this topic in prospective studies with a more comprehensive assessment of child abuse. In summary, this study once again highlights the serious effects of child abuse and in particular the mediating role of NSSI.

11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 412, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The German Capability for Suicide Questionnaire (GCSQ) was developed to measure fearlessness of death and pain tolerance - two constructs central to the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide. Initial scale development, definition of the factor structure and confirmation of the two-dimensional factor structure was performed in samples suffering from relatively low levels of suicide ideation/behavior. The present study aimed to validate the German Capability for Suicide Questionnaire (GCSQ) in a high-risk sample of suicidal inpatients. METHODS: Factor structure, reliability and validity were investigated in a sample of inpatients (N = 296; 53.0% female; age in years: M = 36.81, SD = 14.27) admitted to a hospital due to a recent suicide attempt or an acute suicidal crisis (in immediate need of inpatient treatment). To establish convergent validity, interview-based assessments of lifetime suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury as well as questionnaire-based assessments of painful and provocative events were used. Finally, stability of GCSQ-scores over a follow-up period of 12 months was assessed. RESULTS: Results indicated good psychometric properties, and provided additional evidence for construct validity and stability of the subscales over a one-year period, and demonstrated adequate fit of the data with respect to the original factor structure. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the GCSQ is a brief, reliable, and valid measure of capability for suicide that can be used in clinic assessment and research.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232030, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745104

RESUMO

The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) assesses Thwarted Belongingness (TB) and Perceived Burdensomeness (PB), two predictors of suicidal thoughts. Up to now, the use of item response theory (IRT) for the evaluation of the INQ has been restricted to a single study with clinically depressed and suicidal youth. Therefore, the psychometric properties of the two INQ-15-subscales TB and PB were now evaluated in a general population sample (N = 2508) and a clinical adult population sample (N = 185) using IRT, specifically the Rasch model (RM) and the graphical log-linear Rasch model (GLLRM). Of special interest was whether the INQ-subscales displayed differential item functioning (DIF) across the two different samples and how well the subscales were targeted to the two sample populations. For the clinical sample, fit to a GLLRM could be established for the PB-subscale and fit to a RM was established for a five-item version of the TB-subscale. In contrast, for the general population sample fit to a GLLRM could only be achieved for the PB-subscale. Overall, there was strong evidence of local dependence (LD) across items and of some age- and gender-related DIF. Both subscales exhibited massive DIF related to the sample, indicating that they don't work the same across the general population and clinical sample. As expected, targeting of both INQ-subscales was much better for the clinical population. Further investigations of the INQ-15 under the Rasch approach in a large clinical population are recommended to determine and optimize the scale performance.


Assuntos
Psicometria/métodos , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A patient's suicide is the most frequently mentioned occupational fear of psychotherapists. In the present study, fears in dealing with suicidal patients shall be specified - regarding licensed psychotherapists (LP) as well as psychotherapeutic trainees (PT). The results were compared to an analogous examination from 1996. METHODS: N=271 psychologists, thereof n=90 licensed psychotherapists and n=181 psychotherapeutic trainees, participated in an online survey. Fears in dealing with suicidal patients and occupational experiences with suicidal patients were investigated using a German Questionnaire of Capturing Therapists' Fears with Suicidal Patients by Dorrmann (2016). Furthermore, suicide-linked knowledge was examined with a short self-designed test. The following hypotheses were investigated: (1) LP have less fears in dealing with suicidal patients than PT, (2) PT and LP differ from each other regarding their suicide-linked knowledge and occupational experience, (3) the results of the current survey show less fears in dealing with suicidal patients than the results of a preceding survey by Dorrmann (1996). Eventually, the following exploratory issue was considered: Does the status (LP vs. PT) have impact on the fears while being mediated by the occupational experience as well as the suicide-linked knowledge? RESULTS: The following fears are most commonly mentioned by therapists: fear of feelings of guilt/self-blame after a suicide/attempted suicide, fear of misjudgment and the associated consequences, fear of legal consequences after a suicide/attempted suicide and fear of accusations by others (relatives of the patient/colleagues) after a suicide/attempted suicide. Psychotherapeutic trainees report higher fears dealing with suicidal patients than approbated psychotherapists. Professional experience mediates the correlation between professional status and fears. In comparison, therapists today report less fears than 20 years ago. CONCLUSION: Therapists are mainly afraid of the consequences of a suicide/attempted suicide. However, in total, fears are represented in a more moderate form and seem to be less distinctive than 20 years ago. It can be assumed that an increasing professionalization of the therapeutic interaction with suicidal patients has led to a reduction of therapists' fears.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: According to the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide, capability for suicide comprises two dimensions: fearlessness about death and elevated pain tolerance. The short (S) allelic variant of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has repeatedly been associated with more violent and lethal suicide methods and lethality of suicide attempts. The current study aimed to investigate whether 5-HTTLPR allelic variants are associated with fearlessness about death and pain tolerance/persistence and whether it moderates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and acquired capability for suicide. METHOD: A cohort of 208 inpatients hospitalized due to a recent suicide attempt or severe suicidal ideation was genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR and assessed for childhood maltreatment. Subjective pain tolerance and fearlessness about death as well as objective pain persistence was assessed using a pressure algometer. RESULTS: Fearlessness about death, pain tolerance, and pain persistence did not differ between 5-HTTLPR genotypes. However, there was a significant correlation between self-reported childhood maltreatment and fearlessness about death that emerged exclusively in homozygous S-allele carriers. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that there are no "high-risk"-alleles that generally increase capability for suicide. However, in terms of future suicide-related behaviors exposure to childhood maltreatment events could exert a particularly negative influence on homozygous S-allele carriers by increasing their fearlessness about death.

15.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 70(6): 252-261, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516814

RESUMO

Compared to other mental disorders the evidence about clinical management of patients with suicidality is rather limited. Nevertheless, in the past few years a very positive development occured concerning the development and validation of psychological theories on suicidality as well as the development of specific treatment programs. An overview about the current state of knowledge is presented in the article.

16.
Behav Ther ; 51(3): 375-385, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402254

RESUMO

Affective styles appear to be relevant to the development of psychopathology, especially anxiety disorders. The aim of the current study was to investigate changes in affective styles in patients with panic disorder and specific phobia, as a result of undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy, and to identify a possible link between certain affective styles and remission. The sample consisted of outpatients (N = 101) suffering from panic disorder, specific phobia, or agoraphobia who completed the Affective Style Questionnaire (ASQ) before and after therapy, as well as at a 6-month follow-up assessment. Multivariate analyses of variance were conducted to test for changes due to therapy. Logistic regression analyses were calculated to test for the impact of affective styles on remission from anxiety disorders, and hierarchical regression analyses were calculated to examine the association between changes in affective styles and symptom reduction. Results indicated significant increases on the ASQ subscales adjusting and tolerating after therapy. Concealing did not decrease significantly after therapy. In addition, higher scores on adjusting significantly predicted remission from anxiety disorders. Finally, we found a significant association between increases on the adjusting scale and the reduction of anxiety symptoms.

17.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 70(9-10): 405-411, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study examines dimensionality, reliability and convergent validity of the German Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS) in a clinical sample. METHODS: 308 inpatients after suicide attempts/acute suicidality participated in the study (53,6% female). Of those, 224 completed the full BSS and self-report questionnaires assessing depression (DESC), hopelessness (BHS), interpersonal variables (INQ) and defeat (DS-d)/entrapment (ES-d). Dimensionality was investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, models with 1, 2, 3 and 5 factors) and convergent validity was investigated by correlational analysis (Pearson). RESULTS: In total, the 5-factor model achieved the best fit. Yet, model fit is comparable between all tested models without considering the RMSEA model. The multidimensional models result in similar subscales. Subscales reflecting passive death wishes (α>0,80), active suicidal ideation (α>0,73) and suicide-related behaviors (α>0,70) achieve acceptable internal consistency. The BSS sum score and the subscales assessing passive and active suididal thoughts correlate moderately positive with DESC, BHS, INQ and DS-d/ES-d (r between 0,25 and 0,66) while the behavior-related scale shows smaller (r between 0,14 und 0,27) or no associations (INQ, thwarted belongingness). CONCLUSION: The CFAs do not provide clear evidence for either an uni- or a multidimensional structure of the BSS. In the light of this finding, use of the BSS score is limited despite evidence supporting its reliability and convergent validity.

18.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(5): 346-350, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216638

RESUMO

Suicide-related outcomes increased among young adults in the last decade. Excessive use of social media was hypothesized to contribute to this development. This longitudinal study aimed to investigate whether Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD) predicts suicide-related outcomes, and whether Positive Mental Health (PMH) buffers this effect. Data of 209 German Facebook users [Mage(SDage) = 23.01 (4.45)] were assessed at two measurement time points over a 1-year period (first measurement = T1 and second measurement = T2) through online surveys. FAD was measured with the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale, PMH was assessed with the PMH-Scale, and suicide-related outcomes were measured with the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised. The significant positive association between FAD (T1) and suicide-related outcomes (T2) was significantly negatively mediated by PMH (T1). These results demonstrate that addictive Facebook use may enhance the risk of suicide-related outcomes. However, PMH contributes to the reduction of this risk. Therefore, addictive Facebook use and PMH should be taken into account when assessing individuals for suicide of risk.


Assuntos
Atitude , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Mídias Sociais , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 27(4): 542-547, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100399

RESUMO

The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits that elevated pain tolerance is necessary to engage in suicidal behaviour. It is assumed that suicidal intent only leads to lethal (or near lethal) suicide attempts when an individual has the capability to persist the pain involved in dying. The aim of this study was to assess whether objective pain persistence moderates the association between suicide intent and lethality of a recent suicide attempt. Ninety-seven inpatients, who were hospitalized due to a recent suicide attempt, were interviewed regarding lifetime suicide attempts as well as their most recent suicide attempt: Method of attempt, intention to die, medical risk of death, probability of an intervention, and physical condition following the attempt were inquired. Pain persistence was examined using a pressure algometer. Contrary to the expectation, pain persistence did not moderate the association between suicide intent and lethality of a recent suicide attempt, that is, medical risk of death, probability of an intervention, or physical condition following the attempt. Future studies are needed to examine method specific pain persistence for suicidal behaviour in a longitudinal study design.

20.
Crisis ; 41(5): 383-388, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036702

RESUMO

Background: Stressful life events and suicide ideation regularly occur together. Yet, little is known about factors that buffer individuals against the development of suicide ideation. Aim: In a long-term follow-up study design, it was investigated whether positive mental health, that is, high levels of subjective and psychological well-being, buffers the association between stressful life events and suicide ideation. Method: A total of 126 German students (80.2% female; age: M = 24.29, SD = 5.21) were assessed at a baseline evaluation and again 24 months later. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires. Results: Linear hierarchical regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Positive mental health was considered to moderate the impact of stressful life events on suicide ideation - controlling for age and gender. Limitations: Current results are limited to university students. Conclusions: Positive mental health interacts with stressful life events, such that those with high levels of positive mental health show an attenuated increase in suicide ideation at elevated levels of stress. Positive mental health seems to confer resilience and should be focused on in counseling centers for students.

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