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1.
Exp Gerontol ; 155: 111592, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ageing process implies several physiological and psychological changes that hence affect the general health, mood states, and quality of life of older persons. Exercise and adequate nutrition are renowned non-pharmacological strategies that significantly delay and alleviate the adverse consequences of the ageing process. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation and a multicomponent exercise program (ME) on the physical frailty and mood states of older persons. METHODS: 35 participants (women and men; 83 ± 3 years old) from residential care homes were submitted to a 40-week exercise-washout-retraining intervention (16 weeks of the elastic band based exercise and/or supplementation, 8 weeks of washout, and 16 weeks of multicomponent exercise and/or resupplementing), with or without BCAA supplementation. The experimental groups were: (i) ME plus BCAA supplementation (ME+BCAA); (ii) ME; (iii) BCAA supplementation (BCAA), and (iv) control group (CG). Fried's phenotype was used to assess frailty prevalence. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Profile of Mood State (POMS), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), were used to access mental health and cognition. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was used to access functional capacity. Salivary testosterone levels (ST) were also determined to access the anabolic effects of the intervention. RESULTS: Exercise was effective in improving functional capacity and prevented the increase in frailty that occurred in the non-exercising CG, where the frailty scores increased over time (p < 0.01). BCAAs supplement alone had no impact on functional fitness, but in a short time (16 weeks) contributed to diminishing frailty and combined with exercise may have the potential to reduce the effect of a detraining period on functional capacity. Salivary testosterone levels correlated with handgrip strength and could be a useful indicator of susceptibility to frailty. No effects were found for mood states, cognition, and depression. CONCLUSION: This study showed that a long-term exercise program, independent of being multicomponent or strength elastic band-based, was effective in improving functional capacity and prevented an increase in frailty in frail and pre-frail older persons living in residential care homes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501553

RESUMO

Aquatic physical exercise programs have become progressively more popular among elderly people. Some of the major physical exercise program disadvantages on land are minimized due to the specific properties of the aquatic environment. The purpose of the present randomized controlled study is to verify the effects of different aquatic physical exercise programs on body composition, functional fitness and cognitive function in non-institutionalized elderly people. For this study, 102 elderly individuals were randomly allocated into four different groups: AerG (n = 25, 71.44 ± 4.84 years); IntG (n = 28, 72.64 ± 5.22 years); ComG (n = 29, 71.90 ± 5.67 years) and CG (n = 20, 73.60 ± 5.25 years). Individuals from the groups AerG, IntG and ComG participated in three different aquatic physical exercise programs for a period of 28 weeks. The CG participants kept to their usual routines. All participants were evaluated for body composition, functional fitness and cognitive function at two time moments, i.e., pre- (M1) and post-intervention (M2). Significant differences for body composition were found between M1 and M2 for FM (p < 0.001), LBM (p < 0.001) and WCir (p < 0.01) in the AerG, for BMI (p < 0.05), FM (p < 0.05), LBM (p < 0.001) and LCir-R (p < 0.05) in the IntG, and for WGT (p < 0.01), FM (p < 0.05), LBM (p < 0.01), LCir-R (p < 0.05) and LCir-L (p < 0.01) in the ComG groups. For functional fitness, differences were found between M1 and M2 for 2m-ST (p < 0.000), 30s-CS (p < 0.000), 30s-AC (p < 0.05), HG-T-R (p < 0.000) and HG-T-L (p < 0.000) in the AerG, for 2m-ST (p < 0.05), BS-R (p < 0.05), 30s-CS (p < 0.000), 30s-AC(p < 0.01), HG-T-R (p < 0.000) and HG-T-L (p < 0.000) in the IntG, and for 30s-CS (p < 0.000), HG-T-R (p < 0.000) and HG-T-L (p < 0.000) in the ComG groups. The present study evidenced the beneficial effects of physical exercise in an aquatic environment on body composition, functional fitness and cognitive function in non-institutionalized elderly adults. The ComG water-based exercise program showed more beneficial effects in the improvement of body composition and cognitive function variables, while the IntG and AerG programs were more effective in the improvement of functional fitness.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Idoso , Cognição , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Aptidão Física
3.
Exerc Immunol Rev ; 27: 7-23, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965898

RESUMO

The hypothalamus plays a critical role in the control of food consumption and energy expenditure. Fatty diets can elicit an inflammatory response in specific hypothalamic cells, including astrocytes, tanycytes, and microglia, disrupting anorexigenic signals in region-specific hypothalamic neurons, contributing to overeating and body weight gain. In this study, we present an update regarding the knowledge of the effects of physical exercise on inflammatory signaling and circuits to control hunger in the hypothalamus in obesity conditions. To try to understand changes in the hypothalamus, we review the use of magnetic resonance/anorexigenic hormone analysis in humans, as well as in animal models to explore the physiological and molecular mechanism by which exercise modulates satiety signals, such as the central anti-inflammatory response, myokine delivery from skeletal muscle, and others. The accumulation of scientific evidence in recent years allows us to understand that exercise contributes to weight control, and it is managed by mechanisms that go far beyond "burning calories."


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Hipotálamo , Saciação , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação , Obesidade
4.
Exerc Immunol Rev ; 27: 67-83, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965902

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ageing is associated with alterations in the immune system as well as with alterations of the circadian rhythm. Immune cells show rhythmicity in execution of their tasks. Chronic inflammation (inflammaging), which is observed in the elderly, is mitigated by lifelong exercise. The aimed this study was to determine the acute effect of a maximal exercise test on clock genes, regulatory proteins and cytokine expression, and evaluate the effect of lifelong exercise on the expression of clock genes in subpopulations of effector-memory (EM) CD4+ and CD8+T cells and the association of these processes with the inflammatory profile. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the expression of clock genes in subpopulations of effector memory (EM) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in master athletes and healthy controls and further associate them with systemic inflammatory responses to acute exercise. METHODS: The study population comprised national and international master athletes (n = 18) involved in three sports (athletics, swimming and judo). The control group (n = 8) comprised untrained healthy volunteers who had not participated in any regular and competitive physical exercise in the past 20 years. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were taken before (Pre), 10 min after (Post) and 1 h after (1 h Post) a maximal cycle ergometer test for the determination of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max). The subpopulations of EM CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were purified using fluorescenceactivated cell sorting. RNA extraction of clock genes (CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, REV-ERBα, REV-ERBß, RORa, RORb and RORc) in EM CD4+ and EM CD8+ T cells as well as regulatory proteins (IL-4, IFN-γ, Tbx21, PD-1, Ki67, NF-kB, p53 and p21) in EM CD4+ T cells was performed. The serum concentration of cytokines (IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and IL-17A) was measured. RESULTS: The master athletes showed better physiological parameters than the untrained healthy controls (P < 0.05). The levels of cytokines increased in master athletes at Post compared with those at Pre. The IL-8 level was higher at 1 h Post, whereas the IL-10 and IL-12p70 levels returned to baseline. There was no change in IL-17A levels (P < 0.05). The clock genes were modulated differently in CD4+ T cells after an acute session of exercise in a training status-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The synchronization of clock genes, immune function and ageing presents new dimensions with interesting challenges. Lifelong athletes showed modified expression patterns of clock genes and cytokine production associated with the physical fitness level. Moreover, the acute bout of exercise altered the clock machinery mainly in CD4+ T cells; however, the clock gene expressions induced by acute exercise were different between the master athletes and control group.


Assuntos
Atletas , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Proteínas CLOCK/imunologia , Exercício Físico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Teste de Esforço , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação
5.
Front Psychol ; 12: 564490, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841224

RESUMO

Introduction: Regular exercise has long been shown to positively impact the immune system responsiveness and improve mental well-being (MWB). However, the putative links between biomarkers of mental health and immune efficiency in exercising subjects have been scarcely investigated. The aim of this study was to verify the effect of a 14-week combined chair-based exercise program (CEP) on salivary steroid hormones and anti-microbial proteins, functional fitness, and MWB indexes in pre-frail older women. Methods: The participant women (82.8 4.6 years old; n = 32) were randomly divided into the exercising group (CEP, n = 17) and the non-exercising control group (CG, n = 15). The pre/post assessment included: (1) salivary anti-microbial proteins lysozyme; (Lys) and immunoglobulin-A (IgA); (2) salivary steroid hormones of testosterone (TT) and cortisol (COR); (3) functional fitness (gait speed, hand grip strength, and static balance); (4) MWB questionnaires (happiness, depression state, satisfaction with life, and stress). Results: Significant differences with large Cohen's (d) effect sizes were found on increased salivary TT (p < 0.05; d = 0.60) after exercise intervention. The results revealed a decrease in IgA levels after CEP (p < 0.01, d = 0.30). The increase in subjective happiness levels (p < 0.05, d = 0.30) and decrease of stress perception (p < 0.01, d = 2.60) and depressive state (p < 0.05, d = 0.30) were found after intervention in the CEP group. Robust statistical differences in gait speed (p < 0.05; d = 0.60) and balance tests (p < 0.05; d = 0.80) were also found in the CEP group. In control, COR increased moderately (p < 0.05; d = 0.65) while no changes were found for the other indicators. Correlation analyses showed inter-dependence between pre-post variations of MWB, biochemical indexes, and fitness function (e.g., COR inverse correlation with hand grip strength and balance tests). Conclusion: The CEP program was able to improve functional-fitness performance, decrease feelings of stress, and increase happiness. The CEP also induced clinically relevant hormonal and immune responses, which suggests that chair exercises that combine muscular strength, balance, and gait speed training are promising interventions to improve physical and mental health of older pre-frail adults.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800577

RESUMO

Nowadays, it is accepted that the regular practice of exercise and branched-chain amino acids supplementation (BCAAs) can benefit the immune responses in older persons, prevent the occurrence of physical frailty (PF), cognitive decline, and aging-related comorbidities. However, the impact of their combination (as non-pharmacological interventions) in albumin and the inflammatory markers is not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a 40-week multifactorial intervention [MIP, multicomponent exercise (ME) associated or not with BCAAs] on plasma levels of inflammatory markers and albumin in frail older persons (≥75 years old) living at residential care homes (RCH). This study consisted of a prospective, naturalistic, controlled clinical trial with four arms of multifactorial and experimental (interventions-wahshout-interventions) design. The intervention groups were ME + BCAAs (n = 8), ME (n = 7), BCAAs (n = 7), and control group (n = 13). Lower limb muscle-strength, cognitive profile, and PF tests were concomitantly evaluated with plasma levels of albumin, anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines [Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) respectively], TNF-α/IL-10 ratio, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity at four different time-points: Baseline (T1), after 16 weeks of multifactorial intervention (T2), then after a subsequent 8 weeks washout period (T3) and finally, after an additional 16 weeks of multifactorial intervention (T4). Improvement of cognitive profile and muscle strength-related albumin levels, as well as reduction in the TNF-α levels were found particularly in ME plus BCAAs group. No significant variations were observed over time for TNF-α/IL-10 ratio or MPO activity. Overall, the study showed that MIP triggered slight alterations in the inflammatory and physical function of the frail older participants, which could provide independence and higher quality of life for this population.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Peroxidase/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
7.
Amino Acids ; 53(3): 333-345, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586039

RESUMO

Immunosenescence contributes to cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, and those conditions could be attenuated by non-pharmacological anti-inflammatory strategies, such as exercise and supplementation with the amino acid taurine. Since taurine body content decreases with aging, we investigated the effects of supplementation (alone and combined with exercise) on oxidative stress, extracellular matrix degradation, white blood cells, neurotrophins, cognition and physical fitness of elderly women. Forty-eight women (83.58 ± 6.98 years) were enrolled into exercise training only (EO: n = 13), taurine supplementation (TS: n = 12), exercise training + taurine supplementation (ETTS: n = 11), and control group (CG: n = 12). All interventions lasted 14 weeks. Exercise was applied twice a week, and taurine was given once a day (1.5 g). Data collection occurred before and after interventions with the determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) levels, and white blood cell counts (WBC). Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and physical fitness tests were also evaluated. Concentration of MPO and MMP-9 decreased after intervention in TS (p < 0.05). No effect of time or time × group was observed for WBC parameters; however, univariate analysis showed a significant decrease in lymphocytes for TS, while an increase in monocytes occurred in the CG (p < 0.05). MoCA scores decreased over time in the CG (p < 0.05). Improvements in physical fitness occurred in ETTS (better agility and aerobic capacity), mostly likely due to exercise and boosted by taurine supplementation. No changes in BDNF levels were observed (p > 0.05), while NGF concentration were undetectable in almost subjects. Exercise together with taurine supplementation appears to be a valuable strategy to enhance health-related outcomes in older persons.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/sangue , Peroxidase/sangue , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/sangue , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência
8.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 26(1): 171-179, jan.-fev. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154117

RESUMO

RESUMO Este estudo avaliou as propriedades físico-químicas envolvidas no processo de adsorção para subsidiar o potencial uso de biocarvão produzido com folhas secas de amendoeira-da-praia, Terminalia catappa, como remediador em águas contaminadas com metais. O biocarvão utilizado foi produzido por conversão à baixa temperatura e caracterizado por apresentar bandas de O-H, CH2, C-O e C-O-C; teores de 48,8% de carbono, 46,6% de oxigênio, 3,3% de hidrogênio e demais entre enxofre e nitrogênio; presença de macroporos e passado em peneira (100 mesh). Para o estudo, preparou-se um coquetel de radiotraçadores (Co-57, Mn-54 e Zn-65), que foi adicionado à água deionizada e massas de biocarvão com o objetivo de obter parâmetros tais como pH, tempo de equilíbrio e capacidade de adsorção por meio das isotermas de Langmuir e Freundlich. O detector de Germânio Hiperpuro foi utilizado para quantificar as atividades dos radiotraçadores por meio da técnica de espectroscopia gama para geração e tratamento de dados. Os resultados obtidos mostraram aumento na adsorção do pH 3,8 em diante e tempo de equilíbrio de 30 minutos ou mais. As isotermas de Langmuir e Freundlich construídas apresentaram bons ajustes, com valores de n maiores que 1, indicando preferência dos metais pelo material adsorvente. Além disso, levando-se em conta a competição pelos sítios ativos e a concentração inicial das soluções (ordem de picogramas), foram encontradas capacidades de adsorção de 1,273 ng.g-1 para o Zn-65, de 3.271 ng.g-1 para o Co-57 e de 9,026 ng.g-1 para o Mn-54.


ABSTRACT This study evaluated the physical-chemical properties of the adsorption process in biochar produced from dry leaves of beach-almond, Terminalia catappa, as a useful tool for remediation purposes in water contaminated with metals. The biochar was characterized by having: bands of O-H, CH2, C-O, and C-O-C; contents of 48.8% carbon, 46.6% oxygen, 3.3% hydrogen and the others between sulfur and nitrogen; the presence of macropores; and being sieved (100 mesh). Parameters such as pH, equilibrium time and adsorption capacity by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were determined from experiments using a radiotracer cocktail (Co-57, Mn-54 and Zn-65) which was added to deionized water and a constants mass of biochar. The high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) was used to quantify the radiotracer activity by gamma spectroscopy. The results showed better adsorption from pH 3.8 and 30 minutes equilibrium time. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms had a good model fit, with n values higher than 1, and showed affinity between the metals and the biochar. The adsorption capacities of Zn-65, Co-57 and Mn-54 were 1.273 ng.g−1, 3.271 ng.g−1 and 9.026 ng.g−1, respectively.

9.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(5): e13485, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393082

RESUMO

The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) appearance in Wuhan, China, did rise the new virus disease (COVID-19), which spread globally in a short time, leading the World Health Organization to declare a new global pandemic. To contain and mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2, specific public health procedures were implemented in virtually all countries, with a significant impact on society, making it difficult to keep the regular practice of physical activity. It is widely accepted that an active lifestyle contributes to the improvement of general health and preservation of cardiovascular, respiratory, osteo-muscular and immune system capacities. The positive effects of regular physical activity on the immune system have emerged as a pivotal trigger of general health, underlying the beneficial effects of physical activity on multiple physiological systems. Accordingly, recent studies have already pointed out the negative impact of physical inactivity caused by the social isolation imposed by the public sanitary authorities due to COVID-19. Nevertheless, there are still no current narrative reviews evaluating the real impact of COVID-19 on active lifestyle or even discussing the possible beneficial effects of exercise-promoted immune upgrade against the severity or progression of COVID-19. Based on the consensus in the scientific literature, in this review, we discuss how an exercise adherence could adequately improve immune responses in times of the 'COVID-19 Era and beyond'.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Citocinas/imunologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/imunologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Fagocitose/imunologia , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sedentário , Linfócitos T/imunologia
10.
Cytokine ; 137: 155306, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010727

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine that has been proposed to modulate skeletal muscle and adipose tissue mass, as well as insulin sensitivity. However, the evidence suggesting a role for IL-15 in improving whole-body insulin sensitivity and decreasing adiposity comes mainly from studies using supraphysiological levels of this cytokine. This study examined the effect of a short-term exercise training protocol on the protein content of IL-15, it's signaling pathway, and glucose tolerance in aged rats. METHODS: Fourteen Wistar rats were divided into Young Sedentary (Young, n = 4); Old Sedentary (Old, n = 5); Old Exercise (Old.Exe, n = 5) groups. The animals from the exercised group were submitted to a short-term physical exercise protocol for five days. At the end of physical training and after 16 h of the last exercise session, the animals were euthanized, and tissue collection was done. RESULTS: Physical exercise decreased epididymal and mesenteric fat mass and promoted positive effects on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Muscle IL-15 protein levels were not changed following the short-term physical exercise training with no alterations in the post-exercise IL-15-JAK/STAT signaling pathway. We found a tendency to increased HIF1α and a significant increase in its regulator, PHD2, in the skeletal muscle after exercise. CONCLUSION: The elderly rats submitted to short-term aerobic physical training did not present skeletal muscle alteration in the protein content of the IL-15 and IL-15-JAK/STAT signaling pathway. However, short-term aerobic physical training was able to modulate the expression of HIF1α and its regulator PHD2, suggesting an essential role of these proteins in improving post-exercise glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in elderly rats.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236669, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750092

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of a competitive season on salivary responses [cortisol (sC), testosterone (sT), Testosterone/Cortisol ratio (sT/C), Immunoglobulin A (sIgA), sIgA secretion rate (srIgA), alpha-amylase (sAA)] and upper respiratory symptoms (URS) occurrence in three teams of male soccer players (Under-15, Under-17 and Under-19 yrs.). Training and competition volumes, salivary biomarkers and URS were determined monthly. No differences were found for monthly training volume between teams. Incidence of URS was higher for the U15 (44.9% of the total cases). Higher sT and srIgA were observed for the U19, lower sC were found for the U17 and sAA showed higher values for the U15 throughout the season. In the U15, significant difference (p = .023) was found for sIgA concentration with higher concentration values in January compared to December (-42.7%; p = .008) and the sT showed seasonal variation (p < .001) with the highest value in January significantly different from October (-40.2%; p = .035), November (-38.5%; p = 0.022) and December (-51.6%; p = .008). The U19 presented an increase in sC in March compared to February (-66.1%, p = .018), sT/C were higher in February compared to March (-58.1%; p = .022) and sAA increased in March compared to September (-20.5%; p = .037). Negative correlations, controlled for age group, were found between URS occurrence and srIgA (r = -0.170, p = .001), sAA (r = -0.179, p = .001) and sT (r = -0.107, p = .047). Monitoring salivary biomarkers provides information on mucosal immunity with impact in URS occurrence. Coaches could manipulate training loads to attenuate the physical stressors imposed on athletes, especially at demanding and stressful periods.


Assuntos
Atletas , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Doenças Respiratórias/imunologia , Saliva/imunologia , Futebol , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Testosterona/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
12.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1568, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765358

RESUMO

Introduction: Frailty associated to core dimensions of psychological well-being (PwB) has appeared as a possible new frailty phenotype named psychological frailty, implying a parallel to physical frailty (PF). Very little is known about the associations between mental well-being, especially emotional, mood, and self-perception dimensions, and the frailty syndrome in institutionalized older populations. The present study aims to examine the interlink between the PF phenotype and the core dimensions of PwB in Portuguese institution-dwelling older women. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected. A total of 358 older women, aged 75 years or more, were recruited from four nursing homes within the city of Coimbra and asked to complete a sociodemographic and a general health assessment survey. The main PwB dimensions were assessed in all participants: (i) global cognitive status was assessed using The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) Neuropsychology Test, (ii) self-perception was screened using the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Global Self-Esteem Scale, (iii) CES-D of depression and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) were used to screen mood states, and (iv) subjective happiness, satisfaction with life, and attitudes to aging psychometric rating scales were used to screen for emotional well-being. The syndrome of PF was assessed using Fried's PF phenotype that includes weight loss, weakness, slowness, exhaustion, and low physical activity (PA) level assessments. Results: Frail older women had a poor score in all PwB outcomes, except for global self-esteem and satisfaction with life. A hierarchical regression model analysis showed that global cognitive status and emotional well-being of subjective happiness and attitude to aging showed a significant negative relationship with PF in both unadjusted and adjusted models (explaining 34 and 40% of variance, respectively). Conclusion: Emotional well-being and global cognitive performance are strongly associated with PF. Implementing active lifestyle interventions to improve positive psychological outcomes using geriatric assessments could assist in the older institutionalized patients' physical and mental health care.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14094, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839476

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolic and molecular profile according to physical fitness status (Low or High VO2max) and its impacts on peripheral and cellular inflammatory responses in healthy men. First (Phase I), inflammatory profile (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10) was analyzed at baseline and post-acute exercise sessions performed at low (< 60% VO2max) and high (> 90% VO2max) intensities considering the individual endotoxin concentrations. Next (Phase II), monocyte cell cultures were treated with LPS alone or associated with Rosiglitazone (PPAR-γ agonist drug) to analyze cytokine production and gene expression. Monocyte subsets were also evaluated by flow cytometry. A positive relationship was observed between LPS concentrations and oxygen uptake (VO2max) (r = 0.368; p = 0.007); however, in the post-exercise an inverse correlation was found between LPS variation (Δ%) and VO2max (r = -0.385; p = 0.004). With the low-intensity exercise session, there was inverse correlation between LPS and IL-6 concentrations post-exercise (r = -0.505; p = 0.046) and a positive correlation with IL-10 in the recovery (1 h post) (r = 0.567; p = 0.011), whereas with the high-intensity exercise an inverse correlation was observed with IL-6 at pre-exercise (r = -0.621; p = 0.013) and recovery (r = -0.574; p = 0.016). When monocyte cells were treated with LPS, High VO2max individuals showed higher PPAR-γ gene expression whereas Low VO2max individuals displayed higher IL-10 production. Additionally, higher TLR-4, IKK1, and PGC-1α gene expression were observed in the High VO2max group than Low VO2max individuals. In conclusion, even with elevated endotoxemia, individuals with High VO2max exhibited higher IL-6 concentration in peripheral blood post-acute aerobic exercise and lower IL-10 concentration during recovery (1 h post-exercise). The anti-inflammatory effects linked with exercise training and physical fitness status may be explained by a greater gene expression of IKK1, TLR-4, and PGC-1α, displaying an extremely efficient cellular framework for the PPAR-γ responses.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , PPAR gama/sangue , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Endotoxemia/sangue , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Masculino , PPAR gama/agonistas , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
14.
J Aging Phys Act ; : 1-9, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679568

RESUMO

Galectin-3 is a pro-inflammatory biomarker associated with the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF). Physical-activity reduces the risk of heart-failure by modification of inflammation and fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity aerobic continuous training on a predictive factor of HF in postmenopausal women. Thirty sedentary postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to three groups. The first group performed the HIIT program at 60%-90%, and the second group performed an exercise program at 50%-65% of HR reserve. The control group maintained their normal daily regular physical activity level. The gene expressions of galectin-3 and lipid profiles were measured at the baseline and the end of Week 8. The HIIT and moderate-intensity aerobic continuous training attenuated the gene expression of galectin-3, serum low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations and enhanced high-density lipoprotein concentrations. These changes were considerably higher in the HIIT group. Our results show that HIIT is superior to moderate-intensity aerobic continuous training in improving the decrease in HF risk in postmenopausal women.

15.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 20(1): 43-50, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057094

RESUMO

BDNF is associated with brain health and positively modulated by exercise; however, the influence of physical fitness status on BDNF is incipient. This study investigated the BDNF response after acute-exercise sessions performed at low, moderate, and high intensities and the relationship between physical fitness status and BDNF response. Twenty-eight men, divided according to physical fitness status (<50th or >50th percentile for VO2max), performed three randomised acute exercise sessions at low (90% of VT1), moderate (midpoint between VT1-VT2), and high (midpoint between VT2-Wmax) intensities until exhaustion or for up to 60 min. Lactate and BDNF were determined pre and post-exercises. For BDNF, there were main effects of time (p = 0.003) and interaction (p < 0.001), showing an increase post high-intensity exercise (p < 0.001). Changes in BDNF presented differences between conditions (p < 0.001) with greater increase in high-intensity compared with the others (p = 0.003). For lactate, there were main effects of time (p < 0.001), condition (p < 0.001), and interaction (p < 0.001) with greater concentration in high-intensity. High-intensity exercise exhibited inverse correlation between the changes in BDNF and lactate (r=-0.38, p = 0.044). There was significant correlation between BDNF and VO2max for moderate (r = -0.57, p = 0.002) and a trend for high-intensity condition (r = -0.37, p = 0.050) and when evaluating BDNF according to physical fitness level, it was observed that subjects with lower physical fitness levels had greater increases in BDNF in short-time high-intensity exercise (p = 0.041). In conclusion, short-time high-intensity exercise seems to be more efficient in increasing BDNF concentration, and physical fitness level influences this response, as healthy individuals with lower physical fitness levels were more responsive.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Exercício Físico , Aptidão Física , Adulto , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto Jovem
16.
Women Health ; 60(2): 140-155, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154915

RESUMO

Little is known about symptoms associated with frailty in institutionalized Portuguese older adults. This study aimed to investigate the association of frailty with diverse geriatric health characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 140 women aged between 75 and 85 years were analyzed. Data were collected between March and June, 2016. Fried's definition of physical frailty, psychological, sex hormones, disability and physical fitness outcomes were examined. The prevalence of frailty was 40%. Frail women had lower scores in cognitive and physical fitness, and higher scores for depressive symptoms and comorbidities. Significant correlations emerged between frailty and disability, fear of falling, aerobic resistance and cognition. Regression analyses and Receiver Operating Only aerobic resistance (sensitivity [93-96%]; specificity [74-77%], p = .001) and cognition (sensitivity [77-88%]; specificity [65-71%], p < .001) remained in the equation as independently related to physical frailty. A trend of significant differences in lower systolic blood pressure may reflect being less physically active and/or having more systemic comorbidity. Fried's model can be considered applicable. The 2-minute step test and the Mini Mental State Examination could better identify frail populations. The role of blood pressure and level of education in physical frailty status needs to be further explored.


Assuntos
Cognição , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Aptidão Física , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Institucionalização , Casas de Saúde , Portugal/epidemiologia , Prevalência
17.
Exp Gerontol ; 130: 110790, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816425

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many people experience aging-related losses in different physical domains, which leads to a condition often called physical frailty (PF). The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of two different, 28-weeks, class chair-exercise protocols on salivary steroid hormones (SH), PF, and functional disabilities (FD) in frail older women. METHODS: A sample of older frail individuals (n = 60, 817.84 years) participated in the study and were divided into three groups: chair elastic-band muscle strength exercises (CSE), n = 20), chair-multimodal exercise (CME, n = 21) and a control non-exercise group (CGne, n = 19). Both exercise programs consisted of 45 min of supervised chair-based exercise group classes, carried out 3 times/week. CME participants performed a progressive training using walking, mobility and body weight resistance exercises. The CSE participants exercised using an elastic-band system of progressive exercises. Both CSE and CME followed a circuit training protocol. The controls did not change their usual lifestyle. The indicators of PF, FD and SH concentrations were analyzed before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Both exercise programs diminished the PF status showing significant time and time versus treatment interactions (p < .01). An increase in the CME group, between baseline and 14-weeks, and in the CSE group, after 28 weeks, for Testosterone concentrations was observed (p < .01). Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) increased after 28-weeks in the CME group and decreased in the CGne after the same period (p < .05). Both exercise programs decreased the negative scores of several FD domains, specially fear of falling that showed significant effects with time (p < .01), and time vs intervention (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Both chair-exercise based programs were effective in stimulating positive changes in physical health and in steroid hormone responses, especially in DHEA. The control group did show a negative trend towards an increased PF status and decreased levels of SH. It is crucial for public health to identify the main factors associated with Functional Disability and Physical Frailty that underlie the development of new methods for complementary therapies, such as the use of low doses of hormonal supplementation combined with long-term exercise interventions.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/terapia , Saliva/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Testosterona/metabolismo
18.
Exp Gerontol ; 129: 110759, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678219

RESUMO

Identification of older populations at increased risk of physical frailty using biochemical approaches could improve screening accuracy. The aim of this study was to study the relationship between immune markers and independent components of physical frailty in institutionalized older women. A sample of 358 institutionalized-dwelling women, aged 75 years and older, were assessed for biosocial factors and general health status, pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines, sex steroid hormones, salivary anti-microbial proteins, blood cells counts and the five Fried's physical frailty components that allowed for classification of the sample into frail, prefrailty and not-frail subgroups. Results showed that cytokines IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ß, TNF-α, and the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, salivary cortisol and α-amylase were all associated with frailty. Weakness and Exhaustion were the frailty components that were most strongly associated with these biomarkers. Salivary α-amylase was the biomarker that best explained frailty, as it was associated with all five components of physical frailty, and could be used as a potential screening tool. Future research needs to investigate the causal-effect association between salivary innate immune makers, susceptibility to infection and frailty.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/sangue , Saliva , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Institucionalização , Interleucina-1beta , Interleucina-6/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 6: 134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316985

RESUMO

The prevalence of age-related non-communicable chronic diseases has increased worldwide, being the leading causes of morbidity and death in many world regions, including in Europe. Innovative models and strategies focused on preventive care, including early identification of risk factors underlying disease onset and progression, and proper modification of lifestyle habits and behaviors, might contribute to promote quality of life, healthy living and active aging. Healthy Lifestyle Innovative Quarters for Cities and Citizens (HeaLIQs4cities) is an EIT Health-funded project aiming to engage, empower and educate citizens toward healthy lifestyles. One of the major objectives of this project was to develop a toolkit for a rapid and informal assessment of healthy lifestyles, to be used at different levels of care pathways, including in informal public environments. In this paper, we describe the methodology underlying the development of the toolkit, which resulted from the collaboration of an interdisciplinary focus group of academic experts, from medicine, sport sciences, psychology, health economics, and innovative technologies applied to health. The following eight components were included in the toolkit: (1) anthropometric assessment and cardiometabolic parameters; (2) physical activity and exercise; (3) well-being, social cohesion, and functional independence; (4) nutrition; (5) mental health; (6) smoking, drinking, and use of illicit substances; (7) sleep habits and quality; and (8) health and disease. A traffic light rating system indicating the risk score was used (low: green; moderate: yellow; and relevant: orange) for each of the 8 components, together with recommendations for the toolkit users. After completing the reduced version of the toolkit, individuals showing moderate or relevant risk in one or more of the 8 dimensions, were invited to participate in a more detailed assessment (toolkit long version), based on deeper and scientifically validated tools. The toolkit was incorporated in eVida, a web-based platform that focuses on delivering services to personalized health and well-being. The validation of the current toolkit has been applied in wide-ranging public events in three different European Regions. Large scale deployment of the toolkit is expected to profit from the Reference Site Collaborative Network of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Aging (EIP on AHA).

20.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(1): 36-45, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722757

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the effects of chair-based exercise programs on salivary stress hormones, physical fitness, and functional autonomy of institutionalized older women. METHOD: In total, 47 participants (80 ± 8.04 years old) were recruited and allocated into three groups: chair-based aerobic exercises (CAE, n = 19), chair-based elastic-band strength exercises (CSE, n = 15), and a control group (CG, n = 13). A 14-week exercise intervention was done for the CAE and CSE groups, two times per week, in no consecutive days. Members of the CG did not participate in any type of exercise but kept their regular lifestyle. Fear of falling, autonomy, physical fitness, salivary cortisol, and alpha-amylase levels were assessed before and after the intervention. RESULTS: The CAE group improved upper and lower body strength, agility-dynamic balance, and autonomy, with fear of falling decreasing significantly (p < .05, moderate effect size). Both exercise groups showed a trend toward an increase in salivary alpha-amylase levels (CAE = 43%, d = .31, and CSE = 44%, d = .41). CONCLUSION: Both exercise programs were able to improve functional autonomy, even in elders older than 80 years of age. It might be interesting to investigate the effectiveness of combining both aerobic and strength exercises in a unique protocol. The modulation effect of exercise in the hormonal responses needs to be further explored.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Saliva/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Medo , Feminino , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Casas de Saúde , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos
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