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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic hazard scores (PHS) can identify individuals with increased risk of prostate cancer. We estimated the benefit of additional SNPs on performance of a previously validated PHS (PHS46). MATERIALS AND METHOD: 180 SNPs, shown to be previously associated with prostate cancer, were used to develop a PHS model in men with European ancestry. A machine-learning approach, LASSO-regularized Cox regression, was used to select SNPs and to estimate their coefficients in the training set (75,596 men). Performance of the resulting model was evaluated in the testing/validation set (6,411 men) with two metrics: (1) hazard ratios (HRs) and (2) positive predictive value (PPV) of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. HRs were estimated between individuals with PHS in the top 5% to those in the middle 40% (HR95/50), top 20% to bottom 20% (HR80/20), and bottom 20% to middle 40% (HR20/50). PPV was calculated for the top 20% (PPV80) and top 5% (PPV95) of PHS as the fraction of individuals with elevated PSA that were diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer on biopsy. RESULTS: 166 SNPs had non-zero coefficients in the Cox model (PHS166). All HR metrics showed significant improvements for PHS166 compared to PHS46: HR95/50 increased from 3.72 to 5.09, HR80/20 increased from 6.12 to 9.45, and HR20/50 decreased from 0.41 to 0.34. By contrast, no significant differences were observed in PPV of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating 120 additional SNPs (PHS166 vs PHS46) significantly improved HRs for prostate cancer, while PPV of PSA testing remained the same.

2.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline ATM mutations are suggested to contribute to predisposition to prostate cancer (PrCa). Previous studies have had inadequate power to estimate variant effect sizes. OBJECTIVE: To precisely estimate the contribution of germline ATM mutations to PrCa risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analysed next-generation sequencing data from 13 PRACTICAL study groups comprising 5560 cases and 3353 controls of European ancestry. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Variant Call Format files were harmonised, annotated for rare ATM variants, and classified as tier 1 (likely pathogenic) or tier 2 (potentially deleterious). Associations with overall PrCa risk and clinical subtypes were estimated. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: PrCa risk was higher in carriers of a tier 1 germline ATM variant, with an overall odds ratio (OR) of 4.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-9.5). There was also evidence that PrCa cases with younger age at diagnosis (<65 yr) had elevated tier 1 variant frequencies (pdifference = 0.04). Tier 2 variants were also associated with PrCa risk, with an OR of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Carriers of pathogenic ATM variants have an elevated risk of developing PrCa and are at an increased risk for earlier-onset disease presentation. These results provide information for counselling of men and their families. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we estimated that men who inherit a likely pathogenic mutation in the ATM gene had an approximately a fourfold risk of developing prostate cancer. In addition, they are likely to develop the disease earlier.

3.
Fam Cancer ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051812

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most frequent event in Li-Fraumeni syndrome associated with germline TP53 variants. Some studies have shown that breast cancers in women with Li-Fraumeni syndrome are commonly HER2-positive, suggesting that HER2 amplification or over-expression in a young woman may be a useful criterion to test for germline variants in the TP53 gene. We assessed the prevalence of germline TP53 variants by Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing in 149 women with HER2-positive breast cancer diagnosed until age 40. The pattern of HER2 amplification was evaluated with dual-probe FISH in a subset of breast carcinomas from patients with germline TP53 variants as compared with those of noncarriers. Among 149 women tested, three presented a deleterious TP53 germline variant (2%), with one patient diagnosed at age 31 and the other two with bilateral breast cancer at ages 29/33 and 28/32, respectively. Three of the 36 patients (8.3%) with the first breast cancer diagnosed at age 31 or younger presented a pathogenic TP53 variant. Additionally, all TP53 deleterious variant carriers had a first degree relative diagnosed with different early-onset cancers (frequently not belonging to the Li-Fraumeni syndrome tumor spectrum) diagnosed at age 45 or younger. Higher levels of HER2 amplification were found in breast carcinomas of TP53 pathogenic variant carriers than in those of noncarriers. Deleterious germline TP53 variants account for a small proportion of early-onset HER2-positive breast cancers, but these seem to have higher HER2 amplification ratios. All TP53 pathogenic variant carriers found in this study had the first breast carcinoma diagnosed at age 31 or younger and a first-degree relative with early-onset cancer. Further studies are needed to clarify if HER2 status in early-onset breast cancer patients, in combination with other personal and/or familial cancer history, is useful to update the TP53 testing criteria.

4.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 108, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG founder mutation has been reported in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families from multiple Hispanic groups. We aimed to evaluate BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG haplotype diversity in cases of European, African, and Latin American ancestry. METHODS: BC mutation carrier cases from Colombia (n = 32), Spain (n = 13), Portugal (n = 2), Chile (n = 10), Africa (n = 1), and Brazil (n = 2) were genotyped with the genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays to evaluate haplotype diversity around BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG. Additional Portuguese (n = 13) and Brazilian (n = 18) BC mutation carriers were genotyped for 15 informative SNPs surrounding BRCA1. Data were phased using SHAPEIT2, and identical by descent regions were determined using BEAGLE and GERMLINE. DMLE+ was used to date the mutation in Colombia and Iberia. RESULTS: The haplotype reconstruction revealed a shared 264.4-kb region among carriers from all six countries. The estimated mutation age was ~ 100 generations in Iberia and that it was introduced to South America early during the European colonization period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that this mutation originated in Iberia and later introduced to Colombia and South America at the time of Spanish colonization during the early 1500s. We also found that the Colombian mutation carriers had higher European ancestry, at the BRCA1 gene harboring chromosome 17, than controls, which further supported the European origin of the mutation. Understanding founder mutations in diverse populations has implications in implementing cost-effective, ancestry-informed screening.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008098

RESUMO

Since the approval of PARP inhibitors for the treatment of high-grade serous ovarian cancer, in addition to cancer risk assessment, BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing also has therapeutic implications (germline and somatic variants) and should be offered to these patients at diagnosis, irrespective of family history. However, variants in other genes besides BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with ovarian cancer predisposition, which would be missed by a genetic testing aimed only at indication for PARP inhibitor treatment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the yield of clinically actionable germline variants using next-generation sequencing of a customized panel of 10 genes for the analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from 96 ovarian carcinomas, a strategy that allows the detection of both somatic and germline variants in a single test. In addition to 13.7% of deleterious germline BRCA1/BRCA2 carriers, we identified 7.4% additional patients with pathogenic germline variants in other genes predisposing for ovarian cancer, namely RAD51C, RAD51D, and MSH6, representing 35% of all pathogenic germline variants. We conclude that the strategy of reflex gene-panel tumor testing enables the identification of clinically actionable germline variants in a significantly higher proportion of ovarian cancer patients, which may be valuable information in patients with advanced disease that have run out of approved therapeutic options. Furthermore, this approach increases the chance to make available genetic counseling, presymptomatic genetic testing, and gynecological cancer prophylaxis to female relatives who turn out to be healthy carriers of deleterious germline variants.

6.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964118

RESUMO

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10-9). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.

7.
Cancer Genet ; 248-249: 18-24, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971473

RESUMO

The genomic consequence and clinical interpretation of large duplications are difficult to infer without determining the location and orientation of the duplicated sequence. We aimed to characterize two intragenic duplications detected in two hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) families, namely BRCA1 exon 4 to 6 and BRCA2 exon 17 to 18, previously detected by multiplex ligation probe amplification and initially classified as variants of unknown significance. Using long range PCR, with duplication-specific primers, we were able to ascertain the genomic breakpoints and observed that the two rearrangements occurred in tandem and in direct orientation. The BRCA1 c.134+440_441+870dup and BRCA2 c.7806-2083_8332-1512dup duplications here identified are predicted to cause frameshifts that create a premature stop codon and were reclassified as pathogenic. Furthermore, both families present phenotypic traits typical of HBOC syndrome. We also observed that the genomic breakpoints of these two duplications occurred within highly homologous Alu elements. Concluding, we characterized two in tandem BRCA1 and BRCA2 duplications that likely occurred by Alu-mediated homologous recombination, allowing identification of the underlying cause of the HBOC syndrome in these families.

8.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850417

RESUMO

Deleterious variants in the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes and homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) status are considered strong predictors of response to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi). The introduction of PARPi in clinical practice for the treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer imposed changes in the molecular diagnosis of BRCA1/BRCA2 variants. BRCA1/BRCA2 tumor testing by next-generation sequencing (NGS) can detect simultaneously both somatic and germline variants, allowing the identification of more patients with higher likelihood of benefiting from PARPi. Our main goal was to determine the frequency of somatic and germline BRCA1/BRCA2 variants in a series of non-mucinous OC, and to define the best strategy to be implemented in a routine diagnostic setting for the screening of germline/somatic variants in these genes, including the BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu Portuguese founder variant. We observed a frequency of 19.3% of deleterious variants, 13.3% germline, and 5.9% somatic. A higher prevalence of pathogenic variants was observed in patients diagnosed with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (23.2%). Considering the frequencies of the c.3331_3334del and the c.2037delinsCC BRCA1 variants observed in this study (73% of all BRCA1 pathogenic germline variants identified) and the limitations of NGS to detect the BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu variant, it might be cost-effective to test for these founder variants with a specific test prior to tumor screening of the entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 by NGS in patients of Portuguese ancestry.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708810

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PrCa) ranks among the top five cancers for both incidence and mortality worldwide. A significant proportion of PrCa susceptibility has been attributed to inherited predisposition, with 10-20% of cases expected to occur in a hereditary/familial context. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have uncovered several moderate- to high-penetrance PrCa susceptibility genes, most of which have previously been related to known hereditary cancer syndromes, namely the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, CHEK2, and PALB2) and Lynch syndrome (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) genes. Additional candidate genes have also been suggested, but further evidence is needed to include them in routine genetic testing. Recommendations based on clinical features, family history, and ethnicity have been established for more cost-efficient genetic testing of patients and families who may be at an increased risk of developing PrCa. The identification of alterations in PrCa predisposing genes may help to inform screening strategies, as well as treatment options, in the metastatic setting. This review provides an overview of the genetic basis underlying hereditary predisposition to PrCa, the current genetic screening recommendations, and the implications for clinical management of the disease.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(10): 1467-1475, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514134

RESUMO

We determined the effect of sample size on performance of polygenic hazard score (PHS) models in prostate cancer. Age and genotypes were obtained for 40,861 men from the PRACTICAL consortium. The dataset included 201,590 SNPs per subject, and was split into training and testing sets. Established-SNP models considered 65 SNPs that had been previously associated with prostate cancer. Discovery-SNP models used stepwise selection to identify new SNPs. The performance of each PHS model was calculated for random sizes of the training set. The performance of a representative Established-SNP model was estimated for random sizes of the testing set. Mean HR98/50 (hazard ratio of top 2% to average in test set) of the Established-SNP model increased from 1.73 [95% CI: 1.69-1.77] to 2.41 [2.40-2.43] when the number of training samples was increased from 1 thousand to 30 thousand. Corresponding HR98/50 of the Discovery-SNP model increased from 1.05 [0.93-1.18] to 2.19 [2.16-2.23]. HR98/50 of a representative Established-SNP model using testing set sample sizes of 0.6 thousand and 6 thousand observations were 1.78 [1.70-1.85] and 1.73 [1.71-1.76], respectively. We estimate that a study population of 20 thousand men is required to develop Discovery-SNP PHS models while 10 thousand men should be sufficient for Established-SNP models.

11.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 92(6): 545-553, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181896

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the genes coding for succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) are the most frequent germline alterations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Evidence for the advantages associated with presymptomatic screening for SDHx mutation carriers is scarce. This study describes a nationwide cohort of these mutation carriers and aims to compare patients with clinical manifestations of the disease and those diagnosed through genetic screening. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PATIENTS: SDHx mutation carriers (n = 118) followed through the Portuguese Oncology referral centres: 41 probands and 77 nonprobands. MEASUREMENTS: All participants were subjected to biochemical and body imaging examinations for a complete assessment of the extent and spread of disease. Clinical data obtained this way were further analysed. RESULTS: The mean age of this cohort was 44.5 ± 17.4 years, and more than half carried the same founder SDHB mutation. About 50.8% of the mutation carriers developed pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas. Compared to patients diagnosed through genetic screening, those diagnosed clinically were characterized by larger tumours (P < .001), more frequent metastases (P = .024), were more frequently subjected to surgery (P = .011) and radiotherapy (P = .013), and had worse outcomes, such as macroscopic positive margins (P = .034). Persistent and/or unresectable disease and disease-related mortality were also more frequent in symptomatic patients compared to those diagnosed through genetic screening (P = .014). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide cohort study, a large proportion of mutation carriers were found to develop SDHx-related neoplasia. Genetic testing and subsequent follow-up resulted in the diagnosis of smaller and nonmetastatic tumours, fewer treatment procedures, fewer complications and greater number of disease-free patients.

13.
Eur Urol ; 76(6): 831-842, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA2 cause a higher risk of early-onset aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating targeted PrCa screening using prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. OBJECTIVE: To report the utility of PSA screening, PrCa incidence, positive predictive value of PSA, biopsy, and tumour characteristics after 3 yr of screening, by BRCA status. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 40-69 yr with a germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation and male controls testing negative for a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were recruited. Participants underwent PSA screening for 3 yr, and if PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, men were offered prostate biopsy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PSA levels, PrCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. Statistical analyses included Poisson regression offset by person-year follow-up, chi-square tests for proportion t tests for means, and Kruskal-Wallis for medians. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 3027 patients (2932 unique individuals) were recruited (919 BRCA1 carriers, 709 BRCA1 noncarriers, 902 BRCA2 carriers, and 497 BRCA2 noncarriers). After 3 yr of screening, 527 men had PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, 357 biopsies were performed, and 112 PrCa cases were diagnosed (31 BRCA1 carriers, 19 BRCA1 noncarriers, 47 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 BRCA2 noncarriers). Higher compliance with biopsy was observed in BRCA2 carriers compared with noncarriers (73% vs 60%). Cancer incidence rate per 1000 person years was higher in BRCA2 carriers than in noncarriers (19.4 vs 12.0; p = 0.03); BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (61 vs 64 yr; p = 0.04) and were more likely to have clinically significant disease than BRCA2 noncarriers (77% vs 40%; p = 0.01). No differences in age or tumour characteristics were detected between BRCA1 carriers and BRCA1 noncarriers. The 4 kallikrein marker model discriminated better (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73) for clinically significant cancer at biopsy than PSA alone (AUC = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: After 3 yr of screening, compared with noncarriers, BRCA2 mutation carriers were associated with a higher incidence of PrCa, younger age of diagnosis, and clinically significant tumours. Therefore, systematic PSA screening is indicated for men with a BRCA2 mutation. Further follow-up is required to assess the role of screening in BRCA1 mutation carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: We demonstrate that after 3 yr of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, we detect more serious prostate cancers in men with BRCA2 mutations than in those without these mutations. We recommend that male BRCA2 carriers are offered systematic PSA screening.

15.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 58(9): 657-664, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968502

RESUMO

The mutational spectrum of the MMR genes is highly heterogeneous, but specific mutations are observed at high frequencies in well-defined populations or ethnic groups, due to founder effects. The MSH2 mutation c.2152C>T, p.(Gln718*), has occasionally been described in Lynch families worldwide, including in Portuguese Lynch syndrome families. During genetic testing for Lynch syndrome at the Portuguese Oncology Institutes of Porto and Lisbon, this mutation was identified in 28 seemingly unrelated families. In order to evaluate if this alteration is a founder mutation, haplotype analysis using microsatellite and SNP markers flanking the MSH2 gene was performed in the 28 probands and 87 family members. Additionally, the geographic origin of these families was evaluated and the age of the mutation estimated. Twelve different haplotypes were phased for 13 out of the 28 families and shared a conserved region of ∼3.6 Mb. Based on the mutation and recombination events observed in the microsatellite haplotypes and assuming a generation time of 25 years, the age estimate for the MSH2 mutation was 273 ± 64 years. The geographic origins of these families were mostly from the Northern region of Portugal. Concluding, these results suggest that the MSH2 c.2152C>T alteration is a founder mutation in Portugal with a relatively recent origin. Furthermore, its high proportion indicates that screening for this mutation as a first step, together with the previously reported Portuguese founder mutations, may be cost-effective in genetic testing of Lynch syndrome suspects of Portuguese ancestry.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Efeito Fundador , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Portugal
16.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1229, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atypical BCR-ABL1 transcripts are detected in less than 5% of patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), of which e19a2 is the most frequently observed, with breakpoints in the micro breakpoint cluster region (µ-BCR) and coding for the p230 BCR-ABL1 protein. p230 CML is associated with various clinical presentations and courses with variable responses to first-line imatinib. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a case of imatinib resistance due to an E255V mutation, followed by early post-transplant relapse with a T315I mutation that achieved a persistent negative deep molecular response (MR5.0) after treatment with single-agent ponatinib. Using CastPCR, we could trace back the presence of the T315I mutation to all the RNA samples up to the detection of T315 mutation by Sanger sequencing shortly after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the major interest of ponatinib as a valid treatment option for e19a2 CML patients who present a T315I mutation following relapse after HSCT.


Assuntos
Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação/genética , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva
17.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1245, 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) will relapse if treatment is withdrawn, but various trials have recently demonstrated that a significant proportion of patients who achieved a stable and deep molecular response (DMR) can stop therapy without relapsing. However, most information on treatment cessation was obtained from clinical trials with strict recruiting criteria. METHODS: We evaluated the outcome of 25 patients with CML that discontinued TKI therapy in our institute in real-world clinical practice. RESULTS: Of the 25 patients, 76% discontinued therapy in sustained deep molecular response (SDMR) and 24% were in unsustained DMR (UDMR). Discontinuation of therapy due to adverse effects was observed in 5 and 50% of the patients in the SDMR and UDMR groups, respectively. After TKI discontinuation, patients were followed for a median of 24 months. At the time of this analysis, 56% patients had a molecular relapse after a median of 4 months. SDMR and longer treatment duration were associated with lower probability of molecular relapse: 25% in SDMR patients with TKI treatment > 96 months and 85% in UDMR patients with TKI treatment ≤96 months. All relapsed patients promptly resumed TKI therapy and regained at least major molecular response (MMR). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that TKI discontinuation is safe outside clinical trials and particularly effective in CML patients who are in SDMR with longer TKI treatment duration.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Suspensão de Tratamento/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Citogenética/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Genet ; 228-229: 93-97, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553478

RESUMO

Portuguese immigration to Brazil occurred in several waves and greatly contributed to the genetic composition of current Brazilian population. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of a Portuguese founder Alu insertion in BRCA2 exon 3 (c.156_157insAlu) among individuals fulfilling Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) syndrome criteria in 1,380 unrelated families originated from three distinct Brazilian States. We identified the c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation in nine (9/1,380; 0.65%) probands analised. In carrier probands, European ancestry had the highest proportion (80%), followed by the African (10%) and Amerindian and in most families with the rearrangement, haplotype analyses were compatible with the Portuguese ancestral haplotype. In conclusion, the present study reports a low albeit relevant frequency of the Portuguese BRCA2 founder mutation c.156_157insAlu in Brazilian patients at-risk for HBOC Brazilian population.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA2 , Testes Genéticos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Haplótipos , Humanos , Mutação INDEL
19.
Expert Rev Mol Med ; 20: e6, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558693

RESUMO

Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) consists of small fragments of DNA that circulate freely in the bloodstream. In cancer patients, a fraction of cfDNA is derived from tumour cells, therefore containing the same genetic and epigenetic alterations, and is termed circulating cell-free tumour DNA. The potential use of cfDNA, the so-called 'liquid biopsy', as a non-invasive cancer biomarker has recently received a lot of attention. The present review will focus on studies concerning the potential clinical applications of cfDNA in ovarian cancer patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Bioinformatics ; 34(24): 4141-4150, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878078

RESUMO

Motivation: The use of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) interactions to predict complex diseases is getting more attention during the past decade, but related statistical methods are still immature. We previously proposed the SNP Interaction Pattern Identifier (SIPI) approach to evaluate 45 SNP interaction patterns/patterns. SIPI is statistically powerful but suffers from a large computation burden. For large-scale studies, it is necessary to use a powerful and computation-efficient method. The objective of this study is to develop an evidence-based mini-version of SIPI as the screening tool or solitary use and to evaluate the impact of inheritance mode and model structure on detecting SNP-SNP interactions. Results: We tested two candidate approaches: the 'Five-Full' and 'AA9int' method. The Five-Full approach is composed of the five full interaction models considering three inheritance modes (additive, dominant and recessive). The AA9int approach is composed of nine interaction models by considering non-hierarchical model structure and the additive mode. Our simulation results show that AA9int has similar statistical power compared to SIPI and is superior to the Five-Full approach, and the impact of the non-hierarchical model structure is greater than that of the inheritance mode in detecting SNP-SNP interactions. In summary, it is recommended that AA9int is a powerful tool to be used either alone or as the screening stage of a two-stage approach (AA9int+SIPI) for detecting SNP-SNP interactions in large-scale studies. Availability and implementation: The 'AA9int' and 'parAA9int' functions (standard and parallel computing version) are added in the SIPI R package, which is freely available at https://linhuiyi.github.io/LinHY_Software/. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Estatística como Assunto
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