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1.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA2 cause a higher risk of early-onset aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating targeted PrCa screening using prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. OBJECTIVE: To report the utility of PSA screening, PrCa incidence, positive predictive value of PSA, biopsy, and tumour characteristics after 3 yr of screening, by BRCA status. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 40-69 yr with a germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation and male controls testing negative for a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were recruited. Participants underwent PSA screening for 3 yr, and if PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, men were offered prostate biopsy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PSA levels, PrCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. Statistical analyses included Poisson regression offset by person-year follow-up, chi-square tests for proportion t tests for means, and Kruskal-Wallis for medians. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 3027 patients (2932 unique individuals) were recruited (919 BRCA1 carriers, 709 BRCA1 noncarriers, 902 BRCA2 carriers, and 497 BRCA2 noncarriers). After 3 yr of screening, 527 men had PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, 357 biopsies were performed, and 112 PrCa cases were diagnosed (31 BRCA1 carriers, 19 BRCA1 noncarriers, 47 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 BRCA2 noncarriers). Higher compliance with biopsy was observed in BRCA2 carriers compared with noncarriers (73% vs 60%). Cancer incidence rate per 1000 person years was higher in BRCA2 carriers than in noncarriers (19.4 vs 12.0; p = 0.03); BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (61 vs 64 yr; p = 0.04) and were more likely to have clinically significant disease than BRCA2 noncarriers (77% vs 40%; p = 0.01). No differences in age or tumour characteristics were detected between BRCA1 carriers and BRCA1 noncarriers. The 4 kallikrein marker model discriminated better (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73) for clinically significant cancer at biopsy than PSA alone (AUC = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: After 3 yr of screening, compared with noncarriers, BRCA2 mutation carriers were associated with a higher incidence of PrCa, younger age of diagnosis, and clinically significant tumours. Therefore, systematic PSA screening is indicated for men with a BRCA2 mutation. Further follow-up is required to assess the role of screening in BRCA1 mutation carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: We demonstrate that after 3 yr of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, we detect more serious prostate cancers in men with BRCA2 mutations than in those without these mutations. We recommend that male BRCA2 carriers are offered systematic PSA screening.

2.
Histopathology ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442315

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) spectrum is progressively widening, with increasingly more tumour types being added to the list of "LS-related cancers" (including sarcomas, uveal melanomas, etc.) 1 . Urological neoplasms comprise the third most common tumours in LS patients, the most frequent occurring in upper urinary tract. However, no case of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) has been effectively characterized and directly attributed to LS 2 . Herein we report for the first time a case of a testicular seminoma emerging in the context of a MSH2-mutated LS, and briefly discuss the expanding spectrum of tumours associated with this syndrome and implications for clinical management. This study was approved by the ethics committee of Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (Comissão de Ética para a Saúde - CES-IPO-1-2018).

4.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 58(9): 657-664, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968502

RESUMO

The mutational spectrum of the MMR genes is highly heterogeneous, but specific mutations are observed at high frequencies in well-defined populations or ethnic groups, due to founder effects. The MSH2 mutation c.2152C>T, p.(Gln718*), has occasionally been described in Lynch families worldwide, including in Portuguese Lynch syndrome families. During genetic testing for Lynch syndrome at the Portuguese Oncology Institutes of Porto and Lisbon, this mutation was identified in 28 seemingly unrelated families. In order to evaluate if this alteration is a founder mutation, haplotype analysis using microsatellite and SNP markers flanking the MSH2 gene was performed in the 28 probands and 87 family members. Additionally, the geographic origin of these families was evaluated and the age of the mutation estimated. Twelve different haplotypes were phased for 13 out of the 28 families and shared a conserved region of ∼3.6 Mb. Based on the mutation and recombination events observed in the microsatellite haplotypes and assuming a generation time of 25 years, the age estimate for the MSH2 mutation was 273 ± 64 years. The geographic origins of these families were mostly from the Northern region of Portugal. Concluding, these results suggest that the MSH2 c.2152C>T alteration is a founder mutation in Portugal with a relatively recent origin. Furthermore, its high proportion indicates that screening for this mutation as a first step, together with the previously reported Portuguese founder mutations, may be cost-effective in genetic testing of Lynch syndrome suspects of Portuguese ancestry.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1245, 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) will relapse if treatment is withdrawn, but various trials have recently demonstrated that a significant proportion of patients who achieved a stable and deep molecular response (DMR) can stop therapy without relapsing. However, most information on treatment cessation was obtained from clinical trials with strict recruiting criteria. METHODS: We evaluated the outcome of 25 patients with CML that discontinued TKI therapy in our institute in real-world clinical practice. RESULTS: Of the 25 patients, 76% discontinued therapy in sustained deep molecular response (SDMR) and 24% were in unsustained DMR (UDMR). Discontinuation of therapy due to adverse effects was observed in 5 and 50% of the patients in the SDMR and UDMR groups, respectively. After TKI discontinuation, patients were followed for a median of 24 months. At the time of this analysis, 56% patients had a molecular relapse after a median of 4 months. SDMR and longer treatment duration were associated with lower probability of molecular relapse: 25% in SDMR patients with TKI treatment > 96 months and 85% in UDMR patients with TKI treatment ≤96 months. All relapsed patients promptly resumed TKI therapy and regained at least major molecular response (MMR). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that TKI discontinuation is safe outside clinical trials and particularly effective in CML patients who are in SDMR with longer TKI treatment duration.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Suspensão de Tratamento/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Citogenética/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Expert Rev Mol Med ; 20: e6, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558693

RESUMO

Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) consists of small fragments of DNA that circulate freely in the bloodstream. In cancer patients, a fraction of cfDNA is derived from tumour cells, therefore containing the same genetic and epigenetic alterations, and is termed circulating cell-free tumour DNA. The potential use of cfDNA, the so-called 'liquid biopsy', as a non-invasive cancer biomarker has recently received a lot of attention. The present review will focus on studies concerning the potential clinical applications of cfDNA in ovarian cancer patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos
7.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1229, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atypical BCR-ABL1 transcripts are detected in less than 5% of patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), of which e19a2 is the most frequently observed, with breakpoints in the micro breakpoint cluster region (µ-BCR) and coding for the p230 BCR-ABL1 protein. p230 CML is associated with various clinical presentations and courses with variable responses to first-line imatinib. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a case of imatinib resistance due to an E255V mutation, followed by early post-transplant relapse with a T315I mutation that achieved a persistent negative deep molecular response (MR5.0) after treatment with single-agent ponatinib. Using CastPCR, we could trace back the presence of the T315I mutation to all the RNA samples up to the detection of T315 mutation by Sanger sequencing shortly after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the major interest of ponatinib as a valid treatment option for e19a2 CML patients who present a T315I mutation following relapse after HSCT.


Assuntos
Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação/genética , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva
8.
Cancer Genet ; 228-229: 93-97, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553478

RESUMO

Portuguese immigration to Brazil occurred in several waves and greatly contributed to the genetic composition of current Brazilian population. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of a Portuguese founder Alu insertion in BRCA2 exon 3 (c.156_157insAlu) among individuals fulfilling Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) syndrome criteria in 1,380 unrelated families originated from three distinct Brazilian States. We identified the c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation in nine (9/1,380; 0.65%) probands analised. In carrier probands, European ancestry had the highest proportion (80%), followed by the African (10%) and Amerindian and in most families with the rearrangement, haplotype analyses were compatible with the Portuguese ancestral haplotype. In conclusion, the present study reports a low albeit relevant frequency of the Portuguese BRCA2 founder mutation c.156_157insAlu in Brazilian patients at-risk for HBOC Brazilian population.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA2 , Testes Genéticos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Haplótipos , Humanos , Mutação INDEL
9.
Bioinformatics ; 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878078

RESUMO

Motivation: The use of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) interactions to predict complex diseases is getting more attention during the past decade, but related statistical methods are still immature. We previously proposed the SNP Interaction Pattern Identifier (SIPI) approach to evaluate 45 SNP interaction patterns/patterns. SIPI is statistically powerful but suffers from a large computation burden. For large-scale studies, it is necessary to use a powerful and computation-efficient method. The objective of this study is to develop an evidence-based mini-version of SIPI as the screening tool or solitary use and to evaluate the impact of inheritance mode and model structure on detecting SNP-SNP interactions. Results: We tested two candidate approaches: the 'Five-Full' and 'AA9int' method. The Five-Full approach is composed of the five full interaction models considering three inheritance modes (additive, dominant and recessive). The AA9int approach is composed of nine interaction models by considering non-hierarchical model structure and the additive mode. Our simulation results show that AA9int has similar statistical power compared to SIPI and is superior to the Five-Full approach, and the impact of the non-hierarchical model structure is greater than that of the inheritance mode in detecting SNP-SNP interactions. In summary, it is recommended that AA9int is a powerful tool to be used either alone or as the screening stage of a two-stage approach (AA9int+SIPI) for detecting SNP-SNP interactions in large-scale studies. Availability: The 'AA9int' and 'parAA9int' functions (standard and parallel computing version) are added in the SIPI R package, which is freely available at https://linhuiyi.github.io/LinHY_Software/. Contact: hlin1@lsuhsc.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

10.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 3(7): 489-498, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline pathogenic variants in the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) are strongly associated with the development of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. There is a paucity of data to guide risk assessment and management of families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer that do not carry a CDH1 pathogenic variant, making it difficult to make informed decisions about surveillance and risk-reducing surgery. We aimed to identify new candidate genes associated with predisposition to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer in affected families without pathogenic CDH1 variants. METHODS: We did whole-exome sequencing on DNA extracted from the blood of 39 individuals (28 individuals diagnosed with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and 11 unaffected first-degree relatives) in 22 families without pathogenic CDH1 variants. Genes with loss-of-function variants were prioritised using gene-interaction analysis to identify clusters of genes that could be involved in predisposition to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. FINDINGS: Protein-affecting germline variants were identified in probands from six families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer; variants were found in genes known to predispose to cancer and in lesser-studied DNA repair genes. A frameshift deletion in PALB2 was found in one member of a family with a history of gastric and breast cancer. Two different MSH2 variants were identified in two unrelated affected individuals, including one frameshift insertion and one previously described start-codon loss. One family had a unique combination of variants in the DNA repair genes ATR and NBN. Two variants in the DNA repair gene RECQL5 were identified in two unrelated families: one missense variant and a splice-acceptor variant. INTERPRETATION: The results of this study suggest a role for the known cancer predisposition gene PALB2 in families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and no detected pathogenic CDH1 variants. We also identified new candidate genes associated with disease risk in these families. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council (Sackler programme), European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (2007-13), National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres, and Cancer Research UK.

11.
Oncotarget ; 9(25): 17334-17348, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707112

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic variants in the BRCA2 gene are associated with a cumulative high risk of breast/ovarian cancer. Several BRCA2 variants result in complete loss of the exon-3 at the transcript level. The pathogenicity of these variants and the functional impact of loss of exon 3 have yet to be established. As a collaboration of the COVAR clinical trial group (France), and the ENIGMA consortium for investigating breast cancer gene variants, this study evaluated 8 BRCA2 variants resulting in complete deletion of exon 3. Clinical information for 39 families was gathered from Portugal, France, Denmark and Sweden. Multifactorial likelihood analyses were conducted using information from 293 patients, for 7 out of the 8 variants (including 6 intronic). For all variants combined the likelihood ratio in favor of causality was 4.39*1025. These results provide convincing evidence for the pathogenicity of all examined variants that lead to a total exon 3 skipping, and suggest that other variants that result in complete loss of exon 3 at the molecular level could be associated with a high risk of cancer comparable to that associated with classical pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. In addition, our functional study shows, for the first time, that deletion of exon 3 impairs the ability of cells to survive upon Mitomycin-C treatment, supporting lack of function for the altered BRCA2 protein in these cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that any variant leading to expression of only BRCA2 delta-exon 3 will be associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer.

12.
PLoS Genet ; 14(4): e1007355, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659569

RESUMO

Considering that mutations in known prostate cancer (PrCa) predisposition genes, including those responsible for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer and Lynch syndromes, explain less than 5% of early-onset/familial PrCa, we have sequenced 94 genes associated with cancer predisposition using next generation sequencing (NGS) in a series of 121 PrCa patients. We found monoallelic truncating/functionally deleterious mutations in seven genes, including ATM and CHEK2, which have previously been associated with PrCa predisposition, and five new candidate PrCa associated genes involved in cancer predisposing recessive disorders, namely RAD51C, FANCD2, FANCI, CEP57 and RECQL4. Furthermore, using in silico pathogenicity prediction of missense variants among 18 genes associated with breast/ovarian cancer and/or Lynch syndrome, followed by KASP genotyping in 710 healthy controls, we identified "likely pathogenic" missense variants in ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2 and TP53. In conclusion, this study has identified putative PrCa predisposing germline mutations in 14.9% of early-onset/familial PrCa patients. Further data will be necessary to confirm the genetic heterogeneity of inherited PrCa predisposition hinted in this study.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Simulação por Computador , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação D2 da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Feminino , Genes p53 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Linhagem , RNA Helicases/genética , RecQ Helicases/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Br J Cancer ; 118(2): 266-276, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort. METHODS: PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV. RESULTS: 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml-l, PSAV was not significantly associated with presence of cancer or high-grade disease. PSAV did not add to PSA for predicting time to an elevated PSA. When comparing BRCA1/2 carriers to non-carriers, we found a significant interaction between BRCA status and last PSA before biopsy (P=0.031) and BRCA2 status and PSAV (P=0.024). However, PSAV was not predictive of biopsy outcome in BRCA2 carriers. CONCLUSIONS: PSA is more strongly predictive of PrCa in BRCA carriers than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that PSAV aids decision-making for BRCA carriers over absolute PSA value alone.

16.
Cancer Med ; 7(2): 433-444, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29341452

RESUMO

Constitutional epimutation of the two major mismatch repair genes, MLH1 and MSH2, has been identified as an alternative mechanism that predisposes to the development of Lynch syndrome. In the present work, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of MLH1 constitutional methylation in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with abnormal expression of the MLH1 protein in their tumors. In a series of 38 patients who met clinical criteria for Lynch syndrome genetic testing, with loss of MLH1 expression in the tumor and with no germline mutations in the MLH1 gene (35/38) or with tumors presenting the BRAF p.Val600Glu mutation (3/38), we screened for constitutional methylation of the MLH1 gene promoter using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) in various biological samples. We found four (4/38; 10.5%) patients with constitutional methylation in the MLH1 gene promoter. RNA studies demonstrated decreased MLH1 expression in the cases with constitutional methylation when compared with controls. We could infer the mosaic nature of MLH1 constitutional hypermethylation in tissues originated from different embryonic germ layers, and in one family we could show that it occurred de novo. We conclude that constitutional MLH1 methylation occurs in a significant proportion of patients who have loss of MLH1 protein expression in their tumors and no MLH1 pathogenic germline mutation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that MLH1 constitutional hypermethylation is the molecular mechanism behind about 3% of Lynch syndrome families diagnosed in our institution, especially in patients with early onset or multiple primary tumors without significant family history.

17.
Cancer Med ; 6(12): 2966-2971, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072370

RESUMO

Despite all the knowledge already gathered, the picture of somatic genetic changes in colorectal tumorigenesis is far from complete. Recently, germline and somatic mutations in the exonuclease domain of polymerase epsilon, catalytic subunit (POLE) gene have been reported in a small subset of microsatellite-stable and hypermutated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), affecting the proofreading activity of the enzyme and leading to misincorporation of bases during DNA replication. To evaluate the role of POLE mutations in colorectal carcinogenesis, namely in advanced CRC, we searched for somatic mutations by Sanger sequencing in tumor DNA samples from 307 cases. Microsatellite instability and mutation analyses of a panel of oncogenes were performed in the tumors harboring POLE mutations. Three heterozygous mutations were found in two tumors, the c.857C>G, p.Pro286Arg, the c.901G>A, p.Asp301Asn, and the c.1376C>T, p.Ser459Phe. Of the POLE-mutated CRCs, one tumor was microsatellite-stable and the other had low microsatellite instability, whereas KRAS and PIK3CA mutations were found in one tumor each. We conclude that POLE somatic mutations exist but are rare in advanced CRC, with further larger studies being necessary to evaluate its biological and clinical implications.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Adenocarcinoma/enzimologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/enzimologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
18.
J Mol Diagn ; 19(4): 502-513, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28529006

RESUMO

Despite the growing knowledge of the genetic background behind the cancers that occur in a context of hereditary predisposition, personal or family cancer history may not be clear enough to support directional gene testing. Defined targeted next-generation sequencing gene panels allow identification of the causative disease mutations of multigene syndromes and differential diagnosis for syndromes with phenotypically overlapping characteristics. Herein, we established a next-generation sequencing analysis pipeline for the molecular diagnosis of multiple inherited cancer predisposing syndromes using the commercially available target sequencing panel TruSight Cancer. To establish the analysis pipeline, we included 22 control samples with deleterious mutations covering all genes currently analyzed at our institution by standard Sanger sequencing. We tested the pipeline using 51 samples from patients with a clinical diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), 10 of which without previous molecular characterization of the causative NF1 mutations. We propose a thoroughly validated analysis pipeline that combines Isaac Enrichment, Burrows-Wheeler Aligner Enrichment, and NextGENe for the alignment and variant calling, and GeneticistAssistant for variant annotation and prioritization. This pipeline allowed the identification of disease-causing mutations in all 73 patients, including a large duplication of 37 bp in NF1. We show that high sensitivity and specificity can be achieved by using multiple bioinformatic tools for alignment and variant calling and careful variant filtering, having in mind the clinical question.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mutação , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico , Neurofibromina 1/genética
19.
Bioinformatics ; 33(6): 822-833, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28039167

RESUMO

Motivation: Testing SNP-SNP interactions is considered as a key for overcoming bottlenecks of genetic association studies. However, related statistical methods for testing SNP-SNP interactions are underdeveloped. Results: We propose the SNP Interaction Pattern Identifier (SIPI), which tests 45 biologically meaningful interaction patterns for a binary outcome. SIPI takes non-hierarchical models, inheritance modes and mode coding direction into consideration. The simulation results show that SIPI has higher power than MDR (Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction), AA_Full, Geno_Full (full interaction model with additive or genotypic mode) and SNPassoc in detecting interactions. Applying SIPI to the prostate cancer PRACTICAL consortium data with approximately 21 000 patients, the four SNP pairs in EGFR-EGFR , EGFR-MMP16 and EGFR-CSF1 were found to be associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness with the exact or similar pattern in the discovery and validation sets. A similar match for external validation of SNP-SNP interaction studies is suggested. We demonstrated that SIPI not only searches for more meaningful interaction patterns but can also overcome the unstable nature of interaction patterns. Availability and Implementation: The SIPI software is freely available at http://publichealth.lsuhsc.edu/LinSoftware/ . Contact: hlin1@lsuhsc.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Software , Estatística como Assunto , Receptores ErbB/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 16 da Matriz/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo
20.
Fam Cancer ; 16(1): 73-81, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27581132

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) accounts for up to 4 % of all colorectal cancers (CRC). Detection of a pathogenic germline mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes is the definitive criterion for LS diagnosis, but it is time-consuming and expensive. Immunohistochemistry is the most sensitive prescreening test and its predictive value is very high for loss of expression of MSH2, MSH6, and (isolated) PMS2, but not for MLH1. We evaluated if LS predictive models have a role to improve the molecular testing algorithm in this specific setting by studying 38 individuals referred for molecular testing and who were subsequently shown to have loss of MLH1 immunoexpression in their tumors. For each proband we calculated a risk score, which represents the probability that the patient with CRC carries a pathogenic MLH1 germline mutation, using the PREMM1,2,6 and MMRpro predictive models. Of the 38 individuals, 18.4 % had a pathogenic MLH1 germline mutation. MMRpro performed better for the purpose of this study, presenting a AUC of 0.83 (95 % CI 0.67-0.9; P < 0.001) compared with a AUC of 0.68 (95 % CI 0.51-0.82, P = 0.09) for PREMM1,2,6. Considering a threshold of 5 %, MMRpro would eliminate unnecessary germline mutation analysis in a significant proportion of cases while keeping very high sensitivity. We conclude that MMRpro is useful to correctly predict who should be screened for a germline MLH1 gene mutation and propose an algorithm to improve the cost-effectiveness of LS diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Modelos Genéticos , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/imunologia , Curva ROC
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