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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9658, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958627

RESUMO

ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are key players on SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells. However, it is still unclear whether expression levels of these factors could reflect disease severity. Here, a case-control study was conducted with 213 SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals where cases were defined as COVID-19 patients with respiratory distress requiring oxygen support (N = 38) and controls were those with mild to moderate symptoms of the disease who did not need oxygen therapy along the entire clinical course (N = 175). ACE2 and TMPRSS2 mRNA levels were evaluated in nasopharyngeal swab samples by RT-qPCR and logistic regression analyzes were applied to estimate associations with respiratory outcomes. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 levels positively correlated with age, which was also strongly associated with respiratory distress. Increased nasopharyngeal ACE2 levels showed a protective effect against this outcome (adjOR = 0.30; 95% CI 0.09-0.91), while TMPRSS2/ACE2 ratio was associated with risk (adjOR = 4.28; 95% CI 1.36-13.48). On stepwise regression, TMPRSS2/ACE2 ratio outperformed ACE2 to model COVID-19 severity. When nasopharyngeal swabs were compared to bronchoalveolar lavages in an independent cohort of COVID-19 patients under mechanical ventilation, similar expression levels of these genes were observed. These data suggest nasopharyngeal TMPRSS2/ACE2 as a promising candidate for further prediction models on COVID-19.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e216468, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885775

RESUMO

Importance: Data on the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir for the treatment of high-risk outpatients with COVID-19 in developing countries are needed. Objective: To determine whether hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir reduces hospitalization among high-risk patients with early symptomatic COVID-19 in an outpatient setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Brazil. Recently symptomatic adults diagnosed with respiratory symptoms from SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled between June 2 and September 30, 2020. The planned sample size was 1476 patients, with interim analyses planned after 500 patients were enrolled. The trial was stopped after the interim analysis for futility with a sample size of 685 patients. Statistical analysis was performed in December 2020. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to hydroxychloroquine (800 mg loading dose, then 400 mg daily for 9 days), lopinavir-ritonavir (loading dose of 800 mg and 200 mg, respectively, every 12 hours followed by 400 mg and 100 mg, respectively, every 12 hours for the next 9 days), or placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were COVID-19-associated hospitalization and death assessed at 90 days after randomization. COVID-19-associated hospitalization was analyzed with a Cox proportional hazards model. The trial included the following secondary outcomes: all-cause hospitalization, viral clearance, symptom resolution, and adverse events. Results: Of 685 participants, 632 (92.3%) self-identified as mixed-race, 377 (55.0%) were women, and the median (range) age was 53 (18-94) years. A total of 214 participants were randomized to hydroxychloroquine; 244, lopinavir-ritonavir; and 227, placebo. At first interim analysis, the data safety monitoring board recommended stopping enrollment of both hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir-ritonavir groups because of futility. The proportion of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 was 3.7% (8 participants) in the hydroxychloroquine group, 5.7% (14 participants) in the lopinavir-ritonavir group, and 4.8% (11 participants) in the placebo group. We found no significant differences between interventions for COVID-19-associated hospitalization (hydroxychloroquine: hazard ratio [HR], 0.76 [95% CI, 0.30-1.88]; lopinavir-ritonavir: HR, 1.16 [95% CI, 0.53-2.56] as well as for the secondary outcome of viral clearance through day 14 (hydroxychloroquine: odds ratio [OR], 0.91 [95% CI, 0.82-1.02]; lopinavir-ritonavir: OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.94-1.16]). At the end of the trial, there were 3 fatalities recorded, 1 in the placebo group and 2 in the lopinavir-ritonavir intervention group. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, neither hydroxychloroquine nor lopinavir-ritonavir showed any significant benefit for decreasing COVID-19-associated hospitalization or other secondary clinical outcomes. This trial suggests that expedient clinical trials can be implemented in low-income settings even during the COVID-19 pandemic. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04403100.


Assuntos
Intervenção Médica Precoce , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Brasil/epidemiologia , /terapia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Intervenção Médica Precoce/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Futilidade Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 377(2): 273-283, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658314

RESUMO

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a highly lipidic phytocannabinoid with remarkable anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate CBD's effects and mechanisms of action in the treatment of mice subjected to acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). aGVHD was induced by the transplantation of bone marrow cells and splenocytes from C57BL-6j to Balb-c mice. The recipient mice were treated daily with CBD, and the treatment reduced mouse mortality by decreasing inflammation and injury and promoting immune regulation in the jejunum, ileum, and liver. Analysis of the jejunum and ileum showed that CBD treatment reduced the levels of C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL) 2, CCL3, CCL5, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon γ (IFNγ). CCL3 and IFNγ levels were also decreased in the liver. Mechanistically, CBD also increased the number of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) receptors on CD4+ and forkhead box P3+ cells in the intestine, which may explain the reduction in proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Antagonists of the CB2 receptor reduced the survival rates of CBD-treated mice, suggesting the participation of this receptor in the effects of CBD. Furthermore, treatment with CBD did not interfere with the graft-versus-leukemia response. CBD treatment appears to protect aGVHD mice by anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects partially mediated by CB2 receptor interaction. Altogether, our study suggests that CBD represents an interesting approach in the treatment of aGVHD, with potential therapeutic applications in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study provides for the first time a mechanism by which cannabidiol, a phytocannabinoid with no psychoactive effect, induces immunomodulation in the graft-versus-host disease. Enhancing intestinal cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) receptor expression on CD4+ and forkhead box P3+ cells and increasing the number of these regulatory cells, cannabidiol decreases proinflammatory cytokines and increases graft-versus-host disease mice survival. This effect is dependent of CB2 receptor activation. Besides, cannabidiol did not interfere with graft-versus-leukemia response, a central response to avoid primary disease relapse.

4.
Clin Immunol ; 226: 108713, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711450

RESUMO

Current chemical therapies for Chagas Disease (CD) lack ability to clear Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) parasites and cause severe side effects, making search for new strategies extremely necessary. We evaluated the action of Tityus serrulatus venom (TsV) components during Tc infection. TsV treatment increased nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokine production by Tc-infected macrophages (MØ), decreased intracellular parasite replication and trypomastigotes release, also triggering ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 activation. Ts7 demonstrated the highest anti-Tc activity, inducing high levels of TNF and IL-6 in infected MØ. TsV/Ts7 presented synergistic effect on p38 activation when incubated with Tc antigen. KPP-treatment of MØ also decreased trypomastigotes releasing, partially due to p38 activation. TsV/Ts7-pre-incubation of Tc demonstrated a direct effect on parasite decreasing MØ-trypomastigotes releasing. In vivo KPP-treatment of Tc-infected mice resulted in decreased parasitemia. Summarizing, this study opens perspectives for new bioactive molecules as CD-therapeutic treatment, demonstrating the TsV/Ts7/KPP-trypanocidal and immunomodulatory activity during Tc infection.

5.
Water Res ; 195: 117002, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714910

RESUMO

COVID-19 patients can excrete viable SARS-CoV-2 virus via urine and faeces, which has raised concerns over the possibility of COVID-19 transmission via aerosolized contaminated water or via the faecal-oral route. These concerns are especially exacerbated in many low- and middle-income countries, where untreated sewage is frequently discharged to surface waters. SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in river water (RW) and raw wastewater (WW) samples. However, little is known about SARS-CoV-2 viability in these environmental matrices. Determining the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in water under different environmental conditions is of great importance for basic assumptions in quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). In this study, the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 was assessed using plaque assays following spiking of RW and WW samples with infectious SARS-CoV-2 that was previously isolated from a COVID-19 patient. These assays were carried out on autoclaved RW and WW samples, filtered (0.22 µm) and unfiltered, at 4 °C and 24 °C. Linear and nonlinear regression models were adjusted to the data. The Weibull regression model achieved the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) and was hence chosen to estimate T90 and T99 (time required for 1 log and 2 log reductions, respectively). SARS-CoV-2 remained viable longer in filtered compared with unfiltered samples. RW and WW showed T90 values of 1.9 and 1.2 day and T99 values of 6.4 and 4.0 days, respectively. When samples were filtered through 0.22 µm pore size membranes, T90 values increased to 3.3 and 1.5 days, and T99 increased to 8.5 and 4.5 days, for RW and WW samples, respectively. Remarkable increases in SARS-CoV-2 persistence were observed in assays at 4 °C, which showed T90 values of 7.7 and 5.5 days, and T99 values of 18.7 and 17.5 days for RW and WW, respectively. These results highlight the variability of SARS-CoV-2 persistence in water and wastewater matrices and can be highly relevant to efforts aimed at quantifying water-related risks, which could be valuable for understanding and controlling the pandemic.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Humanos , RNA Viral , Rios , Temperatura , Água
6.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 898: 173984, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647256

RESUMO

Intestinal ischemia is a vascular emergency that arises when blood flow to the intestine is compromised. Reperfusion is necessary to restore intestinal function but might lead to local and systemic inflammatory responses and bacterial translocation, with consequent multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). During reperfusion occurs production of reactive oxygen species. These species contribute to intestinal injury through direct toxicity or activation of inflammatory pathways. Fullerol is a nanacomposite which has been shown to act as reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavengers. Thus, our aim was to evaluate whether Fullerol confer anti-inflammatory activity during intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IIR). Intestinal ischemia was induced by total occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. Groups were treated with vehicle or Fullerol 10 min before reperfusion. Mice were euthanized after 6 h of reperfusion, and small intestines were collected for evaluation of plasma extravasation, leukocyte influx, cytokine production and histological damage. Bacterial translocation to the peritoneal cavity and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production by lamina propria cells were also evaluated. Our results showed that treatment with Fullerol inhibited bacterial translocation to the peritoneal cavity, delayed and decreased the lethality rates and diminished neutrophil influx and intestinal injury induced by IIR. Reduced severity of reperfusion injury in Fullerol-treated mice was associated with blunted reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production in leukocytes isolated from gut lamina propria and decreased production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Thus, the present study shows that Fullerol is a potential therapy to treat inflammatory bowel disorders associated with bacterial translocation, such as IIR.

7.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 1304139, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510799

RESUMO

Acute physical exercise can modulate immune function. For example, acute exercise is known to increase the circulating concentration of cytokines. Exercise is also known to modulate immune function chronically. It is not known whether exercise training can result in training of the immune system. Here, we investigated the effects of six weeks of aerobic training on cytokine responses induced by acute exercise until fatigue. Twelve healthy men performed a fatiguing exercise at the anaerobic threshold (AT) intensity. After the training period, the participants performed another bout of acute exercise at the same duration and intensity of the pretraining situation. The analysis was made at the beginning, end, and at 10, 30, and 60 minutes during the recovery period. Training at AT induced a gain of 11.2% of exercise capacity. Before training, a single bout of acute exercise induced a significant increase in plasma levels of cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, sTNFR1, IL-10, CXCL10, BDNF, leptin, resistin, and adiponectin. After six weeks of aerobic training, levels of IL-6, sTNFR1, BDNF, and leptin increased to a lesser extent after an acute bout exercise at the same absolute intensity as the pretraining period. Responses to the same relative exercise intensity were similar to those observed before exercise. These results show that aerobic training is associated with training of acute immune responses to acute exercise until fatigue.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433898

RESUMO

Skin wounds are an important clinical problem which affects millions of people worldwide. The search for new therapeutic approaches to improve wound healing is needed. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the oral treatment with the skin-related probiotics Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 (LJ), L. paracasei ST11 (LP), and L. rhamnosus LPR (LR) in a model of excisional skin wounds in Swiss mice. The animals received daily oral gavage of PBS or 1 × 107 colony-forming units of LJ, LP, or LR, singly, beginning just after the creation of wounds until euthanasia. Blood flow was evaluated by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase activities were used to assess the accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. The wound tissue was also collected for histological analyses (H&E, Toluidine blue, and Picrosirius red staining). The macroscopic wound closure rate was faster only in mice treated with LR, but not with LJ and LP, when compared to mice treated with PBS. Histological evaluations showed that treatment with LR stimulated wound epithelization when compared to PBS. Further analyses showed that wounds from LR-treated mice presented a significant decrease in macrophage (p < 0.001) and mast cell (p < 0.001) infiltration, along with improved angiogenesis (p < 0.001) and blood flow (p < 0.01). Of note, collagen deposition and scarring were reduced in LR-treated mice when compared to PBS-treated mice. In conclusion, our results show that the oral treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus accelerates skin wound closure and reduces scar, besides to reducing inflammation and fibrogenesis and improving angiogenesis in the wounded skin.

9.
Virulence ; 12(1): 244-259, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410731

RESUMO

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a neglected mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe neurological disease in humans. SLEV replication in the central nervous system (CNS) induces the local production of interferons (IFNs), which are attributed to host protection. The antiviral response to SLEV infection in the CNS is not completely understood, which led us to characterize the roles of IFNs using mouse models of St. Louis encephalitis. We infected mice deficient in type I IFN receptor (ABR-/-) or deficient in Type II IFN (IFNγ-/-) and assessed the contribution of each pathway to disease development. We found that type I and II IFNs play different roles in SLEV infection. Deficiency in type I IFN signaling was associated to an early and increased mortality, uncontrolled SLEV replication and impaired ISG expression, leading to increased proinflammatory cytokine production and brain pathology. Conversely, IFNγ-/- mice were moderately resistant to SLEV infection. IFNγ deficiency caused no changes to viral load or SLEV-induced encephalitis and did not change the expression of ISGs in the brain. We found that type I IFN is essential for the control of SLEV replication whereas type II IFN was not associated with protection in this model.

10.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019503

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of the combination of resistance training (RT) and the hydroethanolic extract (EHE) of Bowdichia virgilioides as markers of oxidative stress (OS) in rats with peripheral nerve injury (PNI). Rats were allocated into six groups (n = 10): animals without interventions (C), animals with an exposed nerve but without injury, injured animals, trained and injured animals, injured animals that received EHE, and animals that received a combination of RT and EHE. RT comprised the climbing of stairs. EHE was orally administered (200 mg/kg) for 21 days after PNI induction. RT reduced the amount of lipoperoxidation in plasma (14.11%). EHE reduced lipoperoxidation in the plasma (20.72%) and the brain (41.36). RT associated with the extract simultaneously reduced lipoperoxidation in the plasma (34.23%), muscle (25.13%), and brain (43.98%). There was an increase in total sulhydrilyl levels (a) in the brain (33.33%) via RT; (b) in the brain (44.44%) and muscle (44.51%) using EHE; and (c) in the plasma (54.02%), brain (54.25%), and muscle using the combination of RT + EHE. These results suggest that RT associated with oral EHE results in a decrease in OS.

11.
Front Immunol ; 11: 566953, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123138

RESUMO

Rationale: Increased IL-8 levels and neutrophil accumulation in the airways are common features found in patients affected by pulmonary diseases such as Asthma, Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, Influenza-A infection and COPD. Chronic neutrophilic inflammation is usually corticosteroid insensitive and may be relevant in the progression of those diseases. Objective: To explore the role of Ladarixin, a dual CXCR1/2 antagonist, in several mouse models of airway inflammation with a significant neutrophilic component. Findings: Ladarixin was able to reduce the acute and chronic neutrophilic influx, also attenuating the Th2 eosinophil-dominated airway inflammation, tissue remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness. Correspondingly, Ladarixin decreased bleomycin-induced neutrophilic inflammation and collagen deposition, as well as attenuated the corticosteroid resistant Th17 neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, restoring corticosteroid sensitivity. Finally, Ladarixin reduced neutrophilic airway inflammation during cigarette smoke-induced corticosteroid resistant exacerbation of Influenza-A infection, improving lung function and mice survival. Conclusion: CXCR1/2 antagonist Ladarixin offers a new strategy for therapeutic treatment of acute and chronic neutrophilic airway inflammation, even in the context of corticosteroid-insensitivity.

12.
Neurosci Lett ; 736: 135295, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800922

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is the main etiological agent of acute and sporadic encephalitis. Proteins of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family have shown to regulate the inflammation during HSV-1 infection in the brain. However, the effects of SOCS2 and SOCS3 in viral encephalitis remain unclear. The aim of the current study is to investigate the potential association between SOCS2, SOCS3, cytokines, and hippocampal damage, especially neuronal apoptosis, during acute intracranial HSV-1 infection in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were infected by intracranial route with 102 plaque-forming units (PFU) inoculum of purified HSV-1. At three days post-infection (3 d.p.i.), mice were euthanized and their hippocampi were collected for histopathological analysis, immunohistochemical reaction against active caspase-3 and quantification of SOCS2, SOCS3 and cytokines (tumoral necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL) 1ß, IL-6, IL-10; interferon (IFN) -α, IFN-ß, IFN-γ) mRNA expression. Infected mice exhibited neuronal loss and hemorrhagic focus in Cornu Ammonis (CA) region. The apoptotic index was higher in infected mice compared to controls. HSV-1 infection was associated with increased hippocampal expression of TNF, IL1-ß, IL-6 and IFNα/IFNß and decreased expression of IL-10, IFN-γ, SOCS2 and SOCS3. Our results suggest that down regulation of SOCS2 and SOCS3 contributes to a pro-inflammatory environment associated with hippocampal damage and neuronal apoptosis during acute HSV-1 infection in mice.

13.
FASEB J ; 34(9): 11498-11510, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741032

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is the main cause of septic arthritis in humans, a disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Inflammation triggered in response to infection is fundamental to control bacterial growth but may cause permanent tissue damage. Here, we evaluated the role of Lipoxin A4 (LXA4 ) in S aureus-induced arthritis in mice. Septic arthritis was induced by S aureus injection into tibiofemoral joints. At different time points, we evaluated cell recruitment and bacterial load in the joint, the production of pro-inflammatory molecules, and LXA4 in inflamed tissue and analyzed joint damage and dysfunction. LXA4 was investigated using genetically modified mice or by pharmacological blockade of its synthesis and receptor. CD11c+ cells were evaluated in lymph nodes by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry and dendritic cell chemotaxis using the Boyden chamber. Absence or pharmacological blockade of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) reduced joint inflammation and dysfunction and was associated with better control of infection at 4 to 7 days after the infection. There was an increase in LXA4 in joints of S aureus-infected mice and administration of LXA4 reversed the phenotype in 5-LO-/- mice. Blockade or absence of the LXA4 receptor FPR2 has a phenotype similar to 5-LO-/- mice. Mechanistically, LXA4 appeared to control migration and function of dendritic cells, cells shown to be crucial for adequate protective responses in the model. Thus, after the first days of infection when symptoms become evident therapies that inhibit LXA4 synthesis or action could be useful for treatment of S aureus-induced arthritis.

14.
Elife ; 92020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701055

RESUMO

Chronic ethanol consumption is a leading cause of mortality worldwide, with higher risks to develop pulmonary infections, including Aspergillus infections. Mechanisms underlying increased susceptibility to infections are poorly understood. Chronic ethanol consumption induced increased mortality rates, higher Aspergillus fumigatus burden and reduced neutrophil recruitment into the airways. Intravital microscopy showed decrease in leukocyte adhesion and rolling after ethanol consumption. Moreover, downregulated neutrophil activation and increased levels of serum CXCL1 in ethanol-fed mice induced internalization of CXCR2 receptor in circulating neutrophils. Bone marrow-derived neutrophils from ethanol-fed mice showed lower fungal clearance and defective reactive oxygen species production. Taken together, results showed that ethanol affects activation, recruitment, phagocytosis and killing functions of neutrophils, causing susceptibility to pulmonary A. fumigatus infection. This study establishes a new paradigm in innate immune response in chronic ethanol consumers.

15.
J Neuroimmunol ; 346: 577292, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580070

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests a role for brain-gut-microbiota axis in affective disorders including major depression and bipolar disorder (BD). Herein, we aim to explore, by employing germ-free (GF) mice, the effect of the indigenous microbiota in the development of mania-like behavior. Conventional and GF mice were evaluated for the hyperlocomotion induced by the dopamine transporter inhibitor GBR12909 (15 mg/Kg), a validated model for mania-like behavior. Inflammatory mediators and neurotrophic factors were quantified in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Mice lacking indigenous microbiota were less susceptible to the mania-like behavior induced by GBR12909. This effect was associated with decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α, along with increased concentrations of anti- inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) and of neurotrophins (BDNF and NGF). We provided the first evidence that gut-microbiota-brain axis participates in the development of mania-like behavior in rodents, possibly through neuroimmunepathways.

16.
Gut Microbes ; 11(6): 1531-1546, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573321

RESUMO

Although dysbiosis in the gut microbiota is known to be involved in several inflammatory diseases, whether any specific bacterial taxa control host response to inflammatory stimuli is still elusive. Here, we hypothesized that dysbiotic indigenous taxa could be involved in modulating host response to inflammatory triggers. To test this hypothesis, we conducted experiments in germ-free (GF) mice and in mice colonized with dysbiotic taxa identified in conventional (CV) mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. First, we report that the absence of microbiota decreased inflammation and damage in the small intestine after administration of the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Also, 5-FU induced a shift in CV microbiota resulting in higher amounts of Enterobacteriaceae, including E. coli, in feces and small intestine and tissue damage. Prevention of Enterobacteriaceae outgrowth by treating mice with ciprofloxacin resulted in diminished 5-FU-induced tissue damage, indicating that this bacterial group is necessary for 5-FU-induced inflammatory response. In addition, monocolonization of germ-free (GF) mice with E. coli led to reversal of the protective phenotype during 5-FU chemotherapy. E. coli monocolonization decreased the basal plasma corticosterone levels and blockade of glucocorticoid receptor in GF mice restored inflammation upon 5-FU treatment. In contrast, treatment of CV mice with ciprofloxacin, that presented reduction of Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli content, induced an increase in corticosterone levels. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Enterobacteriaceae outgrowth during dysbiosis impacts inflammation and tissue injury in the small intestine. Importantly, indigenous Enterobacteriaceae modulates host production of the anti-inflammatory steroid corticosterone and, consequently, controls inflammatory responsiveness in mice.

17.
Antiviral Res ; 180: 104855, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574688

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a lot of attention in the past few years due to its rapid spread worldwide and its close association to severe neurological outcomes, such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-ZIKV activity of 7-deaza-7-fluoro-2'-C-methyl-adenosine (DFMA) was evaluated. In vitro, using primary mouse neuronal cells and human neural stem cells infected by ZIKV, treatment with DFMA resulted in impaired viral replication and protection against virus-induced cell death. In vivo, when administrated prior to infection, DFMA prevented lethality and markedly reduced viral loads and neuroinflammation, including microgliosis and overall brain damage. Additionally, as an early therapeutic treatment, DFMA increased survival rates in mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the nucleoside analog DFMA inhibits ZIKV infection and viral-induced neuroinflammation in vitro and in vivo without apparent untoward effects, suggesting it may be useful in individuals infected with ZIKV.

18.
Immunobiology ; 225(3): 151957, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517880

RESUMO

Asthma is characterized by inflammation, pulmonary remodeling and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We have previously shown that treatment with angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] promotes resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and prevents chronic allergic lung inflammation. Here, we evaluated the effect of treatment with the inclusion compound of Ang-(1-7) in hydroxypropyl ß-cyclodextrin (HPßCD) given by inhalation on pulmonary remodeling in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced chronic allergic lung inflammation. Mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA; 4 injections over 42 days, 14 days apart) and were challenged 3 times per week, for 4 weeks (days 21-46). After the 2nd week of challenge, mice were treated with Ang-(1-7) by inhalation (4.5 µg of Ang-(1-7) included in 6.9 µg of HPßCD for 14 days, i.e. days 35-48). Mice were killed 72 h after the last challenge and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs were collected. Histology and morphometric analysis were performed in the lung. Metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-12 expression and activity, IL-5, CCL11 in the lung and plasma IgE were measured. After 2 weeks of OVA challenge there was an increase in plasma IgE and in inflammatory cells infiltration in the lung of asthmatic mice. Treatment with inhaled administration of Ang-(1-7)/HPßCD for 14 days reduced eosinophils, IL5, CCL11 in the lung and plasma IgE. Treatment of asthmatic mice with Ang-(1-7)/HPßCD by inhalation reversed pulmonary remodeling by reducing collagen deposition and MMP-9 and MMP-12 expression and activity. These results show for the first time that treatment by inhalation with Ang-(1-7) can reverse an installed asthma, inhibiting pulmonary inflammation and remodeling.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5306, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210270

RESUMO

Mayaro virus (MAYV) is endemic in South American countries where it is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of acute febrile illness. The hallmark of MAYV infection is a highly debilitating and chronic arthralgia. Although MAYV emergence is a potential threat, there are no specific therapies or licensed vaccine. In this study, we developed a murine model of MAYV infection that emulates many of the most relevant clinical features of the infection in humans and tested a live-attenuated MAYV vaccine candidate (MAYV/IRES). Intraplantar inoculation of a WT strain of MAYV into immunocompetent mice induced persistent hypernociception, transient viral replication in target organs, systemic production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and specific humoral IgM and IgG responses. Inoculation of MAYV/IRES in BALB/c mice induced strong specific cellular and humoral responses. Moreover, MAYV/IRES vaccination of immunocompetent and interferon receptor-defective mice resulted in protection from disease induced by the virulent wt MAYV strain. Thus, this study describes a novel model of MAYV infection in immunocompetent mice and highlights the potential role of a live-attenuated MAYV vaccine candidate in host's protection from disease induced by a virulent MAYV strain.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus/prevenção & controle , Alphavirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Alphavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Alphavirus/virologia , Animais , Citocinas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , América do Sul , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Replicação Viral
20.
FASEB J ; 34(2): 2749-2764, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908042

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia leading to high mortality rates. Inflammation triggered by pneumococcal infection is necessary for bacterial clearance but must be spatially and temporally regulated to prevent further tissue damage and bacterial dissemination. Annexin A1 (AnxA1) mainly acts through Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 (FPR2) inducing the resolution of inflammation. Here, we have evaluated the role of AnxA1 and FPR2 during pneumococcal pneumonia in mice. For that, AnxA1, Fpr2/3 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) controls were infected intranasally with S pneumoniae. AnxA1 and Fpr2/3 KO mice were highly susceptible to infection, displaying uncontrolled inflammation, increased bacterial dissemination, and pulmonary dysfunction compared to WT animals. Mechanistically, the absence of AnxA1 resulted in the loss of lung barrier integrity and increased neutrophil activation upon S pneumoniae stimulation. Importantly, treatment of WT or AnxA1 KO-infected mice with Ac2-26 decreased inflammation, lung damage, and bacterial burden in the airways by increasing macrophage phagocytosis. Conversely, Ac2-26 peptide was ineffective to afford protection in Fpr2/3 KO mice during infection. Altogether, these findings show that AnxA1, via FPR2, controls inflammation and bacterial dissemination during pneumococcal pneumonia by promoting host defenses, suggesting AnxA1-based peptides as a novel therapeutic strategy to control pneumococcal pneumonia.


Assuntos
Anexina A1/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/metabolismo , Receptores de Formil Peptídeo/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Lipoxinas/metabolismo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/metabolismo
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