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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 65(7): 1103-1111, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575239

RESUMO

Background: Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in Latin America and affects 10 million people worldwide. Approximately 12000 deaths attributable to Chagas disease occur annually due to chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), an inflammatory cardiomyopathy presenting with heart failure and arrythmia; 30% of infected subjects develop CCC years after infection. Genetic mechanisms play a role in differential progression to CCC, but little is known about the role of epigenetic modifications in pathological gene expression patterns in CCC patients' myocardium. DNA methylation is the most common modification in the mammalian genome. Methods: We investigated the impact of genome-wide cardiac DNA methylation on global gene expression in myocardial samples from end-stage CCC patients, compared to control samples from organ donors. Results: In total, 4720 genes were differentially methylated between CCC patients and controls, of which 399 were also differentially expressed. Several of them were related to heart function or to the immune response and had methylation sites in their promoter region. Reporter gene and in silico transcription factor binding analyses indicated promoter methylation modified expression of key genes. Among those, we found potassium channel genes KCNA4 and KCNIP4, involved in electrical conduction and arrythmia, SMOC2, involved in matrix remodeling, as well as enkephalin and RUNX3, potentially involved in the increased T-helper 1 cytokine-mediated inflammatory damage in heart. Conclusions: Results support that DNA methylation plays a role in the regulation of expression of pathogenically relevant genes in CCC myocardium, and identify novel potential disease pathways and therapeutic targets in CCC.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Doença de Chagas/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença Crônica , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Coração/parasitologia , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Infect Dis ; 214(1): 161-5, 2016 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26951817

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) modulate gene expression at the epigenetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional levels. Dysregulation of the lncRNA known as myocardial infarction-associated transcript (MIAT) has been associated with myocardial infarction. Chagas disease causes a severe inflammatory dilated chronic cardiomyopathy (CCC). We investigated the role of MIAT in CCC. A whole-transcriptome analysis of heart biopsy specimens and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples revealed that MIAT was overexpressed in patients with CCC, compared with subjects with noninflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy and controls. These results were confirmed in a mouse model. Results suggest that MIAT is a specific biomarker of CCC.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença de Chagas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Doença de Chagas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição
3.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0132780, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26177543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and new approaches for both diagnosis and treatment are required. Autoantibodies directed against apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) represent promising biomarkers for use in risk stratification of CVD and may also play a direct role in pathogenesis. METHODOLOGY: To characterize the anti-ApoA-I autoantibody response, we measured the immunoreactivity to engineered peptides corresponding to the different alpha-helical regions of ApoA-I, using plasma from acute chest pain cohort patients known to be positive for anti-ApoA-I autoantibodies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results indicate that the anti-ApoA-I autoantibody response is strongly biased towards the C-terminal alpha-helix of the protein, with an optimized mimetic peptide corresponding to this part of the protein recapitulating the diagnostic accuracy for an acute ischemic coronary etiology (non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina) obtainable using intact endogenous ApoA-I in immunoassay. Furthermore, the optimized mimetic peptide strongly inhibits the pathology-associated capacity of anti-ApoA-I antibodies to elicit proinflammatory cytokine release from cultured human macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to providing a rationale for the development of new approaches for the diagnosis and therapy of CVD, our observations may contribute to the elucidation of how anti-ApoA-I autoantibodies are elicited in individuals without autoimmune disease.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/química , Apolipoproteína A-I/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Dicroísmo Circular , Humanos , Proteínas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Engenharia de Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 9(2): e0003411, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25692783

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is an important disease that affects 12 million people in 88 countries, with 2 million new cases every year. Leishmania amazonensis is an important agent in Brazil, leading to clinical forms varying from localized (LCL) to diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). One interesting issue rarely analyzed is how host immune response affects Leishmania phenotype and virulence. Aiming to study the effect of host immune system on Leishmania proteins we compared proteomes of amastigotes isolated from BALB/c and BALB/c nude mice. The athymic nude mice may resemble patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, considered T-cell hyposensitive or anergic to Leishmania's antigens. This work is the first to compare modifications in amastigotes' proteomes driven by host immune response. Among the 44 differentially expressed spots, there were proteins related to oxidative/nitrosative stress and proteases. Some correspond to known Leishmania virulence factors such as OPB and tryparedoxin peroxidase. Specific isoforms of these two proteins were increased in parasites from nude mice, suggesting that T cells probably restrain their posttranslational modifications in BALB/c mice. On the other hand, an isoform of HSP70 was increased in amastigotes from BALB/c mice. We believe our study may allow identification of potential virulence factors and ways of regulating their expression.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/biossíntese , Leishmania mexicana/metabolismo , Leishmaniose Tegumentar Difusa/parasitologia , Peroxidases/biossíntese , Proteínas de Protozoários/biossíntese , Serina Endopeptidases/biossíntese , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Brasil , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmania mexicana/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania mexicana/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Tegumentar Difusa/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Isoformas de Proteínas/biossíntese
5.
Proteomics Clin Appl ; 9(1-2): 48-57, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25523513

RESUMO

Autoimmune diseases, such as antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis, are characterized by a high prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD), which constitutes the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among such patients. Although such effects are partly explained by a higher prevalence of traditional CV risk factors, many studies indicate that such factors do not fully explain the enhanced CV risk in these patients. In addition, risk stratification algorithms based upon traditional CV risk factors are not as predictive in autoimmune diseases as in the general population. For these reasons, the timely and accurate assessment of CV risk in these high-risk populations still remains an unmet clinical need. An enhanced contribution of different inflammatory components of the immune response, as well as autoimmune elements (e.g. autoantibodies, autoantigens, and cellular response), has been proposed to underlie the incremental CV risk observed in these populations. Recent advances in proteomic tools have contributed to the discovery of proteins involved in CVDs, including some that may be suitable to be used as biological markers. In this review we summarize the main markers in the field of CVDs associated with autoimmunity, as well as the recent advances in proteomic technology and their application for biomarker discovery in autoimmune disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Proteômica/métodos , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 23(5): 460-89, 2015 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24635113

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Phagocytes play a key role in promoting the oxidative stress after ischemic stroke occurrence. The phagocytic NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 is a membrane-bound enzyme complex involved in the antimicrobial respiratory burst and free radical production in these cells. RECENT ADVANCES: Different oxidants have been shown to induce opposite effects on neuronal homeostasis after a stroke. However, several experimental models support the detrimental effects of NOX activity (especially the phagocytic isoform) on brain recovery after stroke. Therapeutic strategies selectively targeting the neurotoxic ROS and increasing neuroprotective oxidants have recently produced promising results. CRITICAL ISSUES: NOX2 might promote carotid plaque rupture and stroke occurrence. In addition, NOX2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) released by resident and recruited phagocytes enhance cerebral ischemic injury, activating the inflammatory apoptotic pathways. The aim of this review is to update evidence on phagocyte-related oxidative stress, focusing on the role of NOX2 as a potential therapeutic target to reduce ROS-related cerebral injury after stroke. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Radical scavenger compounds (such as Ebselen and Edaravone) are under clinical investigation as a therapeutic approach against stroke. On the other hand, NOX inhibition might represent a promising strategy to prevent the stroke-related injury. Although selective NOX inhibitors are not yet available, nonselective compounds (such as apocynin and fasudil) provided encouraging results in preclinical studies. Whereas additional studies are needed to better evaluate this therapeutic potential in human beings, the development of specific NOX inhibitors (such as monoclonal antibodies, small-molecule inhibitors, or aptamers) might further improve brain recovery after stroke.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antipirina/análogos & derivados , Antipirina/farmacologia , Antipirina/uso terapêutico , Azóis/farmacologia , Azóis/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/patologia , Edaravone , Humanos , NADPH Oxidase 2 , Compostos Organosselênicos/farmacologia , Compostos Organosselênicos/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
7.
Clin Med Insights Cardiol ; 8: 79-86, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25232280

RESUMO

Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) affects heart-valve tissue and is the most serious consequence of group A Streptococcus infection. Myxomatous degeneration (MXD) is the most frequent valvopathy in the western world. In the present work, key protein expression alterations in the heart-valve tissue of RHD and MXD patients were identified and characterized, with controls from cadaveric organ donors. Proteins were separated by two-dimensional (2D)-electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. We found 17 differentially expressed protein spots, as compared to control samples. We observed an increased expression of ASAP-2 in the RHD patients' valves, while collagen-VI, haptoglobin-related protein, prolargin, and cartilage oligomeric protein showed reduced expression. Valve tissue of MXD patients, on the other hand, presented lower expression of annexin-A1 and A2, septin-2, SOD (Cu/Zn), and transgelin. Tissue samples from both valvopathies displayed higher expression of apolipoprotein-A1. Biglycan was downexpressed in both diseases. Vimentin and lumican showed higher expression in RHD and lower in MXD. These results suggest that key pathogenetic mechanisms are intrinsically distinct in RHD and MXD.

8.
J Biol Chem ; 289(41): 28249-59, 2014 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25170076

RESUMO

Autoantibodies to apolipoprotein A-I (anti-apoA-I IgG) have been shown to be both markers and mediators of cardiovascular disease, promoting atherogenesis and unstable atherosclerotic plaque. Previous studies have shown that high levels of anti-apoA-I IgGs are independently associated with major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with myocardial infarction. Autoantibody responses to apoA-I can be polyclonal and it is likely that more than one epitope may exist. To identify the specific immunoreactive peptides in apoA-I, we have developed a set of methodologies and procedures to isolate, purify, and identify novel apoA-I endogenous epitopes. First, we generated high purity apoA-I from human plasma, using thiophilic interaction chromatography followed by enzymatic digestion specifically at lysine or arginine residues. Immunoreactivity to the different peptides generated was tested by ELISA using serum obtained from patients with acute myocardial infarction and high titers of autoantibodies to native apoA-I. The immunoreactive peptides were further sequenced by mass spectrometry. Our approach successfully identified two novel immunoreactive peptides, recognized by autoantibodies from patients suffering from myocardial infarction, who contain a high titer of anti-apoA-I IgG. The discovery of these epitopes may open innovative prognostic and therapeutic opportunities potentially suitable to improve current cardiovascular risk stratification.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/química , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Epitopos/química , Infarto do Miocárdio/imunologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Apolipoproteína A-I/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/biossíntese , Biomarcadores/análise , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitopos/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/biossíntese , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/imunologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
9.
Int J Cardiol ; 175(3): 409-17, 2014 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24910366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/METHODS: Chagas disease is caused by an intracellular parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, and it is a leading cause of heart failure in Latin America. The main clinical consequence of the infection is the development of a Chronic Chagas disease Cardiomyopathy (CCC), which is characterized by myocarditis, hypertrophy and fibrosis and affects about 30% of infected patients. CCC has a worse prognosis than other cardiomyopathies, like idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). It is well established that myocardial gene expression patterns are altered in CCC, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. MicroRNAs are recently discovered regulators of gene expression, and are recognized as important factors in heart development and cardiovascular disorders (CD). We analyzed the expression of nine different miRNAs in myocardial tissue samples of CCC patients in comparison to DCM patients and samples from heart transplant donors. Using the results of a cDNA microarray database on CCC and DCM myocardium, signaling networks were built and nodal molecules were identified. RESULTS: We observed that five miRNAs were significantly altered in CCC and three in DCM; importantly, three miRNAs were significantly reduced in CCC as compared to DCM. We observed that multiple gene targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs showed a concordant inverse expression in CCC. Significantly, most gene targets and involved networks belong to crucial disease-related signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that miRNAs may play a major role in the regulation of gene expression in CCC pathogenesis, with potential implication as diagnostic and prognostic tools.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/genética , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Adv Parasitol ; 76: 129-52, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21884890

RESUMO

The scarcity of Trypanosoma cruzi in inflammatory lesions of chronic Chagas disease led early investigators to suggest that tissue damage had an autoimmune nature. In spite of parasite persistence in chronic Chagas disease, several reports indicate that inflammatory tissue damage may not be correlated to the local presence of T. cruzi. A significant number of reports have described autoantibodies and self-reactive T cells, often cross-reactive with T. cruzi antigens, both in patients and in animal models. Evidence for a direct pathogenetic role of autoimmunity was suggested by the development of lesions after immunization with T. cruzi antigens or passive transfer of lymphocytes from infected animals, and the amelioration of chronic myocarditis in animals made tolerant to myocardial antigens. Autoimmune and T. cruzi-specific innate or adaptative responses are not incompatible or mutually exclusive, and it is likely that a combination of both is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy. The association between persistent infection and autoimmune diseases-such as multiple sclerosis or diabetes mellitus-suggests that post-infectious autoimmunity may be a frequent finding. Here, we critically review evidence for autoimmune phenomena and their possible pathogenetic role in human Chagas disease and animal models, with a focus on chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/imunologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/patologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/parasitologia , Humanos
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 5(6): e1205, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21738806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC) is an inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy with a worse prognosis than other cardiomyopathies. CCC occurs in 30 % of individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, endemic in Latin America. Heart failure is associated with impaired energy metabolism, which may be correlated to contractile dysfunction. We thus analyzed the myocardial gene and protein expression, as well as activity, of key mitochondrial enzymes related to ATP production, in myocardial samples of end-stage CCC, idiopathic dilated (IDC) and ischemic (IC) cardiomyopathies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Myocardium homogenates from CCC (N=5), IC (N=5) and IDC (N=5) patients, as well as from heart donors (N=5) were analyzed for protein and mRNA expression of mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKMit) and muscular creatine kinase (CKM) and ATP synthase subunits aplha and beta by immunoblotting and by real-time RT-PCR. Total myocardial CK activity was also assessed. Protein levels of CKM and CK activity were reduced in all three cardiomyopathy groups. However, total CK activity, as well as ATP synthase alpha chain protein levels, were significantly lower in CCC samples than IC and IDC samples. CCC myocardium displayed selective reduction of protein levels and activity of enzymes crucial for maintaining cytoplasmic ATP levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The selective impairment of the CK system may be associated to the loss of inotropic reserve observed in CCC. Reduction of ATP synthase alpha levels is consistent with a decrease in myocardial ATP generation through oxidative phosphorylation. Together, these results suggest that the energetic deficit is more intense in the myocardium of CCC patients than in the other tested dilated cardiomyopathies.


Assuntos
Complexos de ATP Sintetase/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/fisiopatologia , Creatina Quinase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Complexos de ATP Sintetase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Creatina Quinase Mitocondrial/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Adulto Jovem
12.
São Paulo; s.n; 2009. [297] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-545059

RESUMO

A patogênese da Cardiomiopatia Chagásica Crônica (CCC) ainda é assunto de intenso debate. A CCC apresenta intenso infiltrado inflamatório no tecido cardíaco, onde os linfócitos T infiltrantes produzem citocinas inflamatórias, como IFN-gama e TNF-alfa. Adicionalmente, pacientes com CCC apresentam um pior prognóstico quando comparados aos portadores de outras cardiomiopatias de etiologia não inflamatória, como a cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática (CDI) e a cardiomiopatia isquêmica (CI), sugerindo que mecanismos inflamatórios participam da patogênese e evolução da doença. Além disso, evidências anteriores de nosso grupo indicaram alterações do metabolismo energético na CCC. Neste trabalho, comparamos a expressão protéicado miocárdio de pacientes com CCC, CDI e CI e indivíduos sem cardiomiopatias, com foco em proteínas relacionadas ao metabolismo energético celular. Para a identificação do perfil de expressão protéica no miocárdio de pacientes com CCC, utilizamos a técnica de separação por eletroforese bidimensional, e a identificação das proteínas foi feita por espectrometria de massa. A maioria dos spots identificados corresponde a proteínas estruturais ou proteínas do metabolismo, principalmente do metabolismo energético. Foram identificadas também proteínas envolvidas na apoptose, em processos imunes e de resposta ao estresse. A análise da expressão protéica diferencial, utilizando marcação fluorescente, nos permitiu analisar o padrão de expressão das proteínas diferencialmente expressas no miocárdio de pacientes com CCC, CDI e CI e de indivíduos sem cardiomiopatias, dentro de um total de 683 spots e 230 proteínas distintas identificadas. Observamos que o padrão de expressão protéica do miocárdio de pacientes com CCC é o mais distinto em relação ao padrão de expressão protéica presente no miocárdio de indivíduos sem cardiomiopatias; e que o padrão de expressão das proteínas presentes no miocárdio de pacientes com CI é o que mais se assemelha ao padrão...


The pathogenesis of Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC) is still controversial. CCC is characterized by an intense cardiac inflammatory infiltrate; infiltrating T lymphocytes produce inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Patients afflicted by CCC display a worse prognosis when compared to patients afflicted by non-inflammatory cardiomyopathies such as idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (IC), suggesting that inflammatory mechanisms play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of the disease. In addition, previous evidence from our group suggested the presence of energy metabolism changes in CCC. In the present work, we compared the protein expression profile of the myocardium of patients with CCC, IDC, IC, and noncardiomyopathic subjects, with focus on energetic metabolism-related proteins. We used bidimensional electrophoresis to analyze the protein expression profile in the myocardium of patients afflicted by CCC, and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The majority of spots were identified as structural proteins or metabolism proteins, especially of energy metabolism. We were also able to identify apoptosis-, immune system- and stress response-related proteins. Using fluorescent labeling, we analyzed the differential expression profile in the myocardium of CCC, IDC and IC patients, from a total of 683 spots and 230 distinct proteins identified. We observed that the protein expression profile of CCC patients is the most distinct when compared to non-cardiomyopathic subjects. On the other hand, the protein expression profile of IC patients is similar, at some extent, to the expression profile of non-cardiomyopathic patients. We also found altered expression of proteins related to apoptosis (e.g. cathepsin D and Akt2), oxidative stress (e.g. catalase), endoplasmic reticulum stress (e.g. disulfilte isomerase protein), cardiac remodeling (e.g. gelsolin) among CCC, IDC and IC patients...


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica , Metabolismo Energético , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Miocardite , Proteômica
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