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1.
Drugs ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912414

RESUMO

Small-cell lung cancer has defied our scientific community for decades. Chemotherapy has been the mainstay treatment for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and unlike its counterpart, non-small cell lung cancer, no significant therapeutic breakthroughs have been made since the 1970s. Among the reasons for this slow-paced therapeutic development, one that stands out is the distinctive and almost universal loss of function of the tumour suppressor genes TP53 and RB1 in this disease, for which pharmacological activation has yet to be achieved, despite having been highly sought after. Although no molecularly targeted approach has been approved for clinical practice thus far, several strategies are currently exploring the potential to drug the tumour's "Achilles heel" that stems from essential pathways regulating DNA-damage response. Most recently, we have witnessed newfound reasons to hope, as the combination of immunotherapy and systemic chemotherapy has improved survival outcomes, representing the first landmark achievement in decades and a new standard of care for patients with extensive disease SCLC. However, continuous efforts are still needed towards a better understanding of the molecular pathways that singularise this tumour to eventually identify the predictive biomarkers that might result in the development of a more rational therapeutic approach, including the use of immunotherapy combinations. In this review we aim to uncover critical aspects of the immune microenvironment and biology of SCLC and provide an overview of the current and future landscape of promising therapeutic opportunities. The challenge still stands, but regardless, we are living in exciting times to finally check SCLC off the "bucket list" of our scientific community.

2.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(8): 1602460, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413912

RESUMO

Intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remains the most effective treatment for high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), unfortunately there is no validated biomarker to predict clinical outcome. Here we tried to explore the possibility that a combination of the density of peritumoral infiltrating cells (Th1, Th2 and PD-L1) and the composition of peripheral immune cells (neutrophil and lymphocyte counts) could generate a more reliable prognostic biomarker. Twenty-two patients with high-risk NMIBC treated with BCG (10 BCG nonresponders and 12 BCG responders) were selected. BCG responders had significantly lower level of peritumoral T-bet+ cells with an associated higher GATA-3+/T-bet+ ratio (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, the immune polarization in tissue (GATA-3+/T-bet+ ratio) adjusted for the systemic inflammation (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) showed a significantly higher association with the BCG response (p = 0.004). A survival analysis demonstrated prolonged recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients with a lower T-bet+/Lymphocyte ratio and higher GTR/NLR (p = 0.01). No association was observed between peritumoral PD-L1+ expression and the BCG response. In conclusion, alterations in overall immune function, both local and systemic, may influence the therapeutic response to BCG, therefore a combined analysis of tumoral (Th2/Th1 ratio) and peripheral (NLR) immune composition prior to treatment may be a promising approach to predict the BCG response in high-risk NMIBC patients.

3.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(12): 2120-2132, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349061

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ROS1 gene rearrangement has become an important biomarker in NSCLC. The College of American Pathologists/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/Association for Molecular Pathology testing guidelines support the use of ROS1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a screening test, followed by confirmation with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or a molecular test in all positive results. We have evaluated a novel anti-ROS1 IHC antibody (SP384) in a large multicenter series to obtain real-world data. METHODS: A total of 43 ROS1 FISH-positive and 193 ROS1 FISH-negative NSCLC samples were studied. All specimens were screened by using two antibodies (clone D4D6 from Cell Signaling Technology and clone SP384 from Ventana Medical Systems), and the different interpretation criteria were compared with break-apart FISH (Vysis). FISH-positive samples were also analyzed with next-generation sequencing (Oncomine Dx Target Test Panel, Thermo Fisher Scientific). RESULTS: An H-score of 150 or higher or the presence of at least 70% of tumor cells with an intensity of staining of 2+ or higher by the SP384 clone was the optimal cutoff value (both with 93% sensitivity and 100% specificity). The D4D6 clone showed similar results, with an H-score of at least 100 (91% sensitivity and 100% specificity). ROS1 expression in normal lung was more frequent with use of the SP384 clone (p < 0.0001). The ezrin gene (EZR)-ROS1 variant was associated with membranous staining and an isolated green signal FISH pattern (p = 0.001 and p = 0.017, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The new SP384 ROS1 IHC clone showed excellent sensitivity without compromising specificity, so it is another excellent analytical option for the proposed testing algorithm.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1812, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000705

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors harboring mutations in EGFR ultimately relapse to therapy with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs). Here, we show that resistant cells without the p.T790M or other acquired mutations are sensitive to the Aurora B (AURKB) inhibitors barasertib and S49076. Phospho-histone H3 (pH3), a major product of AURKB, is increased in most resistant cells and treatment with AURKB inhibitors reduces the levels of pH3, triggering G1/S arrest and polyploidy. Senescence is subsequently induced in cells with acquired mutations while, in their absence, polyploidy is followed by cell death. Finally, in NSCLC patients, pH3 levels are increased after progression on EGFR TKIs and high pH3 baseline correlates with shorter survival. Our results reveal that AURKB activation is associated with acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs, and that AURKB constitutes a potential target in NSCLC progressing to anti-EGFR therapy and not carrying resistance mutations.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Aurora Quinase B/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Aurora Quinase B/antagonistas & inibidores , Aurora Quinase B/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organofosfatos/farmacologia , Organofosfatos/uso terapêutico , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliploidia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Histopathology ; 75(6): 799-812, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861172

RESUMO

AIMS: The clinical implications of the programmed cell death 1 (PD1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis in patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are largely unknown, and its association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status and PD-L1 copy number alterations (CNAs) has not been thoroughly studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: PD1/PD-L1 expression was studied in 50 adult post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, and the correlations with PD-L1 CNAs, EBV, clinicopathological features and outcome were evaluated. Thirty-seven (74%) cases were classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), nine (18%) cases were classified as polymorphic, and four (8%) cases were classified as classic Hodgkin lymphoma. Thirty-four cases were EBV-positive, with 29 of 34 (85%) having latency II or III, and 15 of 34 (44%) having viral replication. PD-L1 expression in tumour cells and tumour-associated macrophages was observed in 30 (60%) and 37 (74%) cases, respectively. PD1 positivity was seen in 16 (32%) cases. PD-L1 expression was associated with EBV with latency II or III (P = 0.001) and organ rejection (P = 0.04), and, in DLBCL, with non-germinal centre type DLBCL (P < 0.001). Cases with PD-L1-positive tumour cells showed a higher number of PD-L1 CNAs than PD-L1-negative cases (P = 0.001). Patients with EBV/latency III/replication and simultaneous PD-L1 expression showed the worst overall survival (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The PD1/PD-L1 axis is deregulated in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, with frequent PD-L1 expression and PD1 negativity. PD-L1 expression is associated with EBV latency II or III and PD-L1 CNAs, and probably reflects a proinflammatory tumour microenvironment. The combined analysis of EBV status and PD-L1 expression may help to identify deeply immunosuppressed patients who can benefit from immune reconstitution approaches.

7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(10): 771-781, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has improved the survival of patients. However, a substantial percentage of patients do not respond to this treatment. We examined the use of DNA methylation profiles to determine the efficacy of anti-PD-1 treatment in patients recruited with current stage IV NSCLC. METHODS: In this multicentre study, we recruited adult patients from 15 hospitals in France, Spain, and Italy who had histologically proven stage IV NSCLC and had been exposed to PD-1 blockade during the course of the disease. The study structure comprised a discovery cohort to assess the correlation between epigenetic features and clinical benefit with PD-1 blockade and two validation cohorts to assess the validity of our assumptions. We first established an epigenomic profile based on a microarray DNA methylation signature (EPIMMUNE) in a discovery set of tumour samples from patients treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab. The EPIMMUNE signature was validated in an independent set of patients. A derived DNA methylation marker was validated by a single-methylation assay in a validation cohort of patients. The main study outcomes were progression-free survival and overall survival. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate progression-free and overall survival, and calculated the differences between the groups with the log-rank test. We constructed a multivariate Cox model to identify the variables independently associated with progression-free and overall survival. FINDINGS: Between June 23, 2014, and May 18, 2017, we obtained samples from 142 patients: 34 in the discovery cohort, 47 in the EPIMMUNE validation cohort, and 61 in the derived methylation marker cohort (the T-cell differentiation factor forkhead box P1 [FOXP1]). The EPIMMUNE signature in patients with stage IV NSCLC treated with anti-PD-1 agents was associated with improved progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0·010, 95% CI 3·29 × 10-4-0·0282; p=0·0067) and overall survival (0·080, 0·017-0·373; p=0·0012). The EPIMMUNE-positive signature was not associated with PD-L1 expression, the presence of CD8+ cells, or mutational load. EPIMMUNE-negative tumours were enriched in tumour-associated macrophages and neutrophils, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and senescent endothelial cells. The EPIMMUNE-positive signature was associated with improved progression-free survival in the EPIMMUNE validation cohort (0·330, 0·149-0·727; p=0·0064). The unmethylated status of FOXP1 was associated with improved progression-free survival (0·415, 0·209-0·802; p=0·0063) and overall survival (0·409, 0·220-0·780; p=0·0094) in the FOXP1 validation cohort. The EPIMMUNE signature and unmethylated FOXP1 were not associated with clinical benefit in lung tumours that did not receive immunotherapy. INTERPRETATION: Our study shows that the epigenetic milieu of NSCLC tumours indicates which patients are most likely to benefit from nivolumab or pembrolizumab treatments. The methylation status of FOXP1 could be associated with validated predictive biomarkers such as PD-L1 staining and mutational load to better select patients who will experience clinical benefit with PD-1 blockade, and its predictive value should be evaluated in prospective studies. FUNDING: "Obra Social" La Caixa, Cellex Foundation, and the Health and Science Departments of the Generalitat de Catalunya.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Epigenômica , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Oncotarget ; 9(29): 20617-20630, 2018 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29755676

RESUMO

Brain metastases constitute a challenge in the management of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer treated with anti-HER2 systemic therapies. Here we sought to define the repertoire of mutations private to or enriched for in HER2-positive brain metastases. Massively parallel sequencing targeting all exons of 254 genes frequently mutated in breast cancers and/or related to DNA repair was used to characterize the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of HER2-positive breast cancers and their brain metastases in six patients. Data were analyzed with state-of-the-art bioinformatics algorithms and selected mutations were validated with orthogonal methods. Spatial and temporal inter-lesion genetic heterogeneity was observed in the HER2-positive brain metastases from an index patient subjected to a rapid autopsy. Genetic alterations restricted to the brain metastases included mutations in cancer genes FGFR2, PIK3CA and ATR, homozygous deletion in CDKN2A and amplification in KRAS. Shifts in clonal composition and the acquisition of additional mutations in the progression from primary HER2-positive breast cancer to brain metastases following anti-HER2 therapy were investigated in additional five patients. Likely pathogenic mutations private to or enriched in the brain lesions affected cancer and clinically actionable genes, including ATR, BRAF, FGFR2, MAP2K4, PIK3CA, RAF1 and TP53. Changes in clonal composition and the acquisition of additional mutations in brain metastases may affect potentially actionable genes in HER2-positive breast cancers. Our observations have potential clinical implications, given that treatment decisions for patients with brain metastatic disease are still mainly based on biomarkers assessed in the primary tumor.

9.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 10: 1758835918763493, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662547

RESUMO

In recent years, immunotherapy has revolutionized and changed the standard of care in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, fundamentally those that act by blocking the programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) and its ligand the programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have emerged as novel treatment strategies in NSCLC, demonstrating undoubted superiority over chemotherapy in terms of efficacy. Several of these immune checkpoint modulators have recently gained regulatory approval for the treatment of advanced NSCLC, such as nivolumab, atezolizumab and pembrolizumab in first-line (only the latter) and second-line settings, and more recently, durvalumab as maintenance after chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced disease. There is consensus that PD-L1 expression on tumor cells predicts responsiveness to PD-1 inhibitors in several tumor types. Hence PD-L1 expression evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is currently used as a clinical decision-making tool to support the use of checkpoint inhibitors in NSCLC patients. However, the value of PD-L1 as the 'definitive' biomarker is controversial as its testing is puzzled by multiple unsolved issues such as the use of different staining platforms and antibodies, the type of cells in which PD-L1 is assessed (tumor versus immune cells), thresholds used for PD-L1-positivity, or the source and timing for sample collection. Therefore, newer biomarkers such as tumor mutation burden and neoantigens as well as biomarkers reflecting host environment (microbiome) or tumor inflamed microenvironment (gene expression signatures) are being explored as more reliable and accurate alternatives to IHC for guiding treatment selection with checkpoint inhibitors in NSCLC.

10.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 142(4): 474-479, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565207

RESUMO

CONTEXT: - Technologic advances have contributed to the increasing relevance of RNA analysis in clinical oncology practice. The different genetic aberrations that can be screened with RNA include gene fusions and splice variants. Validated methods of identifying these alterations include fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and next-generation sequencing, which can provide physicians valuable information on disease and treatment of cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: - To discuss the standard techniques available and new approaches for the identification of gene fusions and splice variants in cancer, focusing on RNA analysis and how analytic methods have evolved in both tissue and liquid biopsies. DATA SOURCES: - This is a narrative review based on PubMed searches and the authors' own experiences. CONCLUSIONS: - Reliable RNA-based testing in tissue and liquid biopsies can inform the diagnostic process and guide physicians toward the best treatment options. Next-generation sequencing methodologies permit simultaneous assessment of molecular alterations and increase the number of treatment options available for cancer patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/análise , Patologia Molecular/métodos , RNA/análise , Fusão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos
11.
Onco Targets Ther ; 11: 1117-1120, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535536

RESUMO

Fusion of the anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK) with the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein 4 gene (EML4) is the second most common actionable alteration in non-small-cell lung cancer, with a frequency of 5%. Here, we present a case of an EML4-ALK-positive patient with an atypical in-frame insertion from the LTBP1 gene in the canonical junction of variant 1. The patient was a 39-year-old never-smoker female diagnosed with Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. A core biopsy was negative for EGFR and KRAS mutations but positive for ALK immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. When submitted to nCounter, the sample showed a 3'/5' imbalance indicative of an ALK rearrangement, but failed to give a positive signal for any of the variants tested. Finally, a band with a molecular weight higher than expected appeared after reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. When Sanger sequencing was performed, the band revealed an atypical EML4-ALK fusion gene with an in-frame 129 bp insertion. A 115 bp segment of the insertion corresponded to an intronic region of LTBP1, a gene located in the short arm of chromosome 2, between ALK and EML4. The patient received crizotinib and showed a good therapeutic response that is still ongoing after 12 months. Our result suggests that short in-frame insertions of other genes in the EML4-ALK junction do not affect the sensitivity of the EML4-ALK fusion protein to crizotinib.

12.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 10: 1758834017749748, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383037

RESUMO

Background: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) may be induced by oncogenic signals or can be upregulated via interferon gamma (IFN-γ). We have explored whether the expression of IFNG, the gene encoding IFN-γ, is associated with clinical response to the immune checkpoint blockade in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma patients. The role of inflammation-associated transcription factors STAT3, IKBKE, STAT1 and other associated genes has also been examined. Methods: Total RNA from 17 NSCLC and 21 melanoma patients was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. STAT3 and Rantes, YAP1 and CXCL5, DNMT1, RIG1 and TET1, EOMES, IFNG, PD-L1 and CTLA4, IKBKE and NFATC1 mRNA were examined. PD-L1 protein expression in tumor and immune cells and stromal infiltration of CD8+ T-cells were also evaluated. Progression-free survival and overall survival were estimated. Results: A total of 17 NSCLC patients received nivolumab and 21 melanoma patients received pembrolizumab. Progression-free survival with nivolumab was significantly longer in NSCLC patients with high versus low IFNG expression (5.1 months versus 2 months, p = 0.0124). Progression-free survival with pembrolizumab was significantly longer in melanoma patients with high versus low IFNG expression (5.0 months versus 1.9 months, p = 0.0099). Significantly longer overall survival was observed for melanoma patients with high versus low IFNG expression (not reached versus 10.2 months p = 0.0183). There was a trend for longer overall survival for NSCLC patients with high versus low IFNG expression. Conclusions: IFN-γ is an important marker for prediction of response to immune checkpoint blockade. Further research is warranted in order to validate whether IFNG is more accurate than PD-L1.

13.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 410, 2017 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28871105

RESUMO

Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations typically benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. However, virtually all patients succumb to acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance that occurs via diverse mechanisms. The diversity and unpredictability of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance mechanisms presents a challenge for developing new treatments to overcome EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. Here, we show that Akt activation is a convergent feature of acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, across a spectrum of diverse, established upstream resistance mechanisms. Combined treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and Akt inhibitor causes apoptosis and synergistic growth inhibition in multiple EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer models. Moreover, phospho-Akt levels are increased in most clinical specimens obtained from EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer patients with acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. Our findings provide a rationale for clinical trials testing Akt and EGFR inhibitor co-treatment in patients with elevated phospho-Akt levels to therapeutically combat the heterogeneity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance mechanisms.EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer are often resistant to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. In this study, the authors show that resistant tumors display high Akt activation and that a combined treatment with AKT inhibitors causes synergistic tumour growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Ativação Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Mutação , Transplante de Neoplasias , Proteômica , Transdução de Sinais
14.
15.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 26(6): 713-722, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28463570

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Crizotinib is a first-in-class ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), which has proven its superiority over standard platinum-based chemotherapy for the first-line therapy of ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The development of acquired resistance to crizotinib represents an ongoing challenge with the central nervous system being one of the most common sites of relapse. Ceritinib and alectinib are approved second-generation ALK TKIs. Several novel ALK inhibitors, more potent and with different selectivity compared to crizotinib, are currently in development. Areas covered: This review will focus on new ALK inhibitors, currently in phase 1 or 2 clinical studies. We will also comment on the mechanisms of resistance to ALK inhibition and the strategies to delay or overcome resistance. Expert opinion: The therapeutic management of ALK-rearranged NSCLC has been greatly improved. Next-generation ALK inhibitors have shown differential potency against ALK rearrangements and ALK resistance mutations. The molecular profile of the tumor at the time of disease progression to crizotinib is crucial for the sequencing of novel ALK TKIs. Ongoing clinical studies will address key issues, including the optimal therapeutic algorithm and whether combinational approaches are more effective than single ALK inhibition for the outcome of ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Crizotinibe , Progressão da Doença , Desenho de Drogas , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética
16.
Clin Chem ; 63(3): 751-760, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK), ROS proto-oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1), and ret proto-oncogene (RET) fusions are present in 5%-7% of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); their accurate identification is critical to guide targeted therapies. FISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are considered the gold standards to determine gene fusions, but they have limitations. The nCounter platform is a potentially useful genomic tool for multiplexed detection of gene fusions, but has not been validated in the clinical setting. METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples from 108 patients with advanced NSCLC were analyzed with an nCounter-based assay and the results compared with FISH, IHC, and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Data on response to fusion kinase inhibitors was retrospectively collected in a subset of 29 patients. RESULTS: Of 108 FFPE samples, 98 were successfully analyzed by nCounter (91%), which identified 55 fusion-positive cases (32 ALK, 21 ROS1, and 2 RET). nCounter results were highly concordant with IHC for ALK (98.5%, CI = 91.8-99.7), while 11 discrepancies were found compared with FISH (87.5% concordance, CI = 79.0-92.9). For ROS1, nCounter showed similar agreement with IHC and FISH (87.2% and 85.9%), but a substantial number of samples were positive only by 1 or 2 techniques. Of the 25 patients deriving clinical benefit from fusion kinase inhibitors, 24 were positive by nCounter and 22 by FISH. CONCLUSIONS: nCounter compares favorably with IHC and FISH and can be used for identifying patients with advanced NSCLC positive for ALK/ROS1/RET fusion genes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Inclusão em Parafina , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Fixação de Tecidos , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Formaldeído , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
17.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 5(5): 511-516, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27826532

RESUMO

Circulating free DNA (cfDNA) is obtained from serum or plasma by non-invasive methods such as a simple blood draw, a technique known as "liquid biopsy". Genetic analyses of driver alterations in cfDNA have proved very effective to predict survival and treatment response of cancer patients according to tumoral cfDNA burden in blood. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with higher concentration of tumoral cfDNA in blood have, on average, shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Regarding specific genetic alterations, KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (KRAS) is one of the main genes involved in NSCLC and several studies have been performed to determine its value as a predictive and prognostic biomarker in liquid biopsy. Unfortunately, to date no strong conclusions can be drawn since they have yielded contradictory results. Therefore, further investigations are necessary to establish the value of KRAS testing in liquid biopsy as prognostic or predictive factor in NSCLC. Herein, we review the current knowledge on the importance of KRAS as prognostic and predictive biomarker using non-invasive approaches and the scientific data available regarding its application in clinical practice for treatment of NSCLC.

18.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 5(5): 532-537, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27826535

RESUMO

Genomic analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) released from cancer cells into the bloodstream has been proposed as a useful method to capture dynamic changes during the course of the disease. In particular, the ability to monitor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) isolated from advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients EGFR can help to the correct management of the disease and overcome the challenges associated with tumor heterogeneity and insufficient biopsied material to perform key molecular diagnosis. Here, we report a case of long term monitorization of EGFR mutation status in cfDNA from peripheral blood in an NSCLC patient in, with excellent correlation with clinical evolution.

19.
Oncotarget ; 7(35): 56619-56627, 2016 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27447748

RESUMO

Approximately 50% of metastatic melanoma patients harbor BRAF mutations. Several treatment options including the combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors (BRAF/MEKi) and immunotherapy (mainly anti CTLA-4 and anti PD-1 antibodies), have been shown to improve survival in these patients. Although preclinical data support the synergistic effect of both modalities in combination, data confirming the activity and tolerability of these combinations are not yet available in the clinical setting. Herein, we report the case of a melanoma patient treated with sequential BRAF/MEKi (dabrafenib plus trametinib) followed by the anti CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab who achieved a pathological complete response. Unfortunately, the patient died due to fatal gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Analysis of the BRAFV600E mutation in circulating tumoral DNA (ctDNA) from peripheral blood samples and serial tumor tissue biopsies throughout treatment demonstrated a good correlation with clinical evolution.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Oximas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinonas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Melanoma/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Schizophr Res ; 172(1-3): 86-93, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26924620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Structural pathology in the hippocampus is well-documented in schizophrenia, but brain functional changes have not been consistently found. We used spatial navigation in a virtual reality environment, a task that is known to produce robust hippocampal activation in healthy subjects, to examine task-related activations and de-activations in the disorder. METHODS: Twenty-seven DSM IV schizophrenia patients and 32 healthy controls underwent fMRI while they navigated to a goal through a virtual reality town. Activations and de-activations were examined at the whole brain level and also using a region-of-interest (ROI) in the hippocampus. RESULTS: Spatial navigation was associated with activation in the posterior hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus plus widespread neocortical areas. The patients showed reduced activation compared to the controls in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the left occipital/temporal cortex. No differences in hippocampal activation were seen either at the whole-brain level or in the ROI analysis. The patients showed failure of de-activation affecting some but not all subregions of the default mode network. CONCLUSIONS: Schizophrenia is associated with task-related hypoactivation in the DLPFC during spatial navigation, but not with functional changes in the hippocampus. The failure of de-activation also found adds to evidence for default mode network dysfunction in the disorder.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Interface Usuário-Computador
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