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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(1): 89-94, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325018

RESUMO

As in many parts of the world, Chile shows a high Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection rate. Evidently, the control recommendations have been inefficient. In the author's opinion, the potential risk of MAP transmission to susceptible calves through milk consumption is largely overlooked. Two observational studies were performed, one to confirm MAP shedding in young stock in a high MAP-infected dairy herd and MAP load in milk intended to feed these calves was estimated. In parallel, in a second study, we estimated the relationship between MAP herd seroprevalence and the cow MAP shedding level as well as the presence of this pathogen in milk used to feed dairy calves. In the first study, 53.7% of cows and 22.5% of calves showed positive culture results. Among all cows tested, 9 (2.19%) animals had a positive serum ELISA, and MAP load in milk reached 106 bacteria/mL. In the second study, three seroprevalence categories were established as follows: high (≥ 9%), medium (> 5% and ≤ 9%), and low (≤ 5%). Statistical significant differences among these categories were observed. Animals from the high seroprevalence category shed significantly more MAP than the others. However, in the low category, heavy shedder animals were also observed. Finally, in all study herds, MAP presence in milk intended to feed calves was reported, even from herds without ELISA-positive animals.

2.
Am J Mens Health ; 12(4): 989-997, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540129

RESUMO

There is a significant evidence base for the Diabetes Prevention Program, a lifestyle intervention to prevent onset of type 2 diabetes among high-risk individuals; however, translation of this intervention for men has been challenging. This report presents outcomes of the pilot study of an adapted 16-week diabetes prevention program entitled " Power Up for Health." The study goal was to better engage men of color with prediabetes from disadvantaged neighborhoods of New York City. It was implemented at five different recreation centers located in predominantly low-income neighborhoods across New York City. The curriculum was facilitated by male lifestyle coaches only; one group was conducted in Spanish. Primary outcome was weight loss from baseline to 16 weeks. Other measures included lifestyle activities, depressive symptoms, and self-reported health status. Men ( N = 47) were screened by telephone. Of the 29 eligible men who began the program, 25 attended at least 4 sessions (52% non-Latino Black, 32% Latino, mean age 51.7 ± SD 9.9 years, mean body mass index 35 ± SD 6.9 kg/m2). End of program outcomes ( n = 23) varied by site and included a mean weight loss of 3.8% (9.7 lbs); 3 of the 5 sites had a mean weight loss of 5.6%, meeting the national goal of 5%-7%. Men ( n = 23) attended a mean of 11.6 of 16 sessions. Improvement in depressive symptoms, healthy eating and exercise, and health status were also seen. While recruitment was challenging with many lessons learned, the adapted men's diabetes prevention program shows promise of success for participants and their coaches.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/etnologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Projetos Piloto , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 47(1): 12-6, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27010259

RESUMO

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Paratuberculose/epidemiologia , Animais , Chile/epidemiologia
4.
Invest Clin ; 54(1): 47-57, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23781712

RESUMO

Wilson disease is a hereditary disorder caused by mutations of the ATP7B gene, which leads to intoxication with copper as a result of an unbalance of copper homeostasis. The clinical manifestations resulting from this intoxication are related to the affectation of liver and the encephalon in most cases. Several animal models are currently available for the study of the malady. However, in such models no neurological symptoms are observed, which limits their use for the study of pathogenic effects of this disease on the central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if copper feeding could induce a disease state in Drosophila melanogaster to model Wilson disease. The effect of the feeding of copper at the doses of 31 microM and 47 microM on the survival was initially evaluated. Next, behavioral experiments were conducted to determine whether the motor performance was altered by the 47 microM concentration. The results suggest that copper treatment decreases the viability of the flies. In addition, the decrease of viability was associated to an increase and decrease of spontaneous motor activity at early and late stages of the intoxication, respectively. Finally, the role of the dopaminergic neurotransmission system on the observed motor alterations was evaluated. The dopamine precursor L-dopa increased motor activity. In contrast, D2 receptor antagonist, Fluphenazine, was able to block both the increase and decrease of motor activity scores induced by copper. These results suggest that Drosophila melanogaster could be used as a model organism for the study of possible interventions with potential neuroprotective effects in Wilson disease.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Cobre/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Degeneração Hepatolenticular , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Dopaminérgicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Dopamina D2 , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Flufenazina/farmacologia , Humanos , Levodopa/farmacologia , Masculino , Amostragem
5.
Invest. clín ; 54(1): 47-57, mar. 2013. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-740335

RESUMO

La enfermedad de Wilson, es un trastorno hereditario autosómico recesivo causado por mutaciones del gen de la trifosfatasa de adenosina (ATP7B). Dicha mutación ocasiona intoxicación con cobre, generando manifestaciones clínicas por los efectos tóxicos del metal, principalmente a nivel del hígado y el encéfalo. Recientemente se han desarrollado modelos genéticos de la enfermedad para su estudio clínico. Sin embargo, la utilidad de los mismos es limitada por el hecho de que en tales modelos no se observan manifestaciones neurológicas. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un modelo de la enfermedad de Wilson en Drosophila melanogaster. Inicialmente se evaluó el efecto de la suplementación con concentraciones de 31 µM y 47 µM de cobre en la sobrevida. Posteriormente se realizaron estudios de conducta para determinar si existían alteraciones en el desempeño motor asociadas al tratamiento con la dosis de 47 µM de cobre. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que el tratamiento con cobre disminuye la viabilidad de la Drosophila. La disminución de la sobrevida estuvo asociada a un aumento y una disminución de los registros de actividad motora en las etapas tempranas y tardías de la intoxicación respectivamente. Por último, se evaluó el papel del sistema de neurotransmisión dopaminérgico sobre las alteraciones conductuales inducidas por el cobre. El tratamiento con el precursor de la dopamina, L-dopa, indujo un aumento de la actividad motora similar al inducido por el cobre. Por el contrario, el tratamiento con Flufenazina, un antagonista de los receptores dopaminérgicos D2, fue capaz de impedir las alteraciones conductuales en todas las edades evaluadas. Estos resultados sugieren que la Drosophila melanogaster podría ser empleada como modelo para el estudio de posibles intervenciones con potencial terapéutico en la enfermedad de Wilson.


Wilson disease is a hereditary disorder caused by mutations of the ATP7B gene, which leads to intoxication with copper as a result of an unbalance of copper homeostasis. The clinical manifestations resulting from this intoxication are related to the affectation of liver and the encephalon in most cases. Several animal models are currently available for the study of the malady. However, in such models no neurological symptoms are observed, which limits their use for the study of pathogenic effects of this disease on the central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if copper feeding could induce a disease state in Drosophila melanogaster to model Wilson disease. The effect of the feeding of copper at the doses of 31 µM and 47 µM on the survival was initially evaluated. Next, behavioral experiments were conducted to determine whether the motor performance was altered by the 47 µM concentration. The results suggest that copper treatment decreases the viability of the flies. In addition, the decrease of viability was associated to an increase and decrease of spontaneous motor activity at early and late stages of the intoxication, respectively. Finally, the role of the dopaminergic neurotransmission system on the observed motor alterations was evaluated. The dopamine precursor L-dopa increased motor activity. In contrast, D2 receptor antagonist, Fluphenazine, was able to block both the increase and decrease of motor activity scores induced by copper. These results suggest that Drosophila melanogaster could be used as a model organism for the study of possible interventions with potential neuroprotective effects in Wilson disease.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sulfato de Cobre/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Degeneração Hepatolenticular , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Etários , Progressão da Doença , Dopaminérgicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Flufenazina/farmacologia , Levodopa/farmacologia , Amostragem
6.
Ginecol Obstet Mex ; 74(9): 471-5, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17133961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of physical activity and inactivity among female health service workers. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Across-sectional study was conducted during the January-July 2005 period. We included 224 (37%) workers of the General Hospital of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Colima, Mexico. We carried out a measurement of the physical activity and inactivity. The indicator was obtained from the international physical activity questionnaire. The obtained data were captured in a computer terminal and processed by means of an automated model. We calculated the frequencies distribution and the prevalence. RESULTS: From the 224 women, 24 (11%) carried out intense physical activity, 22 (10%) moderate, 81 (36%) insufficient, and 97 (43%) qualified as sedentary. CONCLUSIONS: The physical activity and inactivity prevalence among the female health service workers was of 21 and 79%, respectively.


Assuntos
Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Aptidão Física , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Cir. gen ; 19(1): 11-9, ene.-mar. 1997. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-226833

RESUMO

Objetivo. Presentar nuestra experiencia con Nutrición Parenteral Total (NPT) en pacientes con fístulas enterocutáneas complicadas con sepsis abdominal y abdomen abierto. Sede. Departamento de Cirugía General. Clínica de Apoyo Nutricional. Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea González. Diseño y análisis estadístico. Estudio prospectivo, de 3 años. Se emplearon media, error estándar de la media (media ñ SEM), homogeneidad de varianza, prueba de Wilcoxon, Chi cuadrada y coeficiente de regresión lineal. Se tomó como significativa p<0.06. Pacientes y métodos. Pacientes adultos con fístulas enterocutáneas complicadas con sepsis abdominal y abdomen abierto. Se utilizaron 3 a 4 g/kg/día de Dextrosa, 0.5 a 1 g/kg/día de lípidos y 0.1 a 0.9 g/kg/día de aminoácidos. Se evlauron gasto de la fístula, albúmina sérica, transferrina sérica, cuental total de linfocitos y cicatrización de la pared abdominal. Resultados. Siete pacientes completaron el estudio. La tasa de cierre espontáneo fue del 57.14 por ciento entre la 4a y la 10a semnas. La mortalidad fue del 28.5 por ciento. La albúmina se elevó de 2.199 ñ 0.2 mg/dl a 3.09 ñ 0.3 mg/dl. La transferrina se llevó de 201 ñ 32.7 a 242 ñ 27.15 mg/dl y la cuenta linfocitaria se incrementó de 1392 ñ 338.22 células/ a 2619 ñ 716 células/mm3. Las complicaciones fueron: colestasis 14.2 por ciento, sepsis por catéter 42.7 por ciento. La cicatrización de la pared abdominal fue en 85.7 por ciento de los casos. Conclusión. La NPT es efectiva para controlar el estado séptico y mejorar el estado nutricional de pacientes con fístulas enterocutáneas complicadas con sepsis abdomianal, favorece el cierre espontáneo y la cicatrización de la pared abdominal


Assuntos
Humanos , Dieta , Fístula Intestinal/complicações , Fístula Intestinal/dietoterapia , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Nutrição Parenteral , Sepse/dietoterapia , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/terapia , Cicatrização
8.
Bol. Asoc. Méd. P. R ; 83(10): 451-5, oct. 1991. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-105547

RESUMO

Un caso del síndrome Joubert con insuficiencia respiratoria y necesidad de asistencia mecánica respiratoria y necesidad de asistencia mecánica respiratoria es presentado. El caso ilustra los complejos aspectos clínicos, éticos y técnicos de este sindrome y la adaptabilidad del tratamiento ventilatorio mecánico al ambiente del hogar. El cuido de estos pacientes en el hogar requiere un enfoque multidisciplinario por un grupo de salud competente y el apoyo de una familia cariñosa


Assuntos
Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Anormalidades Múltiplas/terapia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Ética Médica , Genes Recessivos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Síndrome
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