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2.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simulation training has become an integral part of plastic surgery postgraduate curricula. It facilitates the acquisition of skills in a safe environment that can be later transferred to real-life settings. A variety of models have been described covering some aspects of the specialty better than others. The aim of this study was to identify and classify all the previously reported plastic surgery simulation models and the possible gaps having the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) list of competencies as a guide. METHODS: Through a Delphi process, the complete list of ACGME minimum requirements for certification was analyzed to identify domains amenable for simulation training. A systematic search was conducted in Pubmed looking for all previously reported simulation models in plastic surgery. Predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and parallel blind review were used to identify eligible models. RESULTS: A total of 81 ACGME competencies were identified. Following a 3-round Delphi process, consensus was reached on 19 reconstructive and 15 aesthetic surgery domains suitable for simulation training. 1667 articles were initially retrieved from Pubmed, of which 66 articles were eligible for inclusion. Descriptive (65%), quasi-experimental (24%) and experimental studies (11%) were found. For the 34 identified ACGME competencies, there were simulation models described for 58.8% of these, mostly covering reconstructive surgery (84.2%) while for aesthetic surgery it was 13.3%. CONCLUSIONS: This scoping review has identified that there are still gaps in ACGME competencies that could benefit from new simulation training models, especially in those related to aesthetic surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

5.
World J Surg ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feedback is a pivotal cornerstone and a challenge in psychomotor training. There are different teaching methodologies; however, some may be less effective. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in 130 medical students to compare the effectiveness of the video-guided learning (VLG), peer-feedback (PFG) and the expert feedback (EFG) for teaching suturing skills. The program lasted 4 weeks. Students were recorded making 3-simple stitches (pre-assessment and post-assessment). The primary outcome was a global scale (OSATS). The secondary outcomes were performance time, specific rating scale (SRS) and the impact of the intervention (IOI), defined as the variation between the final and initial OSATS and SRS scores. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between PFG and EFG in post-assessment results of OSATS, SRS scores or in the IOI for OSATS and SRS scores. Post-assessment results of PFG and EFG were significantly superior to VLG in OSATS and SRS scores [(19.8 (18.5-21); 16.6 (15.5-17.5)) and (20.3 (19.88-21); 16.8 (16-17.5)) vs (15.7 (15-16); 13.3 (12.5-14)) (p < 0.05)], respectively. The results of PFG and EFG were significantly superior to VLG in the IOI for OSATS [7 (4.5-9) and 7.4 (4.88-10) vs 3.5 (1.5-6) (p < 0.05)] and SRS scores [5.4 (3.5-7) and 6.3 (4-8.5) vs 3.1 (1.13-4.88) (p < 0.05)], respectively. CONCLUSION: The video-guided learning methodology without any kind of feedback is not enough for teaching suturing skills compared to expert or peer feedback. The peer feedback methodology appears to be a viable alternative to handling the emerging demands in medical education.

7.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 44(5): 1926-1928, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671446

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on the delivery of healthcare services around the globe. This has resulted in important loss of life for our communities, including health professionals that have been exposed to the disease in their workplace. A human factors approach to the recent changes introduced due to the pandemic can help identify how we can minimize the impact of human error in these circumstances. We hereby present a case study illustrating the application of human factors in the difficult times we are going through at present.Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Cirurgia Plástica/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Surg Endosc ; 34(6): 2585-2592, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simulation training is a validated method for acquiring laparoscopic skills. Training sessions may be sporadic or lack continuity in oversight by instructors since traditional programs mandate in-person teaching and evaluation. This study presents the development, implementation, and results of a novel smartphone application that enables remote teacher-student interaction. This interface is used to complete a validated program that provides learner-specific feedback. Outcomes of training via Lapp were compared to outcomes of traditional in-person training. METHODS: A web-based and mobile iOS and Android application (Lapp) was developed to enable a remote student-teacher interaction. Instructors use Lapp to assess video recorded training sessions of students at distant locations and guide them through the laparoscopic skill course with specific and personalized feedback. Surgical trainees at two remote training centers were taught using Lapp. A control group was assessed during traditional simulation training at the training facility, with in-person feedback. Pre- and post-training performances were video recorded for each trainee and blindly evaluated by two experts using a global rating scale (GRS) and a specific rating scale (SRS). RESULTS: A total of 30 trainees were trained via Lapp and compared with 25 locally taught. Performance in the Lapp group improved significantly after the course in both GRS and SRS scores, from 15 [6-17] to 23 [20-25], and from 12 [11-15] to 18 [15-20], respectively. The results between both groups were comparable. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic simulation training using a mobile app is as effective as in-person instruction in teaching advanced laparoscopic surgical skills. Lapp provides an effective method of teaching through simulation remotely and may allow expansion of robust simulation training curriculums.

9.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 32(2): e1436, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A General Surgery Residency may last between 2-6 years, depending on the country. A shorter General Surgery Residency must optimize residents' surgical exposure. Simulated surgical training is known to shorten the learning curves, but information related to how it affects a General Surgery Residency regarding clinical exposure is scarce. AIM: To analyze the effect of introducing a validated laparoscopic simulated training program in abdominal procedures performed by residents in a three-year General Surgery Residency program. METHODS: A non-concurrent cohort study was designed. Four-generations (2012-2015) of graduated surgeons were included. Only abdominal procedures in which the graduated surgeons were the primary surgeon were described and analyzed. The control group was of graduated surgeons from 2012 without the laparoscopic simulated training program. Surgical procedures per program year, surgical technique, emergency/elective intervention and hospital-site (main/community hospitals) were described. RESULTS: Interventions of 28 graduated surgeons were analyzed (control group=5; laparoscopic simulated training program=23). Graduated surgeons performed a mean of 372 abdominal procedures, with a higher mean number of medium-to-complex procedures in laparoscopic simulated training program group (48 vs. 30, p=0.02). Graduated surgeons trained with laparoscopic simulated training program performed a higher number of total abdominal procedures (384 vs. 319, p=0.04) and laparoscopic procedures (183 vs. 148, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of laparoscopic simulated training program may increase the number and complexity of total and laparoscopic procedures in a three-year General Surgery Residency.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/educação , Abdome/cirurgia , Análise de Variância , Competência Clínica , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
10.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 42(4): 239-247, abr. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183398

RESUMO

Background and aims: Abdominal paracentesis is an area that every general physician should know about, and the current learning model is unsafe for patients. Simulation allows students to develop their skills prior to clinical confrontation with minimal risks. The aims of this study were to design and evaluate a paracentesis simulation workshop for undergraduate students. Methods: A workshop was implemented using a specially designed and validated simulation model for abdominal paracentesis. The simulated technique considered the recognition of materials, operator equipment, asepsis, anesthesia, puncture and obtaining liquid, collecting samples for analysis, withdrawal of the material and occlusion. A 24-point direct observation checklist was administered to assess the student. We assessed two students at the beginning of the workshop and all the students at the end. A perception survey was applied to attendees at the end of the workshop. Results: 247 students were included and a workshop that involved 8 students per session was held. Students significantly improved their skills comparing pre- and post-evaluation results [13.36±4.46 (55.7%) vs. 22.3±1.83 (92.9%) respectively (n=69) p<0.001]. The students' perception questionnaire (n=38) showed that the training sessions were highly valued, averaging 4.8±0.38 on a Likert scale of 1-5. Conclusions: Simulated training in abdominal paracentesis is a very good teaching method. This teaching methodology should be highly recommended as an educational strategy in medicine because it could accelerate the acquisition of clinical skills in a safe learning environment


Antecedentes: La paracentesis abdominal es una competencia que todo médico general debe conocer, y el modelo de aprendizaje actual no es seguro para los pacientes. La simulación permite a los estudiantes desarrollar habilidades antes del enfrentamiento clínico minimizando riesgos. Los objetivos de este estudio han sido diseñar y evaluar un taller de simulación de paracentesis para estudiantes de pregrado. Métodos: Se implementó un taller de paracentesis abdominal, utilizando un fantoma especialmente diseñado y validado. La enseñanza de la técnica consideró el reconocimiento de materiales, equipo del operador, asepsia, anestesia, punción y obtención de líquido, recolección de muestras para análisis, extracción del material y oclusión. Para la evaluación se usó una pauta de observación directa (24 puntos). Dos estudiantes por grupo fueron evaluados al comienzo del taller y todos los alumnos se evaluaron al final. Al término del taller se aplicó una encuesta de percepción a los asistentes. Resultados: Se incluyeron 247 estudiantes en un taller que involucraba 8 alumnos por sesión. Los estudiantes mejoraron significativamente sus habilidades al comparar los resultados de la pre-evaluación versus la postevaluación (13,36±4,46 [55,7%] vs. 22,3±1,83 [92,9%], respectivamente [n=69]; p<0,001]. El cuestionario de percepción de los estudiantes (n=38) demostró que las sesiones de entrenamiento fueron valoradas positivamente, con un promedio de 4,8±0,38 en la escala de Likert de 1-5. Conclusiones: El entrenamiento simulado en paracentesis es un muy buen método de enseñanza. Esta metodología debe ser altamente recomendada como estrategia educacional en medicina, ya que podría acelerar la adquisición de habilidades clínicas en un ambiente de aprendizaje seguro


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Treinamento por Simulação , Paracentese/educação , Estudantes de Medicina , Variações Dependentes do Observador
11.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 42(4): 239-247, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Abdominal paracentesis is an area that every general physician should know about, and the current learning model is unsafe for patients. Simulation allows students to develop their skills prior to clinical confrontation with minimal risks. The aims of this study were to design and evaluate a paracentesis simulation workshop for undergraduate students. METHODS: A workshop was implemented using a specially designed and validated simulation model for abdominal paracentesis. The simulated technique considered the recognition of materials, operator equipment, asepsis, anesthesia, puncture and obtaining liquid, collecting samples for analysis, withdrawal of the material and occlusion. A 24-point direct observation checklist was administered to assess the student. We assessed two students at the beginning of the workshop and all the students at the end. A perception survey was applied to attendees at the end of the workshop. RESULTS: 247 students were included and a workshop that involved 8 students per session was held. Students significantly improved their skills comparing pre- and post-evaluation results [13.36±4.46 (55.7%) vs. 22.3±1.83 (92.9%) respectively (n=69) p<0.001]. The students' perception questionnaire (n=38) showed that the training sessions were highly valued, averaging 4.8±0.38 on a Likert scale of 1-5. CONCLUSIONS: Simulated training in abdominal paracentesis is a very good teaching method. This teaching methodology should be highly recommended as an educational strategy in medicine because it could accelerate the acquisition of clinical skills in a safe learning environment.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Paracentese/educação , Treinamento por Simulação , Competência Clínica , Educação/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Anatômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 32(2): e1436, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001038

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: A General Surgery Residency may last between 2-6 years, depending on the country. A shorter General Surgery Residency must optimize residents' surgical exposure. Simulated surgical training is known to shorten the learning curves, but information related to how it affects a General Surgery Residency regarding clinical exposure is scarce. Aim: To analyze the effect of introducing a validated laparoscopic simulated training program in abdominal procedures performed by residents in a three-year General Surgery Residency program. Methods: A non-concurrent cohort study was designed. Four-generations (2012-2015) of graduated surgeons were included. Only abdominal procedures in which the graduated surgeons were the primary surgeon were described and analyzed. The control group was of graduated surgeons from 2012 without the laparoscopic simulated training program. Surgical procedures per program year, surgical technique, emergency/elective intervention and hospital-site (main/community hospitals) were described. Results: Interventions of 28 graduated surgeons were analyzed (control group=5; laparoscopic simulated training program=23). Graduated surgeons performed a mean of 372 abdominal procedures, with a higher mean number of medium-to-complex procedures in laparoscopic simulated training program group (48 vs. 30, p=0.02). Graduated surgeons trained with laparoscopic simulated training program performed a higher number of total abdominal procedures (384 vs. 319, p=0.04) and laparoscopic procedures (183 vs. 148, p<0.05). Conclusions: The introduction of laparoscopic simulated training program may increase the number and complexity of total and laparoscopic procedures in a three-year General Surgery Residency.


RESUMO Racional: Residência em Cirurgia Geral pode durar entre 2-6 anos, dependendo do país. Residência mais curta deve otimizar a exposição dos residentes às cirurgias. Sabe-se que o treinamento cirúrgico simulado encurta as curvas de aprendizado, mas a informação relacionada à como isso afeta a residência em relação à exposição clínica é escassa. Objetivo: Analisar o efeito da introdução de um programa de treinamento laparoscópico simulado validado em procedimentos abdominais realizados por residentes em um programa de Residência em Cirurgia Geral de três anos. Métodos: Um estudo de coorte não simultâneo foi desenhado. Quatro gerações (2012-2015) de cirurgiões graduados foram incluídos. Apenas os procedimentos abdominais em que os cirurgiões graduados foram o cirurgião principal foram descritos e analisados. O grupo controle foi de cirurgiões graduados de 2012 sem programa de treinamento laparoscópico simulado. Procedimentos cirúrgicos por ano de programa, técnica cirúrgica, intervenção de emergência ou eletiva e local do hospital (hospitais principais/comunitários) foram descritos. Resultados: Intervenções de 28 cirurgiões graduados foram analisadas (controle=5; programa de treinamento simulado=23). Os cirurgiões graduados realizaram média de 372 procedimentos abdominais, com maior número médio de procedimentos de médio a complexo no grupo de programa de treinamento simulado (48 vs. 30, p=0,02). Cirurgiões graduados treinados com programa de treinamento simulado realizaram número maior de procedimentos abdominais totais (384 vs. 319, p=0,04) e procedimentos laparoscópicos (183 vs. 148, p<0,05). Conclusões: A introdução do programa de treinamento laparoscópico simulado pode aumentar o número e a complexidade dos procedimentos totais e laparoscópicos na Residência em Cirurgia Geral de três anos.

13.
Rev Med Chil ; 146(6): 786-795, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simulation is a useful training tool for undergraduate medical students. A valid instrument is needed to assess students' perception of simulation workshops. AIM: To adapt and validate an instrument to assess the undergraduate medical student's perception of simulation workshops of clinical procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Delphi Methodology was used to adapt the instrument. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses were performed to determine the construct validity and Cronbach's Alpha (0 to 1) for internal consistency of the instrument. RESULTS: A Delphi panel of 10 experts adapted a seven-item questionnaire (Likert scale 1-5; ranging from 7 to 35) and four open-questions. After 3-delphi-rounds, the instrument was administered to 210 students in six simulation training programs (Paracentesis, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Airway management, Sutures, Thoracentesis and Nursing Procedures). The instrument was considered unidimensional in the factorial analysis. The overall median (Q1-Q3) score was 34 ranging from 32 to 35 and the Cronbach Alpha coefficient was 0.72, indicating a good reliability. CONCLUSIONS: The perception questionnaire is a useful and reliable instrument to assess students' perceptions of clinical simulations.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Percepção , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Técnica Delfos , Análise Fatorial , Feedback Formativo , Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/psicologia
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(6): 786-795, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-961460

RESUMO

Background: Simulation is a useful training tool for undergraduate medical students. A valid instrument is needed to assess students' perception of simulation workshops. Aim: To adapt and validate an instrument to assess the undergraduate medical student's perception of simulation workshops of clinical procedures. Material and Methods: Delphi Methodology was used to adapt the instrument. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses were performed to determine the construct validity and Cronbach's Alpha (0 to 1) for internal consistency of the instrument. Results: A Delphi panel of 10 experts adapted a seven-item questionnaire (Likert scale 1-5; ranging from 7 to 35) and four open-questions. After 3-delphi-rounds, the instrument was administered to 210 students in six simulation training programs (Paracentesis, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Airway management, Sutures, Thoracentesis and Nursing Procedures). The instrument was considered unidimensional in the factorial analysis. The overall median (Q1-Q3) score was 34 ranging from 32 to 35 and the Cronbach Alpha coefficient was 0.72, indicating a good reliability. Conclusions: The perception questionnaire is a useful and reliable instrument to assess students' perceptions of clinical simulations.

16.
Rev. chil. cir ; 69(5): 376-381, oct. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-899620

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: La colecistectomía laparoscópica es una de las intervenciones quirúrgicas más frecuentes en nuestro país. La diarrea poscolecistectomía es una entidad poco reconocida, con una prevalencia descrita entre el 0,9 y 35,6%, sin embargo, en Chile esto no ha sido claramente definido. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y características de la diarrea poscolecistectomía laparoscópica electiva en una muestra de pacientes chilenos. Material y métodos: Se aplicó una encuesta telefónica estructurada sobre consistencia y frecuencia de deposiciones, entre 4 y 6 meses después de la intervención, a los pacientes adultos operados de colecistectomía laparoscópica electivamente entre diciembre de 2014 y marzo de 2015. Se definió como «diarrea poscolecistectomía¼ la presencia de deposiciones líquidas o inusualmente disgregadas que hubiesen comenzado posteriormente a la intervención y se estableció el término de «diarrea prolongada¼ como la duración de síntomas mayor de 4 semanas. Resultados: Se encuestó a 100 pacientes (73% de mujeres). La prevalencia global de diarrea poscolecistectomía fue del 35% (n = 35). La prevalencia de pacientes con diarrea prolongada fue del 15% (n = 15). En el grupo con diarrea prolongada, se observó resolución completa de esta en el 57% de los pacientes (n = 8) en un plazo medio de 99 ± 29 días. Conclusión: La diarrea poscolecistectomía es una entidad frecuente en nuestra población, con una alta prevalencia dentro de los primeros 28 días posteriores a la intervención. En la mayoría de los pacientes se resuelve en los primeros 6 meses.


Abstract Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is one of the most common surgical procedures in our country. Postcholecystectomy diarrhea is an unrecognized entity, with a reported prevalence between 0.9 and 35.6%, nonetheless in Chile this has not been clearly defined. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of diarrhea following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our institution. Material and methods: A structured questionnaire about consistency and defecation frequency was applied to adult patients summited to an elective LC between December 2014 and February 2015, by a telephone survey within 4 and 6 months after the surgical procedure. Postcholecystectomy diarrhea was defined as the presence of liquid or unusually disrupted faecal material beginning after LC. Persistent diarrhea was established when diarrhea continued for a period longer than four weeks. Results: One hundred patients were included (73% women). The overall prevalence of postcholecystectomy diarrhea was 35% (n = 35). The prevalence of patients with persistent diarrhea was 15% (n = 15). In the group of patients with persistent diarrhea, complete resolution was observed on 57% of the cases (n = 8) within an average period of 99 ± 29 days. Conclusion: Post cholecystectomy diarrhea is a frequent condition in our population, with a high prevalence within the first 28 days after LC. In most patients it resolved within 6 months.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Chile , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome Pós-Colecistectomia , Diarreia/etiologia
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(6): 799-803, June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-902547

RESUMO

Liver involvement by multiple arterio-venous shunts in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia can lead to severe heart failure. Total hepatectomy with liver transplantation has emerged as a therapeutic option for severe cases where other therapies have failed. We report a 51-year-old male who underwent a liver transplant for this condition, with full cardiac recovery within the first year after receiving the allograft. Nine years after transplantation, he remains with normal functional capacity and normal liver function tests.

18.
Rev. chil. cir ; 69(3): 202-206, jun. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-844360

RESUMO

Introducción: Las lesiones de la vía biliar (LVB) iatrogénicas durante una colecistectomía constituyen una complicación grave, con una significativa morbimortalidad. El objetivo del estudio es analizar los resultados de la reparación de las LVB poscolecistectomía realizadas entre los años 2000 y 2015. Métodos: Estudio de serie de casos. Se consignaron en una base de datos: variables demográficas, el centro donde se realizó la colecistectomía, la vía de reparación, el tipo de LVB, el tipo de reparación efectuada, las complicaciones postoperatorias, la mortalidad operatoria y la sobrevida. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el software SPSS 22 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, EE. UU.). Resultados: Se estudiaron 36 pacientes, de los cuales 33 (92%) fueron mujeres; la edad promedio fue de 48,5 ± 14 años. La colecistectomía que originó la iatrogenia fue laparoscópica en 24 (67%) casos. La LVB fue identificada en el intraoperatorio en 9 pacientes (25%). La LVB más frecuente se localizó a menos de 2cm de la confluencia (Bismuth-Strasberg tipo E2) en 14 (39%) pacientes. La derivación biliodigestiva con asa en Y de Roux fue la técnica más utilizada en la reparación de las LVB en 26 (72%) casos. A largo plazo, se observó una estenosis en 7 (19%) pacientes, con necesidad de una nueva reparación. Hubo mortalidad operatoria de un paciente (3%). Conclusiones: Las LVB poscolecistectomía fueron satisfactoriamente reparadas preferentemente con una derivación biliodigestiva con Y de Roux en nuestro centro.


Abstract Introduction: Iatrogenic bile duct injuries (BDI) during a cholecystectomy are a serious complication with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to analyze the results BDI's repair post cholecystectomy which was performed between the years 2000-2015. Methods: Case series study. Demographic variables, the center where the cholecystectomy was performed, repair pathway, the type of bile duct injury, the type of reparation performed, postoperative complications, operative mortality and survival were entered in a database. For statistical analysis, software SPSS 22 was used. Results: Thirty-six patients were studied; 33 (92%) were women; mean age 48.5 ± 14 years. The Cholecystectomy that originated the iatrogenia was laparoscopic in 24 (67%) cases. BDI was identified intraoperatively in 9 patients (25%). The most common BDI was located less than 2 cm to confluence (Bismuth-Strasberg type E2) in 14 (39%) patients. The biliodigestive Roux-Y bypass was the most used technique in the repair of the BDI in 26 (72%) cases. In the long term, stenosis was observed in 7 (19%) patients with the need of a new repair. Operative mortality of 1 patient (3%). Conclusions: BDI post cholecystectomy were successfully repaired preferably with a biliodigestive Roux-Y bypass in our center.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doenças Biliares/etiologia , Doenças Biliares/cirurgia , Colecistectomia/efeitos adversos , Ductos Biliares/lesões , Seguimentos , Doença Iatrogênica , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Surg Innov ; 24(1): 66-71, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27729567

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Simulated laparoscopy training is limited by its low-quality image. A high-definition (HD) laparoscopic training box was developed under the present necessity of simulating advanced surgery. OBJECTIVE: To describe and test a new HD laparoscopic training box for advanced simulation training. METHODS: We describe the features and image quality of the new training box. The simulator was tested and then evaluated by a group of 76 expert surgeons using a 4-item questionnaire. To assess the effectiveness of training using this simulation box, 15 general surgery residents were trained to perform a laparoscopic jejuno-jejunostomy in a validated simulation program. They were assessed with objective rating scales before and after the training program, and their results were compared with that of experts. RESULTS: The training box was assembled using high-density fiberglass shaped as an insufflated abdomen. It has an adapted full-HD camera with a LED-based illumination system. A manually self-regulated monopod attached to the camera enables training without assistance. Of the expert surgeons who answered the questionnaire, 91% said that the simulation box had a high-quality image and that it was very similar to real laparoscopy. All residents trained improved their rating scores significantly when comparing their initial versus final assessment ( P < .001). Their performance after completing the training in the box was similar to that of experts ( P > .2). CONCLUSIONS: This novel laparoscopic training box presents a high-resolution image and allows training different types of advanced laparoscopic procedures. The simulator box was positively assessed by experts and demonstrated to be effective for laparoscopy training in resident surgeons.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência , Jejunostomia/educação , Laparoscopia/educação , Treinamento por Simulação , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Competência Clínica , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos
20.
ARS med. (Santiago, En línea) ; 42(2): 34-41, 2017. Tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016581

RESUMO

Resumen: El aprendizaje de los estudiantes de Medicina de Pregrado en ambiente simulado constituye una alternativa en la obtención de competencias técnicas y no técnicas. Objetivo: Desarrollar un fantoma e implementar un taller modular de entrenamiento de paracentesis abdominal en ambiente simulado para estudiantes de Medicina. Métodos: Se diseñaron y desarrollaron modelos para la realización de paracentesis abdominal en la Escuela de Diseño de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC) y se implementó un taller para alumnos de 4to año de Medicina de la PUC, utilizando un enfoque constructivista, sesiones de entrenamiento simulado con debriefing basadas en el modelo plus-delta y evaluación pre y post-procedimiento siguiendo los principios de evaluación para el aprendizaje. Resultados: Se desarrollaron 3 prototipos hasta llegar a un modelo definitivo de alta fidelidad basado en la percepción de 20 expertos. 237 alumnos asistieron a un taller de paracentesis abdominal en el Centro de Cirugía Experimental y Simulación Universidad Católica (UC). Este consistió en una actividad práctica grupal (7-8 alumnos por sesión) que incluyó: una evaluación pre-sesión, un vídeo instruccional, una demostración en tiempo real en el fantoma por parte de un docente, la realización guiada del procedimiento por parte de los alumnos, debriefing y cierre de la sesión. Conclusiones: Un modelo de enseñanza en ambiente simulado es posible de ser diseñado e implementado exitosamente en un centro educacional para estudiantes de Medicina de Pregrado. Este taller de paracentesis permite entrenar a los alumnos en la realización de paracentesis abdominal en un ambiente seguro para los alumnos y pacientes y puede ser implementado a bajo costo en otros centros o instituciones. (AU)


Abstract: Simulated environments are an option in the learning process of undergraduate medical students in order to obtain technical and non-technical. Aim: To develop a mannequin for abdominal paracentesis and the implementation of a training workshop to perform abdominal paracentesis in a simulated environment for undergraduate medical students. Methods: The prototypes were designed and developed to perform abdominal paracentesis at the School of Design at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC) and a workshop was implemented in a course with 4-year medical students at the PUC, using a constructivist approach and simulated training sessions and providing debriefing (based on plus-delta model) and pre-post training assessment following the principles of Assessment for Learning. Results: Three prototypes were developed until the final high-fidelity-mannequin was achieved. The abdominal paracentesis workshop was attended by 237 students at the Universidad Católica (UC) Experimental Surgery and Simulation Center. This was a hands-on group activity (7-8 students per session) including pre-session assessment, instructional video-tape, real-time demonstration of abdominal paracentesis procedure by the clinical teacher, followed by abdominal paracentesis performed by the students, debriefing and closing session. Conclusions: A teaching model in a simulated environment is feasible to be successfully designed and implemented in an educational center for undergraduate medical students. This workshop allows students training process to perform abdominal paracentesis in a safe environment for students and patients and it can be implemented in other centers or institutions with low cost.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Simulação , Ensaios Clínicos Adaptados como Assunto , Estudantes de Medicina , Paracentese , Educação Médica , Abdome
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