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J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-6, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035800

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preterm delivery is a multifactorial health problem that represents a serious public health problem around the world. In recent years, there has been an increase in scientific evidence suggesting associations between oral health status (mainly periodontal disease and tooth loss) and an increased risk of systemic diseases and various adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study explores the association between indicators of oral health and preterm delivery in a sample of Mexican pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was carried out with 111 pregnant (36 cases, 75 controls) who received prenatal care and delivered in an obstetric hospital in Pachuca, Mexico. Clinical files were reviewed to obtain the necessary information for the variables studied. The dependent variable was preterm delivery and the independent variables were gingivitis, periodontitis, DMFT index and its components, the number of decayed teeth with pulpal exposure or endodontic lesions, age of the mother, education, alcohol use, smoking status, number of gestations, and sex of the newborn. RESULTS: The average ages were similar between the cases and the controls (24.29 ± 5.42 versus 24.89 ± 5.67, p = .5781). Significant differences were observed with gingivitis (p < .01) and periodontitis (p < .001). In addition, when the severity of gingivitis or periodontitis increased, the percentage of cases of preterm delivery increased (p < .01). The average number of teeth lost was higher among the cases than among the controls (1.33 ± 1.89 versus 0.81 ± 1.82, p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: It was found that gingivitis, periodontitis, and tooth loss were associated with preterm delivery. It is necessary to carry out actions aimed at the preservation of oral health in pregnant patients to avoid adverse results. These findings indicate a likely association, but it needs to be confirmed by large and well-designed studies.

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