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1.
J Biophotonics ; : e202200222, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056822

RESUMO

We examined hematological changes influenced by the experimental hypervitaminosis A. The 3D confocal optical profilometer was applied for assessment of the erythrocytes' membrane structural changes influenced by an overdose of vitamin A. The blood smears were evaluated in terms of alterations of geometrical and optical parameters of erythrocytes for two groups of animals: oil base and retinol palmitate (n = 9 animals for each group). The results demonstrate that an overdose of retinol palmitate causes changes in the torus curvature and pallor of discocytes, their surface area and volume. The observed structural malformations of the shape of red blood cells become visible at the earlier preclinical stage of changes in animal state and behavior. With this in mind, the results of the study open a new area of research in the certain dysfunction diagnosis of red blood cells and have a great potential in the further development of new curative protocols.

2.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080587

RESUMO

Polymer smart materials are a broad class of polymeric materials that can change their shapes, mechanical responses, light transmissions, controlled releases, and other functional properties under external stimuli. A good understanding of the aspects controlling various types of shape memory phenomena in shape memory polymers (SMPs), such as polymer structure, stimulus effect and many others, is not only important for the preparation of new SMPs with improved performance, but is also useful for the optimization of the current ones to expand their application field. In the present era, simple understanding of the activation mechanisms, the polymer structure, the effect of the modification of the polymer structure on the activation process using fillers or solvents to develop new reliable SMPs with improved properties, long lifetime, fast response, and the ability to apply them under hard conditions in any environment, is considered to be an important topic. Moreover, good understanding of the activation mechanism of the two-way shape memory effect in SMPs for semi-crystalline polymers and liquid crystalline elastomers is the main key required for future investigations. In this article, the principles of the three basic types of external stimuli (heat, chemicals, light) and their key parameters that affect the efficiency of the SMPs are reviewed in addition to several prospective applications.

3.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(16)2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014677

RESUMO

A technology for the formation and bonding with a substrate of hybrid carbon nanostructures from single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by laser radiation is proposed. Molecular dynamics modeling by the real-time time-dependent density functional tight-binding (TD-DFTB) method made it possible to reveal the mechanism of field emission centers formation in carbon nanostructures layers. Laser radiation stimulates the formation of graphene-nanotube covalent contacts and also induces a dipole moment of hybrid nanostructures, which ensures their orientation along the force lines of the radiation field. The main mechanical and emission characteristics of the formed hybrid nanostructures were determined. By Raman spectroscopy, the effect of laser radiation energy on the defectiveness of all types of layers formed from nanostructures was determined. Laser exposure increased the hardness of all samples more than twice. Maximum hardness was obtained for hybrid nanostructure with a buffer layer (bl) of rGO and the main layer of SWCNT-rGO(bl)-SWCNT and was 54.4 GPa. In addition, the adhesion of rGO to the substrate and electron transport between the substrate and rGO(bl)-SWCNT increased. The rGO(bl)-SWCNT cathode with an area of ~1 mm2 showed a field emission current density of 562 mA/cm2 and stability for 9 h at a current of 1 mA. The developed technology for the formation of hybrid nanostructures can be used both to create high-performance and stable field emission cathodes and in other applications where nanomaterials coating with good adhesion, strength, and electrical conductivity is required.

4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(13)2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35808110

RESUMO

Unlike traditional actuators, such as piezoelectric ceramic or metallic actuators, polymer actuators are currently attracting more interest in biomedicine due to their unique properties, such as light weight, easy processing, biodegradability, fast response, large active strains, and good mechanical properties. They can be actuated under external stimuli, such as chemical (pH changes), electric, humidity, light, temperature, and magnetic field. Electroactive polymers (EAPs), called 'artificial muscles', can be activated by an electric stimulus, and fixed into a temporary shape. Restoring their permanent shape after the release of an electrical field, electroactive polymer is considered the most attractive actuator type because of its high suitability for prosthetics and soft robotics applications. However, robust control, modeling non-linear behavior, and scalable fabrication are considered the most critical challenges for applying the soft robotic systems in real conditions. Researchers from around the world investigate the scientific and engineering foundations of polymer actuators, especially the principles of their work, for the purpose of a better control of their capability and durability. The activation method of actuators and the realization of required mechanical properties are the main restrictions on using actuators in real applications. The latest highlights, operating principles, perspectives, and challenges of electroactive materials (EAPs) such as dielectric EAPs, ferroelectric polymers, electrostrictive graft elastomers, liquid crystal elastomers, ionic gels, and ionic polymer-metal composites are reviewed in this article.

5.
Bioengineering (Basel) ; 9(6)2022 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735481

RESUMO

Laser soldering is a current biophotonic technique for the surgical recovery of the integrity of soft tissues. This technology involves the use of a device providing laser exposure to the cut edges of the wound with a solder applied. The proposed solder consisted of an aqueous dispersion of biopolymer albumin (25 wt.%), single-walled carbon nanotubes (0.1 wt.%) and exogenous indocyanine green chromophore (0.1 wt.%). Under laser exposure, the dispersion transforms into a nanocomposite due to the absorption of radiation and its conversion into heat. The nanocomposite is a frame structure of carbon nanotubes in a biopolymer matrix, which provides adhesion of the wound edges and the formation of a strong laser weld. A new laser device based on a diode laser (808 nm) has been developed to implement the method. The device has a temperature feedback system based on a bolometric infrared matrix sensor. The system determines the hottest area of the laser weld and adjusts the current supplied to the diode laser to maintain the preset laser heating temperature. The laser soldering technology made it possible to heal linear defects (cuts) in the skin of laboratory animals (rabbits) without the formation of a fibrotic scar compared to the control (suture material). The combined use of a biopolymer nanocomposite solder and a laser device made it possible to achieve a tensile strength of the laser welds of 4 ± 0.4 MPa. The results of the experiment demonstrated that the addition of single-walled carbon nanotubes to the solder composition leads to an increase in the ultimate tensile strength of the laser welds by 80%. The analysis of regenerative and morphological features in the early stages (1-3 days) after surgery revealed small wound gaps, a decrease in inflammation, the absence of microcirculatory disorders and an earlier epithelization of laser welds compared to the control. On the 10th day after the surgical operation, the laser weld was characterized by a thin cosmetic scar and a continuous epidermis covering the defect. An immunohistochemical analysis proved the absence of myofibroblasts in the area of the laser welds.

6.
J Funct Biomater ; 13(1)2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35076513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are a successful surgical treatment for patients with end-stage heart failure on the waiting list or with contraindicated heart transplantation. In Russia, Sputnik 1 LVAD was also successfully introduced into clinical practice as a bridge-to-transplant and a destination therapy device. Development of Sputnik 2 LVAD was aimed at miniaturization to reduce invasiveness, optimize hemocompatibility, and improve versatility for patients of various sizes. METHODS: We compared hemolysis level in flow path of the Sputnik LVADs and investigated design aspects influencing other types of blood damage, using predictions of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental assessment. The investigated operating point was a flow rate of 5 L/min and a pressure head of 100 mm Hg at an impeller rotational speed of 9100 min-1. RESULTS: Mean hemolysis indices predicted with CFD were 0.0090% in the Sputnik 1 and 0.0023% in the Sputnik 2. Averaged values of normalized index of hemolysis obtained experimentally for the Sputnik 1 and the Sputnik 2 were 0.011 ± 0.003 g/100 L and 0.004 ± 0.002 g/100 L, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Obtained results indicate obvious improvements in hemocompatibility and sufficiently satisfy the determined miniaturization aim for the Sputnik 2 LVAD development.

7.
Bioengineering (Basel) ; 8(12)2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34940368

RESUMO

Hemocompatibility of biomaterials in contact with the blood of patients is a prerequisite for the short- and long-term applications of medical devices such as cardiovascular stents, artificial heart valves, ventricular assist devices, catheters, blood linings and extracorporeal devices such as artificial kidneys (hemodialysis), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and cardiopulmonary bypass. Although lower blood compatibility of materials and devices can be handled with systemic anticoagulation, its side effects, such as an increased bleeding risk, make materials that have a better hemocompatibility highly desirable, particularly in long-term applications. This review provides a short overview on the basic mechanisms of blood coagulation including plasmatic coagulation and blood platelets, as well as the activation of the complement system. Furthermore, a survey on concepts for tailoring the blood response of biomaterials to improve the hemocompatibility of medical devices is given which covers different approaches that either inhibit interaction of material surfaces with blood components completely or control the response of the coagulation system, blood platelets and leukocytes.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859107

RESUMO

The coating formation technique for artificial knee ligaments was proposed, which provided tight fixation of ligaments of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers as a result of the healing of the bone channel in the short-term period after implantation. The coating is a frame structure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in a collagen matrix, which is formed by layer-by-layer solidification of an aqueous dispersion of SWCNT with collagen during spin coating and controlled irradiation with IR radiation. Quantum mechanical method SCC DFTB, with a self-consistent charge, was used. It is based on the density functional theory and the tight-binding approximation. The method established the optimal temperature and time for the formation of the equilibrium configurations of the SWCNT/collagen type II complexes to ensure maximum binding energies between the nanotube and the collagen. The highest binding energies were observed in complexes with SWCNT nanometer diameter in comparison with subnanometer SWCNT. The coating had a porous structure-pore size was 0.5-6 µm. The process of reducing the mass and volume of the coating with the initial biodegradation of collagen after contact with blood plasma was demonstrated. This is proved by exceeding the intensity of the SWCNT peaks G and D after contact with the blood serum in the Raman spectrum and by decreasing the intensity of the main collagen bands in the SWCNT/collagen complex frame coating. The number of pores and their size increased to 20 µm. The modification of the PET tape with the SWCNT/collagen coating allowed to increase its hydrophilicity by 1.7 times compared to the original PET fibers and by 1.3 times compared to the collagen coating. A reduced hemolysis level of the PET tape coated with SWCNT/collagen was achieved. The SWCNT/collagen coating provided 2.2 times less hemolysis than an uncoated PET implant. MicroCT showed the effective formation of new bone and dense connective tissue around the implant. A decrease in channel diameter from 2.5 to 1.7 mm was detected at three and, especially, six months after implantation of a PET tape with SWCNT/collagen coating. MicroCT allowed us to identify areas for histological sections, which demonstrated the favorable interaction of the PET tape with the surrounding tissues. In the case of using the PET tape coated with SWCNT/collagen, more active growth of connective tissue with mature collagen fibers in the area of implantation was observed than in the case of only collagen coating. The stimulating effect of SWCNT/collagen on the formation of bone trabeculae around and inside the PET tape was evident in three and six months after implantation. Thus, a PET tape with SWCNT/collagen coating has osteoconductivity as well as a high level of hydrophilicity and hemocompatibility.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/farmacologia , Ligamentos/transplante , Polietilenotereftalatos/química , Animais , Bioprótese , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/cirurgia , Colágeno/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Teoria Quântica , Coelhos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Anal Biochem ; 598: 113710, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268126

RESUMO

Biopolymer composites based on two types of chitosan (chitosan succinate and low-molecular weight chitosan) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) were created by laser printing. SWCNT have good dispersibility in chitosan solutions and therefore, can form relatively homogeneous films that was shown in scanning electron microscopy images. For the studies film composites were formed under the action of laser radiation on aqueous dispersion media. Study of the nonlinear optical process during the interaction of laser radiation with a disperse media has shown that low-molecular chitosan has a large nonlinear absorption coefficient of 17 cm/GW, while the addition of SWCNT lead to a significant increase up to 902 cm/GW. The threshold intensity for these samples was 5.5 MW/cm2 with nanotubes. If intensity exceeds the threshold value, nonlinear effects occur, which, in turn, lead to the transformation of a liquid into a solid phase. Characterization of films by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy indicated arising molecular interactions between chitosan and SWCNT detected as a small frequency shift and a change in the shape of radial breathing mode (RBM). The results indicate the possibility using aqueous dispersion media based on chitosan and SWCNT to create three-dimensional films and scaffolds for tissue engineering by laser printing.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/química , Quitosana/química , Lasers , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Fenômenos Ópticos , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
11.
Cardiol Res Pract ; 2019: 4593174, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885902

RESUMO

The need to simulate the operating conditions of the human body is a key factor in every study and engineering process of a bioengineering device developed for implantation. In the present paper, we describe in detail the interaction between the left ventricle (LV) and our Sputnik left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). This research aims to evaluate the influence of different rotary blood pumps (RBPs) on the LV depending on the degree of heart failure (HF), in order to investigate energetic characteristics of the LV-LVAD interaction and to estimate main parameters of left ventricular unloading. We investigate energetic characteristics of adult Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2 LVADs connected to a hybrid adult mock circulation (HAMC) and also for the Sputnik pediatric rotary blood pump (PRBP) connected to a pediatric mock circulation (PMC). A major improvement of the LV unloading is observed during all simulations for each particular heart failure state when connected to the LVAD, with sequential pump speed increased within 5000-10000 rpm for adult LVADs and 6000-13000 rpm for PRBP with 200 rpm step. Additionally, it was found that depending on the degree of heart failure, LVADs influence the LV in different ways and a significant support level cannot be achieved without the aortic valve closure. Furthermore, this study expands the information on LV-LVAD interaction, which leads to the optimization of the RBP speed rate control in clinics for adult and pediatric patients suffering from heart failure. Finally, we show that the implementation of control algorithms using the modulation of the RBP speed in order to open the aortic valve and unload the LV more efficiently is necessary and will be content of further research.

12.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(19)2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546631

RESUMO

This paper reveals the mechanism of nanowelding a branched network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) used as a framework for the formation of protein-polymer matrices with albumin, collagen, and chitosan. It is shown that the introduction of certain point defects into the structure of SWCNTs (single vacancy, double vacancy, Stone-Wales defect, and a mixed defect) allows us to obtain strong heating in defective regions as compared to ideal SWCNTs. The wavelengths at which absorption reaches 50% are determined. Non-uniform absorption of laser radiation along with inefficient heat removal in defective regions determines the formation of hot spots, in which nanowelding of SWCNTs is observed even at 0.36 nm between contacting surfaces. The regularities of formation of layered protein-polymer matrices and the features of their interaction with cell membrane are revealed. All studies are carried out in silico using high-precision quantum approaches.

13.
Int J Artif Organs ; 39(8): 407-414, 2016 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27646630

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Miniaturisation of VADs can offer important benefits, including less invasive implantation techniques and more versatility in patient selection. The aim of this work was to reduce the weight, size, and energy consumption of the Sputnik VAD. METHODS: The second generation of the Sputnik VAD was developed with a set of changes in construction. The head pressure-flow rate (H-Q) and power consumption-flow rate curves for the Sputnik VADs were measured at different rotational speeds. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were used for operating condition simulation and the LVADs were compared under the simulated physiological conditions. RESULTS: The slope of the H-Q curves for the Sputnik 1 VAD remains almost invariable over the entire range of the measured flow rate, in contrast to the curves for the Sputnik 2 VAD, which become flat in the high flow-rate region. Despite the design modification, the operating rotor speed remained invariable. The preload sensitivity of the Sputnik VAD is higher than that of the other rotary blood pumps and amounts to 0.111 ± 0.0092 L min-1 mmHg-1. The power consumption for the Sputnik 2 VAD is lower over the entire speed range, except for at 5,000 rpm. CONCLUSIONS: The pump weight was reduced from 246 to 205 g, the pump length was decreased from 82 to 66 mm, and the pump diameter was decreased from 32 to 29 mm. The total energy consumption of the pump was reduced by 15%.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Miniaturização , Federação Russa
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