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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248393, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Demand for family planning met/satisfied with modern contraceptive methods (mDFPS) has been proposed to track progress in Family Planning (FP) programs for Sustainable Development Goals. This study measured mDFPS among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in Kenya to identify which groups were not being reached by FP programs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Performance, Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) survey data from 2014-2018 was used. PMA2020 surveys are cross-sectional including women 15-49 years. PMA2020 used a 2-stage cluster design with urban/rural regions as strata with random selection of households. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done using stata V15. RESULTS: Of the 34,832 respondents interviewed from 2014 to 2018, 60.2% were MWRA. There was a significant decrease in demand for FP from 2014 to 2018, p = 0.012. Lowest demand was among 15-19 and 45-49 years old women. Overall, modern contraceptive prevalence rate increased significantly from 54.6% to 60.8%, p = 0.004, being higher for women from urban areas, home visits by health care worker (HCW), educated, wealthy, visited health facilities and exposed to mass media. Unmet need for FP decreased from 23.0-13.8% over the 5-years, p<0.001. Married adolescent 15-19 had the highest unmet need and those from rural areas, poor, uneducated and not exposed to mass media. mDFPS increased significantly from 69.7-79.4% over the 5-years, p<0.001, with increase in long acting reversible contraception/permanent methods from 19.9-37.2% and decrease in short acting methods from 49.9-42.2%. Significant determinants of mDFPS were age, rural/urban residence, education, wealth, health facility visitation, exposure to FP messages via mass media in the last 12 months, year of study and county of residence. CONCLUSIONS: Results show a good progress in key FP indicators. However, not all MWRA are being reached and should be reached if Kenya is to achieve the desired universal health coverage as well as Sustainable Development Goals. Targeted home visits by HCW as well increase in mass media coverage could be viable interventions.

2.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 29(1): 1893890, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719937

RESUMO

In patriarchal societies like Kenya, understanding men's perceptions and attitudes on family planning is critical given their decision-making roles that affect uptake of contraception. Yet, most programmes mainly target women as primary users of contraceptive methods since they bear the burden of pregnancy. However, women-focused approaches tend to overlook gender power dynamics within relationships, with men wielding excessive power that determines contraception use or non-use. A qualitative study involving focus group discussions and in-depth interviews was conducted in the two predominantly Muslim communities of Lamu and Wajir counties, Kenya. Open-ended questions explored perspectives, attitudes and men's understanding of contraception, family size, decision making on family planning and general views on contraceptive use. Thematic content analysis was used. Findings show that men in Wajir and Lamu held similar viewpoints of family planning as a foreign or western idea and associated family planning with ill health and promiscuity. They believed family planning is a "woman's affair" that requires little or no input from men. Men from Wajir desired a big family size. There is a need for a shift in family planning programmes to enable men's positive engagement. The findings from this study can be used to develop culturally appropriate approaches to engage men, challenge negative social norms and foster positive social change to improve uptake of family planning.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 453, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress and burnout among healthcare workers has been recognized as a global crisis needing urgent attention. Yet few studies have examined stress and burnout among healthcare providers in sub-Saharan Africa, and even fewer among maternity providers who work under very stressful conditions. To address these gaps, we examined self-reported stress and burnout levels as well as stress-related physiologic measures of these providers, along with their potential predictors. METHODS: Participants included 101 maternity providers (62 nurses/midwives, 16 clinical officers/doctors, and 23 support staff) in western Kenya. Respondents completed Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, the Shirom-Melamed Burnout scale, and other sociodemographic, health, and work-related items. We also collected data on heart rate variability (HRV) and hair cortisol levels to assess stress-related physiologic responses to acute and chronic stress respectively. Multilevel linear regression models were computed to examine individual and work-related factors associated with stress, burnout, HRV, and cortisol level. RESULTS: 85% of providers reported moderate stress and 11.5% high stress. 65% experienced low burnout and 19.6% high burnout. Average HRV (measured as the root mean square of differences in intervals between successive heart beats: RMSSD) was 60.5 (SD = 33.0) and mean cortisol was mean cortisol was 44.2 pg/mg (SD = 60.88). Greater satisfaction with life accomplishments was associated with reduced stress (ß = - 2.83; CI = -5.47; - 0.18), while motivation to work excessively (over commitment) was associated with both increased stress (ß = 0.61 CI: 0.19, 1.03) and burnout (ß = 2.05, CI = 0.91, 3.19). Female providers had higher burnout scores compared to male providers. Support staff had higher HRV than other providers and providers under 30 years of age had higher HRV than those 30 and above. Although no association between cortisol and any predictor was statistically significant, the direction of associations was consistent with those found for stress and burnout. CONCLUSIONS: Most providers experienced moderate to high levels of stress and burnout. Individuals who were more driven to work excessively were particularly at risk for higher stress and burnout. Higher HRV of support staff and providers under age 30 suggest their more adaptive autonomic nervous system response to stress. Given its impact on provider wellbeing and quality of care, interventions to help providers manage stress are critical.

4.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 52, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In western Kenya, women often present with late-stage cervical cancer despite prior contact with the health care system. The aim of this study was to predict primary health care providers' behaviour in examining women who present with abnormal discharge or bleeding. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). A sample of primary health care practitioners in western Kenya completed a 59-item questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was used to identify the determinants of providers' intention to perform a gynaecological examination. Bivariate analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between the external variables and intention. RESULTS: Direct measures of subjective norms (DMSN), direct measures of perceived behavioural control (DMPBC), and indirect measures of attitude predicted the intention to examine patients. Negative attitudes toward examining women had a suppressor effect on the prediction of health workers' intentions. However, the predictors of intention with the highest coefficients were the external variables being a nurse (ß = 0.32) as opposed to a clinical officer and workload of attending less than 50 patients per day (ß = 0.56). In bivariate analysis with intention to perform a gynaecological examination, there was no evidence that working experience, being female, having a lower workload, or being a private practitioner were associated with a higher intention to conduct vaginal examinations. Clinical officers and nurses were equally likely to examine women. CONCLUSIONS: The TPB is a suitable theoretical basis to predict the intention to perform a gynaecological examination. Overall, the model predicted 47% of the variation in health care providers' intention to examine women who present with recurrent vaginal bleeding or discharge. Direct subjective norms (health provider's conformity with what their colleagues do or expect them to do), PBC (providers need to feel competent and confident in performing examinations in women), and negative attitudes toward conducting vaginal examination accounted for the most variance. External variables in this study also contributed to the overall variance. As the model in this study could not explain 53% of the variance, investigating other external variables that influence the intention to examine women should be undertaken.

5.
Int J Drug Policy ; 90: 103095, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who use drugs (PWUD) which includes both people who inject drugs (PWID) and non-injection drug users (NIDU) are marginalized, experience high levels of stigma and discrimination, and are likely to have challenges with accessing health services. Mozambique implemented the first drop-in center (DIC) for PWUD in Maputo City in 2018. This analysis aims to assess the prevalence of HIV, viral hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) and tuberculosis (TB) among PWUD, and assess their linkage to care and associated correlates. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of routine screening data collected from the first visit at the drop-in center (DIC) during the period of May 2018 to November 2019 (18 months). Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analysis were conducted to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of HIV, HBV, HCV and TB infections among PWID and NIDU. Cox proportional hazards models of determinants were used to estimate time from HIV diagnosis to linkage to care for PWUD. RESULTS: A total of 1,818 PWUD were screened at the DIC, of whom 92.6% were male. The median age was 27 years (range:14-63). Heroin was the most consumed drug (93.8%), and among people who used it, 15.5% injected it. Prevalence of HIV (43.9%), HCV (22.6%) and HBV (5.9%) was higher among PWID (p<0.001). Linkage to HIV care was observed in 40.5% of newly diagnosed PWID. Factors associated with shorter time to linkage to care included drug injection (aHR=1.6) and confirmed TB infection (aHR=2.9). CONCLUSION: This was the first analysis conducted on the implementation of the DIC in Mozambique and highlights the importance of targeted services for this high-risk population. Our analysis confirmed a high prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV, and highlight the challenges with linkage to care among PWID. The expansion of DIC locations to other high-risk localities to enhance HIV testing, treatment services and linkage to care to reduce ongoing transmission of HIV, HBV, HCV and TB and improve health outcomes.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the proportion and determinants of repeat induced abortions in China. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected of 79 954 women who received an induced abortion from 297 hospitals across 30 Chinese provinces in 2013, using a stratified cluster sampling design. Logistic and Poisson regression models were fitted to identify characteristics associated with repeat abortion. Putative factors included age, household registration (hukou) status, marital status, education, occupation, reproductive history, and current contraceptive practices. RESULTS: Of all abortions, 65.2% were repeat induced abortions. The proportion of repeat abortions varied substantially across provinces, from 36.9% in Qinghai to 85% in Hubei. The strongest factors associated with repeat induced abortion were being older than 40 years (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj ] 7.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2-7.9), divorced or widowed (ORadj 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-2.7), and using oral contraceptives (ORadj 2.1, 95% CI 1.9-2.3). CONCLUSION: A high proportion of repeat induced abortion was observed across many Chinese provinces, highlighting the need to reduce the incidence of unwanted pregnancy. Several sociodemographic and clinical factors were found to be significantly associated with repeat abortions and should be considered in post-abortion family planning services.

7.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e033290, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Portugal has the highest HIV incidence rate in Western Europe. The proportion assigned to sexual contact between men recently increased to more than 30% of all HIV infections. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are vulnerable to the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), increasing the per-contact risk of HIV infection. Building on syndemic theory, the aim of this analysis was to identify patterns of current sexual behaviour in MSM, and explore their relationship with self-reported current, past STI diagnoses and HIV positive serostatus. DESIGN: A cross-sectional behavioural survey was conducted in Portugal among MSM, using a community-based participatory research approach. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify patterns including behavioural and demographic factors. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in six clusters. Three clusters showed higher rates of current STI diagnosis (ranging from 11.7% to 17.1%), past STI diagnosis (ranging from 25.5% to 41.5%) and HIV positive serostatus (ranging from 13.0% to 16.7%). From the three clusters scoring lower on current and past STI and HIV diagnoses, one was characterised by a high number of sexual partners (62% had more than 12 partners in the last year), a high proportion (94.6%) of frequent visits to gay venues to meet sexual partners and high alcohol use (46.1%). The other two clusters scored lower on high risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: Factors other than sexual behaviour appear to reinforce the vulnerability to STIs and HIV of some MSM in this study, suggesting a syndemic of STIs, HIV and other adverse conditions. More research is needed to better understand the drivers of the STI/HIV epidemic in Portuguese MSM, using a concept that goes beyond risk behaviour, to develop effective combination prevention interventions.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(49): e23368, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premarital sex practices and contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) among unmarried women worldwide remain unclear, even though unmarried women tend to have multiple sex partners over time, which makes their sexual behaviors particularly important to the sexual and reproductive health of society more broadly. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases for relevant articles published between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2018. Data on prevalence of premarital sexual intercourse, use of highly prevalent contraceptive methods, as well as CPR overall and at first sexual intercourse were extracted and estimated using a DerSimonian- Laird random effects model. RESULTS: Of the 3918 articles identified, 37 covering 19 countries were included. The estimated overall prevalence of premarital sexual intercourse was 41.9% (95%CI 34.2-49.6%). Pooled CPR was 57.0% (95%CI 44.3-69.8%) overall and 57.6% (95% CI 39.5- 75.6%) at first intercourse. The overall prevalence of condom use was 51.2% (95%CI 42.7-59.7%), followed by oral contraceptives (20.5%, 95%CI 13.7-27.3%), withdrawal (12.7%, 95%CI 9.4-15.9%), and rhythm (12.1%, 95%CI 6.7-17.4%). CONCLUSION: The findings of this global study indicate worrying trends in unprotected intercourse and contraceptive practices, suggesting the need for greater attention and resources aimed at educating unmarried adolescent women about sexual and reproductive health. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019132736.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243977, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315954

RESUMO

SETTING: Kenya, 2012-2015. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether there is a gender difference in all-cause mortality among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB)/ HIV co-infected patients treated for tuberculosis (TB) between 2012 and 2015 in Kenya. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort of 9,026 smear-positive patients aged 15-49 years. All-cause mortality during TB treatment was the outcome of interest. Time to start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation was considered as a proxy for CD4 cell count. Those who took long to start of ART were assumed to have high CD4 cell count. RESULTS: Of the 9,026 observations analysed, 4,567(51%) and 4,459(49%) were women and men, respectively. Overall, out of the 9,026 patients, 8,154 (90%) had their treatment outcome as cured, the mean age in years (SD) was 33.3(7.5) and the mean body mass index (SD) was 18.2(3.4). Men were older (30% men' vs 17% women in those ≥40 years, p = <0.001) and had a lower BMI <18.5 (55.3% men vs 50.6% women, p = <0.001). Men tested later for HIV: 29% (1,317/4,567) of women HIV tested more than 3 months prior to TB treatment, as compared to 20% (912/4,459) men (p<0.001). Mortality was higher in men 11% (471/4,459) compared to women 9% (401/4,567, p = 0.004). There was a 17% reduction in the risk of death among women (adjusted HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.72-0.96; p = 0.013). Survival varied by age-groups, with women having significantly better survival than men, in the age-groups 40 years and over (log-rank p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Women with sputum positive PTB/HIV co-infection have a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality during TB treatment compared to men. Men were older, had lower BMI and tested later for HIV than women.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores Sexuais , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(12): e1534-e1545, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female sex workers in low-income and middle-income countries face high risks of unintended pregnancy. We developed a 12-month, multifaceted short messaging service intervention (WHISPER) for female sex workers in Kenya who had the potential to become pregnant, to improve their contraceptive knowledge and behaviours. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the intervention to reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancy among sex workers in Kenya compared with an equal-attention control group receiving nutrition-focused messages (SHOUT). METHODS: Our two-arm, cluster-randomised controlled trial was done in sex-work venues in two subcounties of Mombasa, Kenya (Kisauni and Changamwe). Participants, aged 16-34 years, not pregnant or planning pregnancy, able to read text messages in English, residing in the study area, and who had a personal mobile phone with one of two phone networks, were recruited from 93 randomly selected sex-work venues (clusters). Random cluster allocation (1:1) to the intervention or control group was concealed from participants and researchers until the intervention started. Both groups received text messages in English delivered two to three times per week for 12 months (137 messages in total), as well as additional on-demand messages. Message content in the intervention group focused on promotion of contraception, particularly long-acting reversible contraception and dual method contraceptive use; message content in the control group focused on promotion of nutritional knowledge and practices, including food safety, preparation, and purchasing. The primary endpoint, analysed in all participants who were randomly assigned and attended at least one follow-up visit, compared unintended pregnancy incidence between groups using discrete-time survival analysis at 6 and 12 months. This trial is registered with Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616000852459, and is closed to new participants. FINDINGS: Between Sept 14, 2016, and May 16, 2017, 1728 individuals were approached to take part in the study. Of these, 1155 were eligible for full screening, 1035 were screened, and 882 were eligible, enrolled, and randomly assigned (451 participants from 47 venues in the intervention group; 431 participants from 46 venues in the control group). 401 participants from the intervention group and 385 participants from the control group were included in the primary analysis. Incidence of unintended pregnancy was 15·5 per 100 person-years in the intervention group and 14·7 per 100 person-years in the control group (hazard ratio 0·98, 95% CI 0·69-1·39). INTERPRETATION: The intervention had no measurable effect on unintended pregnancy incidence. Mobile health interventions, even when acceptable and rigorously designed, are unlikely to have a sufficient effect on behaviour among female sex workers to change pregnancy incidence when used in isolation. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia.

11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Technological advances and high throughput biological assays can facilitate discovery science in biobanks from population cohorts, including pregnant women. Biological pathways associated with health outcomes differ depending on geography, and high-income country data may not generalise to low-resource settings. We conducted a systematic review to identify prospective pregnancy cohorts in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that include biobanked samples with potential to enhance discovery science opportunity. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were prospective data collection during pregnancy, with associated biobanking in SSA. Data sources included: scientific databases (with comprehensive search terms), grey literature, hand searching applicable reference lists and expert input. Results were screened in a three-stage process based on title, abstract and full text by two independent reviewers. The review is registered on PROSPERO (CRD42019147483). RESULTS: Fourteen SSA studies met the inclusion criteria from database searches (n=8), reference list searches (n=2) and expert input (n=4). Three studies have ongoing data collection. The most represented countries were South Africa and Mozambique (Southern Africa) (n=3), Benin (Western Africa) (n=4) and Tanzania (Eastern Africa) (n=4); including an estimated 31 763 women. Samples commonly collected were blood, cord blood and placenta. Seven studies collected neonatal samples. Common clinical outcomes included maternal and perinatal mortality, malaria and preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS: Increasingly numerous pregnancy cohorts in SSA that include biobanking are generating a uniquely valuable resource for collaborative discovery science, and improved understanding of the high regional risks of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Future studies should align protocols and consider their added value and distinct contributions.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172160

RESUMO

While disrespectful treatment of pregnant women attending health care facilities occurs globally, it is more prevalent in low-resource countries. In Kenya, a large body of research studied disrespectful maternity care (DMC) from the perspective of the service users. This paper examines the perspective of health care workers (HCWs) on factors that influence DMC experienced by pregnant women at health care facilities in rural Kisii and Kilifi counties in Kenya. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews with health care workers (HCWs) in these two sites. Data were analyzed deductively and inductively using NVIVO 12. Findings from HCWs reflective narratives identified four areas connected to the delivery of disrespectful care, including poor infrastructure, understaffing, service users' sociocultural beliefs, and health care workers' attitudes toward marginalized women. Investments are needed to address health system influences on DMC, including poor health infrastructure and understaffing. Additionally, it is important to reduce cultural barriers through training on HCWs' interpersonal communication skills. Further, strategies are needed to affect positive behavior changes among HCWs directed at addressing the stigma and discrimination of pregnant women due to socioeconomic standing. To develop evidence-informed strategies to address DMC, a holistic understanding of the factors associated with pregnant women's poor experiences of facility-based maternity care is needed. This may best be achieved through an intersectional approach to address DMC by identifying systemic, cultural, and socioeconomic inequities, as well as the structural and policy features that contribute and determine peoples' behaviors and choices.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179265

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to give a global overview of trends in access to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and what is being done to mitigate its impact. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive analysis and content analysis based on an online survey among clinicians, researchers, and organizations. Our data were extracted from multiple-choice questions on access to SRHR services and risk of SRHR violations, and written responses to open-ended questions on threats to access and required response. RESULTS: The survey was answered by 51 people representing 29 countries. Eighty-six percent reported that access to contraceptive services was less or much less because of COVID-19, corresponding figures for surgical and medical abortion were 62% and 46%. The increased risk of gender-based and sexual violence was assessed as moderate or severe by 79%. Among countries with mildly restrictive abortion policies, 69% had implemented changes to facilitate access to abortion during the pandemic, compared with none among countries with severe restrictions (P < .001), 87.5% compared with 46% had implemented changes to facilitate access to contraception (P = .023). The content analysis showed that (a) prioritizations in health service delivery at the expense of SRHR, (b) lack of political will, (c) the detrimental effect of lockdown, and (d) the suspension of sexual education, were threats to SRHR access (theme 1). Requirements to mitigate these threats (theme 2) were (a) political will and support of universal access to SRH services, (b) the sensitization of providers, (c) free public transport, and (d) physical protective equipment. A contrasting third theme was the state of exception of the COVID-19 pandemic as a window of opportunity to push forward women's health and rights. CONCLUSIONS: Many countries have seen decreased access to and increased violations of SRHR during the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries with severe restrictions on abortion seem less likely to have implemented changes to SRHR delivery to mitigate this impact. Political will to support the advancement of SRHR is often lacking, which is fundamental to ensuring both continued access and, in a minority of cases, the solidification of gains made to SRHR during the pandemic.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of detecting endocervical cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+ with endocervical curettage (ECC) and treating with loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) plus top hat (+TH) among women with HIV. METHODS: Cytology was followed by coloscopy-directed biopsy if participants had HSIL or ASC-H and biopsy plus ECC if there were glandular cells present. CIN2/3 on ECC and/or inadequate colposcopy (ENL) was treated with LEEP+TH, while CIN2/3 on ectocervix (ECL) received LEEP alone. Recurrent CIN2+ were compared over a 2-year follow-up. RESULTS: Of 5330 participants, 160 underwent ECC, 98 were CIN2/3 on ECC, and 77 received LEEP+TH. ECC detected 15 (9%) more women with CIN2/3 than biopsy alone. Women were more likely to have ENL if they were older (≥45 vs <35 years) (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 2.14; P=0.009) and on antiretroviral treatment longer (≥2 vs <2 years) (aRR 3.97; P<0.001). Over the 2-year follow-up, 35 (29%) ENL had recurrent CIN2+ after TH compared to 19 (24%) ECL after LEEP (hazard ratio 1.32; 95% confidence interval 0.75-2.31; P=0.338). CONCLUSION: Among HIV-infected women, adding ECC did not increase detection of pre-cancerous disease significantly and treatment with LEEP+TH for ENL was comparable to treatment with LEEP for ECL.

15.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 132, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102152

RESUMO

There remain a number of uncertainties globally about the risks posed to women who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy. Furthermore, our understanding of the spread of COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa is limited, owing to low testing rates in many parts of the continent. PeriCOVID Africa, in conjunction with the WHO/HRP Alliance, plans to address these knowledge gaps by harnessing research infrastructures in place in five sub-Saharan African countries in order to screen more than 50,000 pregnant women and their infants for SARS-CoV-2, while monitoring pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. We anticipate that the results of this study will provide much needed information about the risks that SARS-CoV-2 poses to pregnant women and their babies, as well as establishing potential routes of mother-to-child transmission.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Medição de Risco/métodos , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065989

RESUMO

Preconception care (PCC) aims to improve maternal and fetal health outcomes, however, its utilization remains low in developing countries. This pilot study assesses the level and determinants of PCC in an urban and a rural health facility in Kenya. Unselected pregnant women were recruited consecutively at the Mother and Child Health (MCH) clinics in Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi (AKUH, N-urban) and Maragua Level Four Hospital (MLFH-rural). The utilization of PCC was defined as contact with any health care provider before current pregnancy and addressing pregnancy planning and preparation. A cross-sectional approach was employed and data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. 194 participants were recruited (97 in each setting) of whom, 25.8% received PCC. Age, marital status, education, parity and occupation were significant determinants of PCC uptake. There was also a significant difference in PCC uptake between the rural (16.5%) and urban (35.1%) participants (p < 0.01), OR of 0.3 (0.19-0.72, 95% CI). The low level of PCC in Kenya revealed in this study is consistent with the low levels globally. However, this study was not powered to allow firm conclusions and analyze the true effects of PCC determinants. Therefore, further research in the field is recommended in order to inform strategies for increasing PCC utilization and awareness in Kenya.

17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 636, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed health-seeking continues to contribute to preventable maternal and neonatal deaths in low resource countries. Some of the strategies to avoid the delay include early preparation for the birth and detection of danger signs. We aimed to assess the level of practice and factors associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) in Kenya and Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted community-based multi-stage cross-sectional surveys in Kilifi and Kisii counties in Kenya and Mwanza region in Tanzania and included women who delivered two years preceding the survey (2016-2017). A woman who mentioned at least three out of five BPCR components was considered well-prepared. Bivariate and multivariable proportional odds model were used to determine the factors associated with the BPCR. The STROBE guidelines for cross-sectional studies informed the design and reporting of this study. RESULTS: Only 11.4% (59/519) and 7.6% (31/409) of women were well-prepared for birth and its complications in Kenya and Tanzania, respectively, while 39.7 and 30.6% were unprepared, respectively. Level of education (primary: adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.59, 95% CI: 1.14-2.20, secondary: aOR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.39-3.59), delivery within health facility (aOR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.15-2.29), good knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy (aOR: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.80-2.04), labour and childbirth (aOR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.93-2.67), postpartum (aOR: 2.69, 95% CI: 1.24-5.79), and antenatal care were associated with BPCR (aOR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.13-1.78). CONCLUSION: Overall, most pregnant women were not prepared for birth and its complications in Kilifi, Kisii and Mwanza region. Improving level of education, creating awareness on danger signs during preconception, pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum period, and encouraging antenatal care and skilled birth care among women and their male partners/families are recommended strategies to promote BPCR practices and contribute to improved pregnancy outcomes in women and newborns.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Health facility-based delivery is associated with reduced maternal mortality. This study explores barriers to utilization of health facility-based delivery in Kenya. METHODS: In April 2017, a qualitative study utilizing key informant interviews (KII) and focus group discussions (FGDs) was carried out in Bomachoge Borabu and Kaloleni, Kenya. Twenty-four KIIs were interviewed including health service providers, community health workers, religious leaders, local government representatives, Ministry of Health representatives, and representatives of women's organizations. Sixteen FGDs were held separately with adolescent females, adult females, adult males, and Community Health Committee members. Data were transcribed, coded, and categorized thematically to illustrate supply and demand side barriers to use of health facility-based delivery services. RESULTS: Supply side barriers included staff shortages, inadequate supplies and space, poor interpersonal relations, few trained staff, long distance to services, poor transport infrastructure, and limited service hours. Demand side barriers included financial constraints, limited spousal support, observance of birthing traditions, limited knowledge on importance of health facility-based delivery, and fear of health facility procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Diverse barriers continue to influence use of health facility-based delivery services in Kenya. Practical, integrated interventions are urgently needed to reduce barriers noted to further reduce the maternal mortality rate.

19.
Int J STD AIDS ; 31(14): 1389-1397, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103582

RESUMO

Over 20 years, interventions have targeted HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya given their central role in new infections. To determine the effects of these interventions, we assessed the prevalence and correlates of HIV among a random sample of FSWs and modelled prevalence estimates from studies since 1993. FSWs aged 16-34 years were enrolled through multi-stage sampling. Regression models identified correlates of HIV infection. Generalised linear mixed modelling estimated temporal changes in prevalence between 1993 and 2016. 882 FSWs were enrolled. Prevalence rose from 3.6% among 16-20-year-olds to 31.6% among 31-34-year-old FSWs. Those aged 31 to 34 years had greater odds of HIV compared to those 16 to 20 years (AOR 14.2, 95% CI, 5.5-36.8). Infection was less prevalent among FSWs with tertiary education compared to those with primary or no education (AOR 0.23, 95% CI, 0.07-0.78). There was an overall 30% reduction in prevalence from 1993 to 2016 with an average annual decline of 3%. About one in ten FSWs in Mombasa are currently infected with HIV. Considering FSWs' central role in sustaining population-level infections, these initiatives require continued support, focusing on reducing transmission from older FSWs and those with less education.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237450, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898139

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sub-Saharan Africa has low Caesarean (CS) levels, despite a global increase in CS use. In conflict settings, the pattern of CS use is unclear because of scanty data. We aimed to examine the opportunity of using routine facility data to describe the CS use in conflict settings. METHODS: We conducted a facility-based cross-sectional study in 8 health zones (HZ) of South Kivu province in eastern DR Congo. We reviewed patient hospital records, maternity registers and operative protocol books, from January to December 2018. Data on direct conflict fatalities were obtained from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program. Based on conflict intensity and chronicity (expressed as a 6-year cumulative conflict death rate), HZ were classified as unstable (higher conflict death rate), intermediate and stable (lower conflict death rate). To describe the Caesarean section practice, we used the Robson classification system. Based on parity, history of previous CS, onset of labour, foetal lie and presentation, number of neonates and gestational age, the Robson classification categorises deliveries into 10 mutually exclusive groups. We performed a descriptive analysis of the relative contribution of each Robson group to the overall CS rate in the conflict stratum. RESULTS: Among the 29,600 deliveries reported by health facilities, 5,520 (18.6%) were by CS; 5,325 (96.5%) records were reviewed, of which 2,883 (54.1%) could be classified. The overall estimated population CS rate was 6.9%. The proportion of health facility deliveries that occurred in secondary hospitals was much smaller in unstable health zones (22.4%) than in intermediate (40.25) or stable health zones (43.0%). Robson groups 5 (previous CS, single cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks), 1 (nulliparous, single cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and 3 (multiparous, no previous CS, single cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks, spontaneous labour) were the leading contributors to the overall CS rate; and represented 75% of all CS deliveries. In unstable zones, previous CS (27.1%) and abnormal position of the fetus (breech, transverse lie, 3.3%) were much less frequent than in unstable and intermediate (44.3% and 6.0% respectively) and stable (46.7%and 6.2% respectively). Premature delivery and multiple pregnancy were more prominent Robson groups in unstable zones. CONCLUSION: In South Kivu province, conflict exposure is linked with an uneven estimated CS rate at HZ level with at high-risks women in conflict affected settings likely to have lower access to CS compared to low-risk mothers in stable health zones.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Apresentação no Trabalho de Parto , Paridade , Adulto , Apresentação Pélvica/cirurgia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Congo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Nascimento Prematuro/cirurgia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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