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2.
J Nat Prod ; 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427139

RESUMO

Investigation of the marine sponge Agelas dispar MeOH fractions using feature-based molecular networking, dereplication, and isolation led to the discovery of new bromopyrrole-derived metabolites. An in-house library of bromopyrrole alkaloids previously isolated from A. dispar and Dictyonella sp. was utilized, along with the investigation of an MS/MS fragmentation of these compounds. Our strategy led to the isolation and identification of the disparamides A-C (1-3), with a novel carbon skeleton. Additionally, new dispyrins B-F (4-8) and nagelamides H2 and H3 (9 and 10) and known nagelamide H (11), citrinamine B (12), ageliferin (13), bromoageliferin (14), and dibromoageliferin (15) were also isolated and identified by analysis of spectroscopic data. Analysis of MS/MS fragmentation data and molecular networking analysis indicated the presence of hymenidin (16), oroidin (17), dispacamide (18), monobromodispacamide (19), keramadine (20), longamide B (21), methyl ester of longamide B (22), hanishin (23), methyl ester of 3-debromolongamide B (24), and 3-debromohanishin (25). Antibacterial activity of ageliferin (13), bromoageliferin (14), and dibromoageliferin (15) was evaluated against susceptible and multi-drug-resistant ESKAPE pathogenic bacteria Klabsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterococcus faecalis. Dibromoageliferin (15) displayed the most potent antimicrobial activity against all tested susceptible and MDR strains. Compounds 13-15 presented no significant hemolytic activity up to 100 µM.

3.
Chem Biodivers ; 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485995

RESUMO

Chagas Disease (CD), caused by flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) that affect approximately seven million people worldwide with a restrict therapeutical arsenal. In the present study, the essential oils from 18 Myrtaceae species were extracted, chemically dereplicated, and evaluated in vitro against T. cruzi. From these, eight essential oils were considered promising (IC50 < 10 µg/mL and SI > 10) against the protozoan: Eugenia florida, E. acutata, E. widgrenii, Calyptranthes brasilienses, C. widgreniana, Plinia cauliflora, Campomanesia xanthocarpa, and Psidium guajava. Multivariate data analysis pointed out (E)-caryophyllene, α-humulene, limonene, caryophyllene oxide, and α-copaene playing an important role in the anti-T. cruzi activity. The obtained results demonstrated the potential of essential oils of Myrtaceae species as valuable sources of bioactive compounds against T. cruzi.

4.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164158

RESUMO

As part of our continuous studies involving the prospection of natural products from Brazilian flora aiming at the discovery of prototypes for the development of new antiparasitic drugs, the present study describes the isolation of two natural acetylene acetogenins, (2S,3R,4R)-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(n-eicos-11'-yn-19'-enyl)butanolide (1) and (2S,3R,4R)-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-(n-eicos-11'-ynyl)butanolide (2), from the seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa (Warm.) R.E. Fries (Annonaceae). Using an ex-vivo assay, compound 1 showed an IC50 value of 29.9 µM against the intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania (L.) infantum, whereas compound 2 was inactive. These results suggested that the terminal double bond plays an important role in the activity. This effect was also observed for the semisynthetic acetylated (1a and 2a) and eliminated (1b and 2b) derivatives, since only compounds containing a double bond at C-19 displayed activity, resulting in IC50 values of 43.3 µM (1a) and 23.1 µM (1b). In order to evaluate the effect of the triple bond in the antileishmanial potential, the mixture of compounds 1 + 2 was subjected to catalytic hydrogenation to afford a compound 3 containing a saturated side chain. The antiparasitic assays performed with compound 3, acetylated (3a), and eliminated (3b) derivatives confirmed the lack of activity. Furthermore, an in-silico study using the SwissADME online platform was performed to bioactive compounds 1, 1a, and 1b in order to investigate their physicochemical parameters, pharmacokinetics, and drug-likeness. Despite the reduced effect against amastigote forms of the parasite to the purified compounds, different mixtures of compounds 1 + 2, 1a + 2a, and 1b + 2b were prepared and exhibited IC50 values ranging from 7.9 to 38.4 µM, with no toxicity for NCTC mammalian cells (CC50 > 200 µM). Selectivity indexes to these mixtures ranged from >5.2 to >25.3. The obtained results indicate that seeds of Porcelia macrocarpa are a promising source of interesting prototypes for further modifications aiming at the discovery of new antileishmanial drugs.


Assuntos
Acetogeninas/farmacologia , Acetileno/farmacologia , Annonaceae/química , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetogeninas/química , Acetileno/análogos & derivados , Antiprotozoários/química , Humanos , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Sementes/química
5.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 171: 106114, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986415

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi is the causing agent of Chagas disease, a parasitic infection without efficient treatment for chronic patients. Despite the efforts, no new drugs have been approved for this disease in the last 60 years. Molecular modifications based on a natural product led to the development of a series of compounds (LINS03 series) with promising antitrypanosomal activity, however previous chemometric analysis revealed a significant impact of excessive lipophilicity and low aqueous solubility on potency of amine and amide derivatives. Therefore, this work reports different modifications in the core structure to achieve adequate balance of the physicochemical properties along with biological activity. A set of 34 analogues were designed considering predicted properties related to lipophilicity/hydrosolubility and synthesized to assess their activity and selective toxicity towards the parasite. Results showed that this strategy contributed to improve the drug-likeness of the series while considerable impacts on potency were observed. The rational analysis of the obtained data led to the identification of seven active piperazine amides (28-34, IC50 8.7 to 35.3 µM against intracellular amastigotes), devoid of significant cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. The addition of water-solubilizing groups and privileged substructures such as piperazines improved the physicochemical properties and overall drug-likeness of these compounds, increased potency and maintained selectivity towards the parasite. The obtained results brought important structure-activity relationship (SAR) data and new lead structures for further modifications were identified to achieve improved antitrypanosoma compounds.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Tripanossomicidas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia
6.
Nat Prod Rep ; 38(12): 2214-2235, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913053

RESUMO

Covering: 2000 up to 2021Natural products are an important resource in drug discovery, directly or indirectly delivering numerous small molecules for potential development as human medicines. Among the many classes of natural products, alkaloids have a rich history of therapeutic applications. The extensive chemodiversity of alkaloids found in the marine environment has attracted considerable attention for such uses, while the scarcity of these natural materials has stimulated efforts towards their total synthesis. This review focuses on the biological activity of marine alkaloids (covering 2000 to up to 2021) towards Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) caused by protozoan parasites, and malaria. Chemotherapy represents the only form of treatment for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis and malaria, but there is currently a restricted arsenal of drugs, which often elicit severe adverse effects, show variable efficacy or resistance, or are costly. Natural product scaffolds have re-emerged as a focus of academic drug discovery programmes, offering a different resource to discover new chemical entities with new modes of action. In this review, the potential of a range of marine alkaloids is analyzed, accompanied by coverage of synthetic efforts that enable further studies of key antiprotozoal natural product scaffolds.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Protozoários/tratamento farmacológico , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 734127, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803682

RESUMO

Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and affects 6-8 million people worldwide, mainly from developing countries. The treatment is limited to two approved nitro-derivatives, nifurtimox and benznidazole, with several side effects and reduced efficacy. Casearia sylvestris has been used in folk medicine as an antiseptic and cicatrizing in skin diseases. In the present work, the hexane phase from the MeOH extract from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris afforded a fraction composed by the sesquiterpene T-cadinol, which was chemically characterized by NMR and HRMS. The activity of T-cadinol was evaluated against T. cruzi, and IC50 values of 18 (trypomastigotes) and 15 (amastigotes) µM were established. The relation between the mammalian toxicity and the antiparasitic activity resulted in a selectivity index >12. Based on this promising activity, the mechanism of action was investigated by different approaches using fluorescent-based techniques such as plasma membrane permeability, plasma membrane electric potential, mitochondrial membrane electric potential, reactive oxygen species, and the intracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels. The obtained results demonstrated that T-cadinol affected neither the parasite plasma membrane nor the electric potential of the membrane. Nevertheless, this compound induced a mitochondrial impairment, resulting in a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, with decreased levels of reactive oxygen species. No alterations in Ca2+ levels were observed, suggesting that T-cadinol may affect the single mitochondria of the parasite. This is the first report about the occurrence of T-cadinol in C. sylvestris, and our data suggest this sesquiterpene as an interesting hit compound for future optimizations in drug discovery studies for Chagas disease.

8.
Phytomedicine ; 93: 153748, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present work the bioactivity-guided fractionation of n-hexane extract from aerial parts of Baccharis sphenophylla (Asteraceae) against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was performed. PURPOSE: To evaluate the antitrypanosomal potential of diterpenes ent­kaurenoic (1), grandifloric (2). and 15ß-tiglinoyloxy­ent-kaurenoic (3) acids, isolated from n-hexane extract from aerial parts of B. sphenophylla, and elucidate their mechanism of action against T. cruzi. METHODS/STUDY DESIGN: n-Hexane and MeOH extracts from aerial parts of B. sphenophylla were prepared and caused, respectively, 100% and 50% of death of trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. Based on these results, the n-hexane extract was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation procedures to afford three related ent­kaurane diterpenoids (1-3). Based on spectrofluorometric assays and flow cytometry analysis, the mechanism of action of compounds 1 and 3 was investigated. RESULTS: Compounds 1 and 3, isolated from n-hexane extract from aerial parts of B. sphenophylla, showed potent activity against parasites with EC50 values of 10.6 µM (SI > 18.8) and 2.4 µM (SI = 34.8), respectively. On the other hand, compound 2 was inactive against trypomastigotes. In mechanism of action studies using the fluorescent probe SYTOX Green, the plasma membrane permeability was unaltered after treatment with compounds 1 and 3, but compound 1 induced a depolarization of the plasma membrane electric potential (ΔΨp). No substantial alterations were observed in the mitochondria after treatment with compound 3, but a transient hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) by compound 1. Despite the increased ATP levels induced by compounds 1 and 3, no alterations of ROS and Ca2+ levels were registered. However, both compounds promoted a time-dependent alkalinization of the acidocalcisomes, probably contributing to an osmotic imbalance of the cell. In silico physicochemical studies of compounds 1-3 suggested that lipophilicity and molecular complexity may play an important role in the antitrypanosomal activity. Moreover, no pan-assay interference compounds (PAINS) alerts were detected for compounds 1-3. CONCLUSION: Obtained data indicated that the isolated ent­kaurane diterpenes from n-hexane extract from aerial parts of B. sphenophylla, especially compound 3, could be considered interesting prototypes for further modifications aiming the discovery of new hits against T. cruzi.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Diterpenos , Trypanosoma cruzi , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/farmacologia , Hexanos
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 349: 109661, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537181

RESUMO

Phytochemical analysis of EtOH extract from leaves of Nectandra oppositifolia afforded three flavonoids: kaempferol (1), kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (2) and kaempferol-3-O-α-(3,4-di-E-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnopyranoside (3), which were characterized by NMR and ESI-HRMS. When tested against the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, flavonoids 1 and 3 were effective to kill the trypomastigotes with IC50 values of 32.0 and 6.7 µM, respectively, while flavonoid 2 was inactive. Isolated flavonoids 1-3 were also tested in mammalian fibroblasts and showed CC50 values of 24.8, 48.7 and 153.1 µM, respectively. Chemically, these results suggested that the free aglycone plays an important role in the bioactivity while the presence of p-coumaroyl unities linked in the rhamnoside unity is important to enhance the antitrypanosomal activity and reduce the mammalian cytotoxicity. The mechanism of cellular death was investigated for the most potent flavonoid 3 in the trypomastigotes using fluorescent and luminescent-based assays. It indicated that this compound induced neither permeabilization of the plasma membrane nor depolarization of the membrane electric potential. However, early time incubation (20 min) with flavonoid 3 resulted in a constant elevation of the Ca2+ levels inside the parasite. This effect was followed by a mitochondrial imbalance, leading to a hyperpolarization and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, with reduction of the ATP levels. During this time, the levels of reactive oxygen species levels (ROS) were unaltered. The leakage of Ca2+ from the intracellular pools can affect the bioenergetics system of T. cruzi, leading to the parasite death. Therefore, flavonoid 3 can be a useful tool for future studies against T. cruzi parasites.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Quempferóis/química , Lauraceae/química , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Íons/química , Lauraceae/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(10): e2100515, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424612

RESUMO

The search for the pharmacophore of a bioactive compound, crucial for drug discovery studies, involves the adequate arrangement of different atoms in the molecule. As part of a continuous work aiming discovery of new drug candidates against the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the hexane extract of Hydrocotyle bonariensis was subjected to a bioactivity-guided fractionation to afford two chemically related dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans - hinokinin (1) and hibalactone (2). Compounds 1 and 2 showed activity against trypomastigote with EC50 values of 17.0 and 69.4 µM, respectively. Compound 1 was also active against the clinically relevant form of the parasite, amastigotes, displaying an EC50 value of 34.4 µM. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) indicated that the absence of the double bond at C-7 is a crucial feature for the increment of the antiparasitic activity. The lethal action of the most potent compound 1 was investigated in the trypomastigotes. The fluorescent-based assay with SYTOX Green demonstrated a significant alteration of the plasma membrane permeability of the parasite. Additionally, compound 1 demonstrated no significant hemolytic activity in mice erythrocytes at 200 µM. To search the pharmacophore, three different simplified compounds - 3,4-methylenedioxydihydrocinnamic acid (3), 3,4-methylenedioxydihydrocinnamic alcohol (4) and 3,4-methylenedioxycinnamic acid (5) - were prepared and tested against T. cruzi. These derivatives displayed EC50 values of 37.2 (3), 25.8 (4) and 73.5 (5) µM against trypomastigotes, and 41.3 (3) and 48.2 (4) µM against amastigotes, whereas compound 5 was inactive. Except for compound 2, which resulted in a CC50 value of 114.5 µM, all compounds showed no mammalian cytotoxicity at 200 µM. An in silico ADMET study was performed and predicted values demonstrated an acceptable drug-likeness profile for compounds 1-5. Despite the minor reduction in the potency, the simplified derivatives retained the antitrypanosomal activity against the intracellular amastigotes, even with 95 % reduction of their molecular weight. Additionally, in silico studies suggested them as more soluble compounds, making these simplified structures promising scaffolds for optimization studies in Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/isolamento & purificação
11.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(10): e2100466, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263530

RESUMO

The hexane extract from aerial parts Baccharis sphenophylla Dusén ex Malme (Asteraceae) displayed activity against amastigote forms of Trypanossoma cruzi and was subjected to chromatographic steps to afford one unreported - 7α-hydroxy-ent-abieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12ß-olide (1) and three known diterpenes - ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, (2), grandifloric acid (3), and 15ß-tiglinoyloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (4), two sesquiterpenes - spathulenol (5) and oplopanone (6) - as well as hexacosyl p-coumarate (7). Isolated compounds were characterized by NMR and ESI-HR-MS spectra and were evaluated in vitro for activity against amastigote forms of the parasite T. cruzi - the relevant clinical form in the chronic phase of Chagas disease. In addition, the activity of compounds 1-7 against NCTC cells was evaluated. Compounds 1 and 7 showed effectiveness with EC50 values of 21.3 and 16.9 µM, respectively. Both compounds also exhibited reduced toxicity against NCTC cells (CC50 >200 µM) with SI values higher than 9.4 and 11.9. Obtained results suggest that the new ent-abietane diterpene 1 and alkyl coumarate 7 could be used as prototypes for the development of novel and selective semisynthetic derivatives against intracellular forms of T. cruzi.


Assuntos
Baccharis/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/isolamento & purificação
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(9): e2100362, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254435

RESUMO

In the present study, five known γ-lactones (majoranolide B - 1, majorenolide - 2, majorynolide - 3, lincomolide D - 4, and isolinderanolide E - 5), as well as a new one (perseanolide - 6), were isolated from Persea fulva and P. americana. All isolated compounds exhibited potential activity against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, whereas compounds 2 (EC50 of 4.8 µM) and 6 (EC50 of 3.6 µM) displayed superior activity than the positive control benznidazole (EC50 of 16.4 µM), with selectivity index (SI) values of 17.8 and >55.6, respectively (benznidazole, SI>12.2). Molecular docking studies were performed for 1-6 against six T. cruzi molecular targets. Using this approach, we observed that, even though perseanolide (6) showed favorable docking to several studied targets, the results were especially promising for hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (PDB 1TC1). As PDB 1TC1 is associated to the transference of a monophosphorylated ribose from phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) in the ribonucleotide synthesis pathway, this interaction may affect the survival of T. cruzi in mammalian cells. The data herein also indicate that possible intermolecular interactions between 6 and PDB 1TC1 derive from (i) hydrogen bonds in the α,ß-unsaturated-γ-lactone unity and (ii) hydrophobic interactions in the long-chain alkyl group. Based on our results, perseanolide (6), reported for the first time in this work, can auspiciously contribute to future works regarding new trypanocidal agents.


Assuntos
Lactonas/farmacologia , Persea/química , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/isolamento & purificação
13.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299391

RESUMO

In the present study, the phytochemical study of the n-hexane extract from flowers of Nectandra leucantha (Lauraceae) afforded six known neolignans (1-6) as well as one new metabolite (7), which were characterized by analysis of NMR, IR, UV, and ESI-HRMS data. The new compound 7 exhibited potent activity against the clinically relevant intracellular forms of T. cruzi (amastigotes), with an IC50 value of 4.3 µM and no observed mammalian cytotoxicity in fibroblasts (CC50 > 200 µM). Based on the results obtained and our previous antitrypanosomal data of 50 natural and semi-synthetic related neolignans, 2D and 3D molecular modeling techniques were employed to help the design of new neolignan-based compounds with higher activity. The results obtained from the models were important to understand the main structural features related to the biological response of the neolignans and to aid in the design of new neolignan-based compounds with better biological activity. Therefore, the results acquired from phytochemical, biological, and in silico studies showed that the integration of experimental and computational techniques consists of a powerful tool for the discovery of new prototypes for development of new drugs to treat CD.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação por Computador , Descoberta de Drogas , Lauraceae/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Animais , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Nat Prod ; 84(5): 1489-1497, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857368

RESUMO

Twigs of Nectandra barbellata were extracted using a solution of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (BMImBr) in H2O, assisted by microwave (MAE). After successive chromatographic steps, one sesquiterpene, costic acid, and three new related lactones, (R)-3(7)-Z-3-hexadec-21-enylidene-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-one (1), (R)-3(7)-Z-3-hexadecylidene-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-one (2), and (R)-3(7)-Z-3-docosylidene-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-one (3), were isolated. After structural elucidation using IR, UV, HRESIMS, NMR, ECD, and VCD, compounds 1-3 were tested against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. The mechanism of action of bioactive isolated compounds was studied using different fluorescent-based approaches to investigate alterations of the plasma membrane, permeability/electric potential (ΔΨp), reactive oxygen species levels, mitochondria (electric membrane potential, ΔΨm/ATP levels), Ca2+ levels, and pH of the acidocalcisomes. In addition, in silico studies predicted no resemblance to pan assay interference compounds (PAINS).


Assuntos
Lactonas/farmacologia , Lauraceae/química , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Brasil , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Trypanosoma cruzi
15.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(4): e2001022, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635585

RESUMO

One new aporphine, dicentrine-ß-N-oxide (1), together with five related known alkaloids dehydrodicentrine (2), predicentrine (3), N-methyllaurotetanine (4), cassythicine (5), and dicentrine (6) were isolated from the leaves of Ocotea puberula (Lauraceae). Antiprotozoal activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in vitro against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the tested compounds, alkaloid 1 exhibited higher potential with EC50 value of 18.2 µM and reduced toxicity against NCTC cells (CC50 >200 µM - SI>11.0), similar to positive control benznidazole (EC50 of 17.7 µM and SI=10.7). Considering the promising results of dicentrine-ß-N-oxide (1) against trypomastigotes, the mechanism of parasite death caused by this alkaloid was investigated. As observed, this compound reached the plasma membrane electric potential directly after 2 h of incubation and triggered mitochondrial depolarization, which probably leads to trypomastigote death. Therefore, dicentrine-ß-N-oxide (1), reported for the first time in this work, can contribute to future works for the development of new trypanocidal agents.


Assuntos
Aporfinas/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocotea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aporfinas/química , Aporfinas/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/isolamento & purificação
16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247334, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630860

RESUMO

EtOH extracts from the leaves and twigs of Nectandra oppositifolia Nees & Mart. shown activity against amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. These extracts were subjected to successive liquid-liquid partitioning to afford bioactive CH2Cl2 fractions. UHPLC-TOF-HRMS/MS and molecular networking were used to obtain an overview of the phytochemical composition of these active fractions. Aiming to isolate the active compounds, both CH2Cl2 fractions were subjected to fractionation using medium pressure chromatography combined with semi-preparative HPLC-UV. Using this approach, twelve compounds (1-12) were isolated and identified by NMR and HRMS analysis. Several isolated compounds displayed activity against the amastigote forms of T. cruzi, especially ethyl protocatechuate (7) with EC50 value of 18.1 µM, similar to positive control benznidazole (18.7 µM). Considering the potential of compound 7, protocatechuic acid and its respective methyl (7a), n-propyl (7b), n-butyl (7c), n-pentyl (7d), and n-hexyl (7e) esters were tested. Regarding antitrypanosomal activity, protocatechuic acid and compound 7a were inactive, while 7b-7e exhibited EC50 values from 20.4 to 11.7 µM, without cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. These results suggest that lipophilicity and molecular complexity play an important role in the activity while efficiency analysis indicates that the natural compound 7 is a promising prototype for further modifications to obtain compounds effective against the intracellular forms of T. cruzi.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Lauraceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Folhas de Planta/química
17.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(23): 5373-5377, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441133

RESUMO

In the present work, the MeOH extract from stem barks of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae) displayed activity against amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania infantum and was subjected to a bioactivity-guided fractionation to give two related coumarins - calanolides E1 (1) and E2 (2). Compounds 1 and 2 were actives to T. cruzi with EC50 values of 12.1 and 8.2 µM, respectively. When tested against L. infantum, the EC50 values were 37.1 and 29.1 µM, respectively. Compound 2, corresponding to anti isomer, showed the best selectivity index (SI) with values >24.4 to T. cruzi and >6.9 to L. infantum in comparison to the syn isomer 1. Furthermore, using an in silico multi-parametric prediction, both compounds did not contain any PAINS sub-structures. Therefore, these data suggest that coumarins 1 and 2 may contribute as scaffolds for the design of novel drug candidates for leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Calophyllum , Clusiaceae , Leishmania infantum , Piranocumarinas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Cumarínicos/farmacologia
18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1863(2): 183500, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130097

RESUMO

The polymerization of bioactive compounds may be interesting because the supramolecular structures formed can boost biological action on microorganism membranes. In the present work, poly-thymolformaldehyde (PTF) activity, prepared by condensation of thymol and formaldehyde, was evaluated against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and related with the physicochemical changes provided by the incorporation of the compound in protozoan cell membrane models. PTF exhibited an EC50 value of 23.4 µg/mL and no toxicity against mammalian cells (CC50 > 200 µg/mL). To understand the molecular action of PTF as an antiprotozoal candidate, this compound was incorporated in Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) as a model for parasite cell membranes. PTF shifted DPPG surface pressure-area isotherms to higher areas, indicating its incorporation in the lipid films. Additionally, it changed the thermodynamic, compressional, structural, and morphological properties of the floating monolayers, decreasing the collapse pressure, reducing the surface elasticity, and segregating molecules at the interface, forming domains with different reflectivities. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the lipid films with PTF presented an increased rate of gauche/all-trans conformers for the methylene groups from the acyl chains, indicating molecular disorder. Therefore, these results show that PTF alters the physicochemical properties of DPPG monolayers as a model for protozoa cell membranes, which can enhance the comprehension of the parasitic action of PTF against T. cruzi.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular , Membranas Artificiais , Tripanossomicidas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/química , Trypanosoma cruzi/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
ACS Infect Dis ; 6(11): 2872-2878, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047947

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, which affects over seven million people, especially in developing countries. Undesirable side effects are frequently associated with current therapies, which are typically ineffective in the treatment of all stages of the disease. Here, we report the first synthesis of the neolignan dehydrodieugenol B, a natural product recently shown to exhibit activity against T. cruzi. Using this strategy, a series of synthetic analogues were prepared to explore structure-activity relationships. The in vitro antiparasitic activities of these analogues revealed a wide tolerance of modifications and substituent deletions, with maintained or improved bioactivities against the amastigote forms of the parasite (50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 4-63 µM) and no mammalian toxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of >200 µM). Five of these analogues meet the Drugs for Neglected Disease Initiative (DNDi) "hit criteria" for Chagas disease. This work has enabled the identification of key structural features of the natural product and sites where scaffold modification is tolerated.


Assuntos
Lignanas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Anisóis , Lignanas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
Bioorg Chem ; 102: 104068, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653609

RESUMO

The n-hexane extract from leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) induced 100% of death of trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi at 300 µg/mL and was subjected to a bioactivity-guided fractionation to afford a C17:2 derivative of anacardic acid [6-(8'Z,11'Z)-heptadecadienyl-salicylic acid, 1]. Additionally, compound 1 was subjected to hydrogenation procedures to afford a C17:0 derivative (6-heptadecanyl-salicylic acid, 1a). Compounds 1 and 1a were effective in killing trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi with IC50 values of 8.3 and 9.0 µM, respectively, while a related compound, salicylic acid, was inactive. Furthermore, no cytotoxicity was observed for the highest tested concentration (CC50 > 200 µM) for all evaluated compounds. Due to the promising results, the mechanism of parasite death was investigated for compounds 1 and 1a using flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry. The cell membrane permeability assay with SYTOX Green indicated that compound 1 significantly altered this parameter after 40 min of incubation, while compound 1a caused no alteration. Considering that the hydrogenation rendered a differential cellular target in parasites, additional assays were performed with 1a. Despite no permeabilization of the plasma membrane, compound 1a induced depolarization of the electric potential after two hours of incubation. The mitochondria of the parasite were also affected by compound 1a, with depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The Ca2+ levels were not affected during the time of incubation. Considering that the mitochondrion is a single organelle in Trypanosoma cruzi for ATP generation, compounds affecting the bioenergetic system are of interest for drug discovery against Trypanosomatids.


Assuntos
Ácidos Anacárdicos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Folhas de Planta/química , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Anacárdicos/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos
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