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1.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(9): 130, 2021 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363148

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Additional imaging modalities, such as FDG-PET/CT, have been included into the workup for patients with suspected infective endocarditis, according to major international guidelines published in 2015. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of FDG-PET/CT indications and standardized approaches in the setting of suspected infective endocarditis. RECENT FINDINGS: There are two main indications for performing FDG-PET/CT in patients with suspected infective endocarditis: (i) detecting intracardiac infections and (ii) detection of (clinically silent) disseminated infectious disease. The diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT for intracardiac lesions depends on the presence of native valves, prosthetic valves, or implanted cardiac devices, with a sensitivity that is poor for native valve endocarditis and cardiac device-related lead infections, but much better for prosthetic valve endocarditis and cardiac device-related pocket infections. Specificity is high for all these indications. The detection of disseminated disease may also help establish the diagnosis and/or impact patient management. Based on current evidence, FDG-PET/CT should be considered for detection of disseminated disease in suspected endocarditis. Absence of intracardiac lesions on FDG-PET/CT cannot rule out native valve endocarditis, but positive findings strongly support the diagnosis. For prosthetic valve endocarditis, standard use of FDG-PET/CT is recommended because of its high sensitivity and specificity. For implanted cardiac devices, FDG-PET/CT is also recommended, but should be evaluated with careful attention to clinical context, because its sensitivity is high for pocket infections, but low for lead infections. In patients with prosthetic valves with or without additional aortic prosthesis, combination with CTA should be considered. Optimal timing of FDG-PET/CT is important, both during clinical workup and technically (i.e., post tracer injection). In addition, procedural standardization is key and encompasses patient preparation, scan acquisition, reconstruction, subsequent analysis, and clinical interpretation. The recommendations discussed here will hopefully contribute to improved standardization and enhanced performance of FDG-PET/CT in the clinical management of patients with suspected infective endocarditis.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Endocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Padrões de Referência
2.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(1): 241-253, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly used for the treatment of advanced heart failure. LVADs improve quality of life and decrease mortality, but the driveline carries substantial risk for major infections. These device-related LVAD and driveline infections are difficult to diagnose with conventional imaging. We reviewed and analysed the current literature on the additive value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging for the diagnosis of LVAD-related infections." MATERIALS/METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review using several databases from their inception until the 31st of December, 2019. Studies investigating the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT in patients with suspected LVAD infection were retrieved. After a bias risk assessment using QUADAS-2, a study-aggregate meta-analysis was performed on a per examination-based analysis. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies were included in the systematic review, eight of which were also eligible for study-aggregate meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis, a total of 256 FDG-PET/CT scans, examining pump/pocket and/or driveline infection, were acquired in 230 patients. Pooled sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT was 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-0.97) and pooled specificity was 0.91 (95% CI 0.54-0.99) for the diagnosis of device-related infection. For pump/pocket infection, sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT were 0.97 (95%CI 0.69-1.00) and 0.93 (95%CI 0.64-0.99), respectively. For driveline infection, sensitivity and specificity were 0.96 (95%CI 0.88-0.99) and 0.99 (95%CI 0.13-1.00) respectively. Significant heterogeneity existed across studies for specificity, mostly caused by differences in scan procedures. Predefined criteria for suspicion of LVAD and/or driveline infection were lacking in all included studies. CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET/CT is a valuable tool for assessment of device-related infection in LVAD patients, with high sensitivity and high, albeit variable, specificity. Standardization of FDG-PET/CT procedures and criteria for suspected device-related LVAD infections are needed for consistent reporting of FDG-PET/CT scans.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Qualidade de Vida , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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