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1.
Harmful Algae ; 89: 101671, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672230

RESUMO

Species of the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus produce polyether neurotoxins that caused ciguatera fish/shellfish poisoning in human. The toxins enter marine food webs by foraging of herbivores on the biotic substrates like macroalgae that host the toxic dinoflagellates. Interaction of Gambierdiscus and their macroalgal substrate hosts is believed to shape the tendency of substrate preferences and habitat specialization. This was supported by studies that manifested epiphytic preferences and behaviors in Gambierdiscus species toward different macroalgal hosts. To further examine the supposition, a laboratory-based experimental study was conducted to examine the growth, epiphytic behaviors and host preferences of three Gambierdiscus species towards four macroalgal hosts over a culture period of 40 days. The dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus balechii, G. caribaeus, and a new ribotype, herein designated as Gambierdiscus type 7 were initially identified based on the thecal morphology and molecular characterization. Our results showed that Gambierdiscus species tested in this study exhibited higher growth rates in the presence of macroalgal hosts. Growth responses and attachment behaviors, however, differed among different species and strains of Gambierdiscus over different macroalgal substrate hosts. Cells of Gambierdiscus mostly attached to substrate hosts at the beginning of the experiments but detached at the later time. Localized Gambierdiscus-host interactions, as demonstrated in this study, could help to better inform efforts of sampling and monitoring of this benthic toxic dinoflagellate.

2.
Harmful Algae ; 83: 95-108, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097256

RESUMO

Thirteen isolates of Prorocentrum species were established from the coral reefs of Perhentian Islands Marine Park, Malaysia and underwent morphological observations and molecular characterization. Six species were found: P. caipirignum, P. concavum, P. cf. emarginatum, P. lima, P. mexicanum and a new morphotype, herein designated as P. malayense sp. nov. Prorocentrum malayense, a species closely related to P. leve, P. cf. foraminosum, P. sp. aff. foraminossum, and P. concavum (Clade A sensu Chomérat et al. 2018), is distinguished from its congeners as having larger thecal pore size and a more deeply excavated V-shaped periflagellar area. Platelet arrangement in the periflagellar area of P. malayense is unique, with the presence of platelet 1a and 1b, platelet 2 being the most anterior platelet, and a broad calabash-shaped platelet 3. The species exhibits consistent genetic sequence divergences for the nuclear-encoded large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2). The phylogenetic inferences further confirmed that it represents an independent lineage, closely related to species in Clade A sensu Chomérat et al. Pairwise comparison of ITS2 transcripts with its closest relatives revealed the presence of compensatory base changes (CBCs). Toxicity analysis showed detectable levels of okadaic acid in P. lima (1.0-1.6 pg cell-1) and P. caipirignum (3.1 pg cell-1); this is the first report of toxigenic P. caipirignum in the Southeast Asian region. Other Prorocentrum species tested, including the new species, however, were below the detection limit.

3.
Harmful Algae ; 84: 195-209, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128805

RESUMO

In a field survey in the Taiwan Strait during April 2016, the species composition and the domoic acid production of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia were investigated. A total of 80 strains of Pseudo-nitzschia were established, and species identification was determined based on a combination of morphological and molecular data. Fourteen taxa were recognized, i.e., P. americana, P. brasiliana, P. calliantha, P. cuspidata, P. galaxiae, P. lundholmiae, P. multiseries, P. multistriata, P. pseudodelicatissima, P. pungens var. aveirensis, P. pungenus var. pungens and P. sabit, as well as two novel species P. chiniana C.X. Huang & Yang Li and P. qiana C.X. Huang & Yang Li. Morphologically, P. chiniana is characterized by striae comprising one or two rows of poroids, and valve ends that are normally dominated by two rows of poroids within each stria. Whereas P. qiana is unique by having a narrow valve width (1.3-1.5 µm) and sharply pointed valve ends. Both taxa constitute their own monophyletic lineage in the phylogenetic analyses inferred from LSU and ITS2 rDNA, and are well differentiated from other Pseudo-nitzschia species. Pseudo-nitzschia chiniana forms a group with P. abrensis and P. batesiana in LSU and ITS trees, whereas P. qiana is sister to P. lineola. When comparing ITS2 secondary structure, five CBCs and seven HCBCs are recognized between P. chiniana and P. abrensis, and four CBCs and ten HCBCs between P. chiniana and P. batesiana. Two CBCs and eight HCBCs are found between P. qiana with P. lineola. The ability of the strains to produce domoic acid was assessed, including a potential toxin induction by the presence of brine shrimps. Results revealed production of domoic acid in six strains belonging to three species. Without presence of brine shrimps, cellular DA (pDA) was detected in four P. multiseries strains (1.6 ± 0.3, 26.6 ± 2.7, 68.3 ± 4.2 and 56.9 ± 4.7 fg cell-1, separately), one strain of P. pseudodelicatissima (0.8 ± 0.2 fg cell-1) and one strain of P. lundholmiae (2.5 ± 0.4 fg cell-1). In the presence of brine shrimps, pDA contents increased significantly (p < 0.05) in P. lundholmiae (strain MC4218) and P. multiseries (strain MC4177), from 2.5 ± 0.4 to 8.9 ± 0.7 and 1.6 ± 0.3 to 37.2 ± 2.5 fg cell-1 respectively.

4.
J Phycol ; 54(6): 918-922, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270437

RESUMO

Pseudo-nitzschia nanaoensis sp. nov. is described from waters around Nan'ao Island (South China Sea), using morphological data and molecular evidence. This species is morphologically most similar to P. brasiliana, but differs by a denser arrangement of fibulae, interstriae, and poroids, as well as by the structure of the valvocopula and the narrow second band. Pseudo-nitzschia nanaoensis constitutes a monophyletic lineage and is well differentiated from other species on the LSU and ITS2 sequence-structure trees. Pseudo-nitzschia nanaoensis makes up the basal node on the LSU tree, and forms a sister clade with a group of P. pungens and P. multiseries on the ITS2 tree. The ability of cultured strains to produce domoic acid was assessed, including its possible induction by the presence of a copepod and brine shrimp, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. However, no strains showed detectable domoic acid.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , China , DNA de Protozoário/análise , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Ácido Caínico/metabolismo , Filogenia
5.
J Phycol ; 54(5): 744-761, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144373

RESUMO

The genus Gymnodinium includes many morphologically similar species, but molecular phylogenies show that it is polyphyletic. Eight strains of Gymnodinium impudicum, Gymnodinium dorsalisulcum and a novel Gymnodinium-like species from Chinese and Malaysian waters and the Mediterranean Sea were established. All of these strains were examined with light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. SSU, LSU and internal transcribed spacers rDNA sequences were obtained. A new genus, Wangodinium, was erected to incorporate strains with a loop-shaped apical structure complex (ASC) comprising two rows of amphiesmal vesicles, here referred to as a new type of ASC. The chloroplasts of Wangodinium sinense are enveloped by two membranes. Pigment analysis shows that peridinin is the main accessory pigment in W. sinense. Wangodinium differs from other genera mainly in its unique ASC, and additionally differs from Gymnodinium in the absence of nuclear chambers, and from Lepidodinium in the absence of Chl b and nuclear chambers. New morphological information was provided for G. dorsalisulcum and G. impudicum, e.g., a short sulcal intrusion in G. dorsalisulcum; nuclear chambers in G. impudicum and G. dorsalisulcum; and a chloroplast enveloped by two membranes in G. impudicum. Molecular phylogeny was inferred using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference with independent SSU and LSU rDNA sequences. Our results support the classification of Wangodinium within the Gymnodiniales sensu stricto clade and it is close to Lepidodinium. Our results also support the close relationship among G. dorsalisulcum, G. impudicum, and Barrufeta. Further research is needed to assign these Gymnodinium species to Barrufeta or to erect new genera.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/citologia , Dinoflagelados/genética , Filogenia , China , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , DNA de Algas/análise , DNA de Protozoário/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/ultraestrutura , França , Malásia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(23): 22944-22962, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858995

RESUMO

Effects of aquaculture activities on the environmental parameters and phytoplankton community structure were investigated in a semi-enclosed lagoon located at Semerak River, Malaysia. Elevated concentrations of phosphate and ammonia were observed at the aquaculture area and the inner lagoon. Relatively low dissolved oxygen, high total chlorophyll a, and high phytoplankton abundances but low species richness were recorded. Chaetoceros, Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana, Blixaea quinquecornis, and Skeletonema blooms were observed, and some were associated with anoxia condition. Eutrophication level assessed by UNTRIX suggests that the water quality in the lagoon is deteriorating. Dissolved inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen at the impacted area were 15 and 12 times higher than the reference sites, respectively. Such trophic status indices could provide a useful guideline for optimal aquaculture management plan to reduce the environmental impact caused by aquaculture.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Eutrofização , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Qualidade da Água , Amônia/análise , Clorofila A/análise , Diatomáceas , Dinoflagelados , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Malásia , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxigênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Rios/química
7.
J Phycol ; 54(2): 234-248, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377161

RESUMO

Analyses of the mitochondrial cox1, the nuclear-encoded large subunit (LSU), and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) RNA coding region of Pseudo-nitzschia revealed that the P. pseudodelicatissima complex can be phylogenetically grouped into three distinct clades (Groups I-III), while the P. delicatissima complex forms another distinct clade (Group IV) in both the LSU and ITS2 phylogenetic trees. It was elucidated that comprehensive taxon sampling (sampling of sequences), selection of appropriate target genes and outgroup, and alignment strategies influenced the phylogenetic accuracy. Based on the genetic divergence, ITS2 resulted in the most resolved trees, followed by cox1 and LSU. The morphological characters available for Pseudo-nitzschia, although limited in number, were overall in agreement with the phylogenies when mapped onto the ITS2 tree. Information on the presence/absence of a central nodule, number of rows of poroids in each stria, and of sectors dividing the poroids mapped onto the ITS2 tree revealed the evolution of the recently diverged species. The morphologically based species complexes showed evolutionary relevance in agreement with molecular phylogeny inferred from ITS2 sequence-structure data. The data set of the hypervariable region of ITS2 improved the phylogenetic inference compared to the cox1 and LSU data sets. The taxonomic status of P. cuspidata and P. pseudodelicatissima requires further elucidation.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Filogenia , Proteínas de Algas/análise , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , Diatomáceas/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Genes de RNAr , RNA de Algas/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA
8.
Harmful Algae ; 68: 128-151, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28962975

RESUMO

The genus Amphidinium is an important group of athecated dinoflagellates because of its high abundance in marine habitats, its member's ability to live in a variety of environmental conditions and ability to produce toxins. Furthermore, the genus is of particular interest in the biotechnology field for its potential in the pharmaceutical arena. Taxonomically the there is a history of complication and confusion over the proper identities and placements of Amphidinium species due to high genetic variability coupled with high morphological conservation. Thirteen years has passed since the most recent review of the group, and while many issues were resolved, some remain. The present study used microscopy, phylogenetics of the 28S region of rDNA, secondary structure of the ITS2 region of rDNA, compensatory base change data, and cytotoxicity data from Amphidinium strains collected world-wide to elucidate remaining confusion. This holistic approach using multiple lines of evidence resulted in a more comprehensive understanding of the morphological, ecological, and genetic characteristics that are attributed to organisms belonging to Amphidinium, including six novel species: A. fijiensis, A. magnum, A. paucianulatum, A. pseudomassartii, A. theodori, and A. tomasii.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/citologia , Toxinas Marinhas/biossíntese , Filogenia , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Dinoflagelados/ultraestrutura , Funções Verossimilhança , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Harmful Algae ; 67: 119-130, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28755714

RESUMO

The genus Pseudo-nitzschia has attracted attention because of production of the toxin, domoic acid (DA), causing Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). Pseudo-nitzschia blooms occur frequently in Chinese coastal waters, and DA has been detected in several marine organisms, but so far no Pseudo-nitzschia strains from Chinese waters have been shown to produce DA. In this study, monoclonal Pseudo-nitzschia strains were established from Chinese coastal waters and examined using light microscopy, electron microscopy and molecular markers. Five strains, sharing distinct morphological and molecular features differentiating them from other Pseudo-nitzschia species, represent a new species, Pseudo-nitzschia simulans sp. nov. Morphologically, the taxon belongs to the P. pseudodelicatissima group, cells possessing a central nodule and each stria comprising one row of poroids. The new species is characterized by the poroid structure, which typically comprises two sectors, each sector located near opposite margins of the poroid. The production of DA was examined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses of cells in stationary growth phase. Domoic acid was detected in one of the five strains, with concentrations around 1.05-1.54 fg cell-1. This is the first toxigenic diatom species reported from Chinese waters.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Água do Mar , China , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Geografia , Ácido Caínico/metabolismo , Ácido Caínico/toxicidade , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores/metabolismo
10.
J Phycol ; 52(6): 973-989, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27403749

RESUMO

Forty-eight isolates of Pseudo-nitzschia species were established from the Miri coast of Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) and underwent TEM observation and molecular characterization. Ten species were found: P. abrensis, P. batesiana, P. fukuyoi, P. kodamae, P. lundholmiae, P. multistriata, P. pungens, P. subfraudulenta, as well as two additional new morphotypes, herein designated as P. bipertita sp. nov. and P. limii sp. nov. This is the first report of P. abrensis, P. batesiana, P. kodamae, P. fukuyoi, and P. lundholmiae in coastal waters of Malaysian Borneo. Pseudo-nitzschia bipertita differs from its congeners by the number of sectors that divide the poroids, densities of band striae, and its cingular band structure. Pseudo-nitzschia limii, a pseudo-cryptic species in the P. pseudodelicatissima complex sensu lato, is distinct by having wider proximal and distal mantles, a higher number of striae, and greater poroid height in the striae of the valvocopula. The species were further supported by the phylogenetic reconstructions of the nuclear-encoded large subunit ribosomal gene and the second internal transcribed spacer. Phylogenetically, P. bipertita clustered with its sister taxa (P. subpacifica + P. heimii); P. limii appears as a sister taxon to P. kodamae and P. hasleana in the ITS2 tree. Pairwise comparison of ITS2 transcripts with its closest relatives revealed the presence of both hemi- and compensatory base changes. Toxicity analysis showed detectable levels of domoic acid in P. abrensis, P. batesiana, P. lundholmiae, and P. subfraudulenta, but both new species tested below the detection limit.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Biota , Diatomáceas/classificação , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Algas/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Malásia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Filogenia
11.
Harmful Algae ; 55: 137-149, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073527

RESUMO

In this study, inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity within the marine harmful dinoflagellate genus Coolia Meunier was evaluated using isolates obtained from the tropics to subtropics in both Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. The aim was to assess the phylogeographic history of the genus and to clarify the validity of established species including Coolia malayensis. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1-D2 LSU rDNA sequences identified six major lineages (L1-L6) corresponding to the morphospecies Coolia malayensis (L1), C. monotis (L2), C. santacroce (L3), C. palmyrensis (L4), C. tropicalis (L5), and C. canariensis (L6). A median joining network (MJN) of C. malayensis ITS2 rDNA sequences revealed a total of 16 haplotypes; however, no spatial genetic differentiation among populations was observed. These MJN results in conjunction with CBC analysis, rDNA phylogenies and geographical distribution analyses confirm C. malayensis as a distinct species which is globally distributed in the tropical to warm-temperate regions. A molecular clock analysis using ITS2 rDNA revealed the evolutionary history of Coolia dated back to the Mesozoic, and supports the hypothesis that historical vicariant events in the early Cenozoic drove the allopatric differentiation of C. malayensis and C. monotis.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Filogenia , Evolução Biológica , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Dinoflagelados/genética , Especiação Genética , Variação Genética , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Harmful Algae ; 60: 139-149, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073557

RESUMO

The distribution of the toxic pennate diatom Nitzschia was investigated at four mangrove areas along the coastal brackish waters of Peninsular Malaysia. Eighty-two strains of N. navis-varingica were isolated and established, and their identity confirmed morphologically and molecularly. Frustule morphological characteristics of the strains examined are identical to previously identified N. navis-varingica, but with a sightly higher density of the number of areolae per 1µm (4-7 areolae). Both LSU and ITS rDNAs phylogenetic trees clustered all strains in the N. navis-varingica clade, with high sequence homogeneity in the LSU rDNA (0-0.3%), while the intraspecific divergences in the ITS2 data set reached up to 7.4%. Domoic acid (DA) and its geometrical isomers, isodomoic A (IA) and isodomoic B (IB), were detected in cultures of N. navis-varingica by FMOC-LC-FLD, and subsequently confirmed by LC-MS/MS, with selected ion monitoring (SIM) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) runs. DA contents ranged between 0.37 and 11.06pgcell-1. This study demonstrated that the toxigenic euryhaline diatom N. navis-varingica is widely distributed in Malaysian mangrove swamps, suggesting the risk of amnesic shellfish poisoning and the possibility of DA contamination in the mangrove-related fisheries products.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ácido Caínico/metabolismo , Malásia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
J Phycol ; 51(4): 706-25, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26986792

RESUMO

A new species of Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) is described from plankton samples collected from Port Dickson (Malacca Strait, Malaysia) and Manzanillo Bay (Colima, Mexico). The species possesses a distinctive falcate cell valve, from which they form sickle-like colonies in both environmental samples and cultured strains. Detailed observation of frustules under TEM revealed ultrastructure that closely resembles P. decipiens, yet the new species differs by the valve shape and greater ranges of striae and poroid densities. The species is readily distinguished from the curve-shaped P. subcurvata by the presence of a central interspace. The morphological distinction is further supported by phylogenetic discrimination. We sequenced and analyzed the nuclear ribosomal RNA genes in the LSU and the second internal transcribed spacer, including its secondary structure, to infer the phylogenetic relationship of the new species with its closest relatives. The results revealed a distinct lineage of the new species, forming a sister cluster with its related species, P. decipiens and P. galaxiae, but not with P. subcurvata. We examined the domoic acid (DA) production of five cultured strains from Malaysia by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), but they showed no detectable DA. Here, we present the taxonomic description of the vegetative cells, document the sexual reproduction, and detail the molecular phylogenetics of Pseudo-nitzschia sabit sp. nov.

14.
J Phycol ; 49(5): 902-16, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27007315

RESUMO

A study on the morphology and phylogeny of 18 strains of Pseudo-nitzschia established from the Strait of Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia, was undertaken. Morphological data combined with molecular evidence show that they constitute three new species, for which the names, P. batesiana sp. nov., P. lundholmiae sp. nov., and P. fukuyoi sp. nov., are proposed. The three new species closely resemble species in the P. pseudodelicatissima complex sensu lato. Morphologically, P. batesiana differs from other species in the complex by having a smaller part of cell overlapping in the chain, whereas P. lundholmiae differs by having fewer poroid sectors and P. fukuyoi by having a distinct type of poroid sectors. Nucleotide sequences of the LSU rDNA (D1-D3) of the three new species reveal significant nucleotide sequence divergence (0.1%-9.3%) from each other and from other species in the P. pseudodelicatissima complex s.l. The three species are phylogenetically closely related to species in the P. pseudodelicatissima complex, with P. batesiana appearing as a sister taxon to P. circumpora, P. caciantha, and P. subpacifica; whereas P. lundholmiae and P. fukuyoi are more closely related to P. pseudodelicatissima and P. cuspidata. The three species show 2-3 compensatory base changes (CBCs) in their ITS2 transcripts when compared to the closely related species. The ITS2 with its structural information has proven its robustness in constructing a better resolved phylogenetic framework for Pseudo-nitzschia.

15.
J Phycol ; 48(5): 1232-47, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27011282

RESUMO

Field sampling was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of Pseudo-nitzschia Peragallo species in eight locations along the coast of Malaysian Borneo. A total of 108 strains of Pseudo-nitzschia species were isolated, and their morphology examined with SEM and TEM. Additionally, molecular data from nuclear-encoded partial LSU rDNA, and ITS regions, were characterized. A total of five species were confidently identified based on a combination of distinct morphological characteristics and supporting molecular evidence: P. brasiliana Lundholm, Hasle & Fryxell, P. cuspidata (Hasle) Hasle, P. dolorosa Lundholm & Moestrup, P. micropora Priisholm, Moestrup & Lundholm, and P. pungens (Grunow) Hasle var. pungens. However, one morphotype from Sarawak, while somewhat similar to P. caciantha, showed significant morphological distinction from this and any other of the currently described species. Most notably this morphotype possessed a characteristic pore arrangement in the poroids, with the fine pores in each perforation sector arranged in circles. Pair-wise sequence comparison of the LSU rDNA between this unidentified morphotype and P. caciantha Lundholm, Moestrup & Hasle, revealed 2.7% genetic divergence. Phylogenetic analyses strongly supported the monophyly of the morphotype. Based upon these supporting data it is here described as a new species, Pseudo-nitzschia circumpora sp. nov. A key to the six species of Pseudo-nitzschia from Malaysian Borneo is presented. Molecular signatures for all species were established based on structural comparisons of ITS2 rRNA transcripts.

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