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1.
N Engl J Med ; 383(12): 1117-1128, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In adults with active lupus nephritis, the efficacy and safety of intravenous belimumab as compared with placebo, when added to standard therapy (mycophenolate mofetil or cyclophosphamide-azathioprine), are unknown. METHODS: In a phase 3, multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 104-week trial conducted at 107 sites in 21 countries, we assigned adults with biopsy-proven, active lupus nephritis in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous belimumab (at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight) or matching placebo, in addition to standard therapy. The primary end point at week 104 was a primary efficacy renal response (a ratio of urinary protein to creatinine of ≤0.7, an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] that was no worse than 20% below the value before the renal flare (pre-flare value) or ≥60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area, and no use of rescue therapy), and the major secondary end point was a complete renal response (a ratio of urinary protein to creatinine of <0.5, an eGFR that was no worse than 10% below the pre-flare value or ≥90 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, and no use of rescue therapy). The time to a renal-related event or death was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 448 patients underwent randomization (224 to the belimumab group and 224 to the placebo group). At week 104, significantly more patients in the belimumab group than in the placebo group had a primary efficacy renal response (43% vs. 32%; odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 2.3; P = 0.03) and a complete renal response (30% vs. 20%; odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; P = 0.02). The risk of a renal-related event or death was lower among patients who received belimumab than among those who received placebo (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.77; P = 0.001). The safety profile of belimumab was consistent with that in previous trials. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with active lupus nephritis, more patients who received belimumab plus standard therapy had a primary efficacy renal response than those who received standard therapy alone. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; BLISS-LN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01639339.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/urina , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Nefrite Lúpica/mortalidade , Masculino , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Indução de Remissão
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e20953, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833660

RESUMO

Despite significant efforts, the COVID-19 pandemic has put enormous pressure on health care systems around the world, threatening the quality of patient care. Telemonitoring offers the opportunity to carefully monitor patients with a confirmed or suspected case of COVID-19 from home and allows for the timely identification of worsening symptoms. Additionally, it may decrease the number of hospital visits and admissions, thereby reducing the use of scarce resources, optimizing health care capacity, and minimizing the risk of viral transmission. In this paper, we present a COVID-19 telemonitoring care pathway developed at a tertiary care hospital in the Netherlands, which combined the monitoring of vital parameters with video consultations for adequate clinical assessment. Additionally, we report a series of medical, scientific, organizational, and ethical recommendations that may be used as a guide for the design and implementation of telemonitoring pathways for COVID-19 and other diseases worldwide.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Telemedicina/métodos , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/organização & administração
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-CD20 B-cell depletion has not shown superior efficacy to standard immunosuppression in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Besides trial design, potential explanations are incomplete B-cell depletion in relation to substantial surges in B-cell-activating factor (BAFF). To improve B-cell targeting strategies, we conducted the first study in SLE patients aimed at investigating immunological effects and feasibility of combining rituximab (RTX; anti-CD20) and belimumab (BLM; anti-BAFF). METHODS: Reported is the long-term follow-up of a Phase 2 proof-of-concept study in 15 patients with SLE including 12 (80%) with lupus nephritis (LN). RESULTS: In 10/15 (67%) patients, a clinical response was observed by achievement of lupus low disease activity state, of which 8 (53%) continued treatment (BLM + ≤7.5 mg prednisolone) for the complete 2 years of follow-up. Five patients (33%) were referred to as 'non-responders' due to persistent LN, major flare or repetitive minor flares. Out of 12 LN patients, 9 (75%) showed a renal response including 8 (67%) complete renal responders. All anti-dsDNA+ patients converted to negative, and both anti-C1q and extractable nuclear antigen autoantibodies showed significant reductions. CD19+ B cells showed a median decrease from baseline of 97% at 24 weeks, with a persistent reduction of 84% up to 104 weeks. When comparing responders with non-responders, CD20+ B cells were depleted significantly less in non-responders and double-negative (DN) B cells repopulated significantly earlier. CONCLUSIONS: Combined B-cell targeted therapy with RTX and BLM prevented full B-cell repopulation including DN B cells, with concomitant specific reduction of SLE-relevant autoantibodies. The observed immunological and clinical benefits in a therapy-refractory SLE population prompt further studies on RTX + BLM.

4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(6): 713-723, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 2012 EULAR/ERA-EDTA recommendations for the management of lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: Following the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review was performed. Members of a multidisciplinary Task Force voted independently on their level of agreeement with the formed statements. RESULTS: The changes include recommendations for treatment targets, use of glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and management of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The target of therapy is complete response (proteinuria <0.5-0.7 g/24 hours with (near-)normal glomerular filtration rate) by 12 months, but this can be extended in patients with baseline nephrotic-range proteinuria. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended with regular ophthalmological monitoring. In active proliferative LN, initial (induction) treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF 2-3 g/day or mycophenolic acid (MPA) at equivalent dose) or low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide (CY; 500 mg × 6 biweekly doses), both combined with glucocorticoids (pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone, then oral prednisone 0.3-0.5 mg/kg/day) is recommended. MMF/CNI (especially tacrolimus) combination and high-dose CY are alternatives, for patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria and adverse prognostic factors. Subsequent long-term maintenance treatment with MMF or azathioprine should follow, with no or low-dose (<7.5 mg/day) glucocorticoids. The choice of agent depends on the initial regimen and plans for pregnancy. In non-responding disease, switch of induction regimens or rituximab are recommended. In pure membranous LN with nephrotic-range proteinuria or proteinuria >1 g/24 hours despite renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade, MMF in combination with glucocorticoids is preferred. Assessment for kidney and extra-renal disease activity, and management of comorbidities is lifelong with repeat kidney biopsy in cases of incomplete response or nephritic flares. In ESKD, transplantation is the preferred kidney replacement option with immunosuppression guided by transplant protocols and/or extra-renal manifestations. Treatment of LN in children follows the same principles as adult disease. CONCLUSIONS: We have updated the EULAR recommendations for the management of LN to facilitate homogenization of patient care.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Europa (Continente) , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/fisiopatologia , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Proteinúria/etiologia , Proteinúria/terapia
5.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(10): 2734-2745, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: SLE is a severe autoimmune disease characterized by autoreactive B cells and IC formation, which causes systemic inflammation. B cell-targeted therapy could be a promising treatment strategy in SLE patients; nevertheless, randomized clinical trials have not always been successful. However, some groups have demonstrated beneficial effects in severe SLE patients with off-label rituximab (RTX) with belimumab (BLM), or bortezomib (BTZ), which targeted different B cells subsets. This study assembled sera from SLE cohorts treated with RTX+BLM (n = 15), BTZ (n = 11) and RTX (n = 16) to get an in-depth insight into the immunological effects of these therapies on autoantibodies and IC formation. METHODS: Autoantibodies relevant for IC formation and the avidity of anti-dsDNA were determined by ELISA. IC-mediated inflammation was studied by complement levels and ex vivo serum-induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation. RESULTS: Reductions in autoantibodies were observed after all approaches, but the spectrum differed depending upon the treatment. Specifically, only RTX+BLM significantly decreased anti-C1q. Achieving seronegativity of ≥1 autoantibody, specifically anti-C1q, was associated with lower disease activity. In all SLE patients, the majority of anti-dsDNA autoantibodies had low avidity. RTX+BLM significantly reduced low-, medium- and high-avidity anti-dsDNA, while RTX and BTZ only significantly reduced medium avidity. IC-mediated inflammation, measured by C3 levels and neutrophil extracellular trap formation, improved after RTX+BLM and RTX but less after BTZ. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the impact of different B cell-targeted strategies on autoantibodies and IC formation and their potential clinical relevance in SLE.

6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 566732, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33384685

RESUMO

Background: B-cell depletion with rituximab (RTX) is an effective treatment for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients. Nevertheless, relapses are frequent after RTX, often preceded by B-cell repopulation suggesting that residual autoreactive B-cells persist despite therapy. Therefore, this study aimed to identify minimal residual autoimmunity (MRA) in the B-cell compartment of AAV patients treated with RTX. Methods: EuroFlow-based highly-sensitive flow cytometry (HSFC) was employed to study B-cell and plasma cell (PC) subsets in-depth in AAV patients before and after RTX treatment. Additionally, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of these RTX-treated AAV patients were cultured and in vitro stimulated with CpG, IL-2, and IL-21 to induce antibody-secreting cells (ASC). (ANCA)-IgG was measured in these supernatants by ELISA. Results: By employing EuroFlow-based HSFC, we detected circulating CD19+ B-cells at all timepoints after RTX treatment, in contrast to conventional low-sensitive flow cytometry. Pre-germinal center (Pre-GC) B-cells, memory B-cells and CD20+CD138- plasmablasts (PBs) were rapidly and strongly reduced, while CD20-CD138- PrePC and CD20-CD138+ mature (m)PCs were reduced slower and remained detectable. Both memory B-cells and CD20- PCs remained detectable after RTX. Serum ANCA-IgG decreased significantly upon RTX. Changes in ANCA levels strongly correlated with changes in naive, switched CD27+ and CD27- (double-negative) memory B-cells, but not with plasma cells. Lastly, we demonstrated in vitro ANCA production by AAV PBMCs, 24 and 48 weeks after RTX treatment reflecting MRA in the memory compartment of AAV patients. Conclusion: We demonstrated that RTX induced strong reductions in circulating B-cells, but never resulted in complete B-cell depletion. Despite strongly reduced B-cell numbers after RTX, ANCA-specific memory B-cells were still detectable in AAV patients. Thus, MRA is identifiable in AAV and can provide a potential novel approach in personalizing RTX treatment in AAV patients.

7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(12): 2047-2058, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Different studies have demonstrated that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) may be involved in the pathophysiology of both antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). AAV and SLE are clinically and pathologically divergent autoimmune diseases with different autoantibodies. However, the respective autoantigens recognized in AAV and SLE have been shown to be an intricate part of NETs. This study aimed to examine whether the mechanisms of NET formation and the composition of NETs are distinct between AAV and SLE. METHODS: To investigate this hypothesis, healthy neutrophils were stimulated with serum from patients with AAV (n = 80) and patients with SLE (n = 59), and the mechanisms of NET formation and NET composition were compared. RESULTS: Both patients with AAV and patients with SLE had excessive NET formation, which correlated with the extent of disease activity (in AAV r = 0.5, P < 0.0001; in SLE r = 0.35, P < 0.01). Lytic NET formation over several hours was observed in patients with AAV, as compared to rapid (within minutes), non-lytic NET formation coinciding with clustering of neutrophils in patients with SLE. AAV-induced NET formation was triggered independent of IgG ANCAs, whereas SLE immune complexes (ICx) induced NET formation through Fcγ receptor signaling. AAV-induced NET formation was dependent on reactive oxygen species and peptidyl arginine deaminases, and AAV-induced NETs were enriched for citrullinated histones (mean ± SEM 23 ± 2%). In contrast, SLE-induced NETs had immunogenic properties, including binding with high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (mean ± SEM 30 ± 3%) and enrichment for oxidized mitochondrial DNA, and were involved in ICx formation. CONCLUSION: The morphologic features, kinetics, induction pathways, and composition of excessive NET formation are all intrinsically distinct in AAV compared to SLE. Recognizing the diversity of NET formation between AAV and SLE provides a better understanding of the pathophysiologic role of NETs in these different autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/fisiopatologia , Formação de Anticorpos/fisiologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Adulto , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino
8.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e025687, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898822

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Belimumab, an anti-B-lymphocyte-stimulator antibody, is approved for the treatment of active, autoantibody-positive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Rituximab, a B cell-depleting anti-CD20 antibody, remains in the SLE treatment armamentarium despite failed trials in lupus nephritis and extrarenal lupus. These biologics, which operate through complementary mechanisms, might result in an enhanced depletion of circulating and tissue-resident autoreactive B lymphocytes when administered together. Thus, belimumab and rituximab combination may be a highly effective treatment of SLE. This study aims to evaluate and compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of subcutaneous (SC) belimumab and a single cycle of rituximab in patients with SLE with belimumab alone. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: BLISS-BELIEVE is a three-arm, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 104-week superiority study. Two hundred adults with SLE will be randomised 1:2:1 to arm A, belimumab SC 200 mg/week for 52 weeks plus placebo at weeks 4 and 6; arm B, belimumab SC 200 mg/week for 52 weeks plus rituximab 1000 mg at weeks 4 and 6; arm C, belimumab SC 200 mg/week plus standard of care for 104 weeks. The 52-week treatment period (arms A and B) is followed by a 52-week observational phase. The primary efficacy endpoint is the proportion of patients with disease control (SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI)-2K≤2, without immunosuppressants and with a prednisone-equivalent dose of ≤5 mg/day) at week 52. Major secondary efficacy endpoints are the proportion of patients in clinical remission (defined as SLEDAI-2K=0, without immunosuppressants and corticosteroids) at week 64, and the proportion of patients with disease control at week 104. Safety endpoints include the incidence of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs and AEs of special interest. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Within 6 months of the study's primary manuscript publication, anonymised individual participant data and study documents can be requested for further research from www.clinicalstudydatarequest.com. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03312907; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Vis Exp ; (143)2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774133

RESUMO

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are immunogenic extracellular DNA structures that can be released by neutrophils upon a wide variety of triggers. NETs have been demonstrated to serve as an important host defense mechanism that traps and kills microorganisms. On the other hand, they have been implicated in diverse systemic autoimmune diseases. NETs are immunogenic and toxic structures that contain a pool of relevant autoantigens including anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Different forms of NETs can be induced depending on the stimulus. The amount of NETs can be quantified using different techniques including measuring DNA release in supernatants, measuring DNA-complexed with NET-molecules like myeloperoxidase (MPO) or neutrophil elastase (NE), measuring the presence of citrullinated histones by fluorescence microscopy, or flow cytometric detection of NET-components which all have different features regarding their specificity, sensitivity, objectivity, and quantity. Here is a protocol to quantify ex vivo NET formation in a highly-sensitive, high-throughput manner by using three-dimensional immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. This protocol can be applied to address various research questions about NET formation and degradation in health and disease.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Humanos
10.
Kidney Int Rep ; 4(2): 196-211, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775617

RESUMO

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular DNA structures covered with antimicrobial peptides, danger molecules, and autoantigens that can be released by neutrophils. NETs are an important first-line defense mechanism against bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections, but they can also play a role in autoimmune diseases. NETs are immunogenic and toxic structures that are recognized by the autoantibodies of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis (AAV) (i.e., against myeloperoxidase or proteinase-3) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (i.e., against double-stranded DNA, histones, or nucleosomes). There is cumulating preclinical and clinical evidence that both excessive formation and impaired degradation of NETs are involved in the pathophysiology of AAV and SLE. These autoimmune diseases give rise to 2 clinically and pathologically distinct forms of glomerulonephritis (GN), respectively, crescentic pauci-immune GN and immune complex-mediated GN. Therefore, it is relevant to understand the different roles NET formation can play in the pathophysiology of these most prevalent renal autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current concepts on the role of NET formation in the pathophysiology of AAV and SLE, and provides a translational perspective on the clinical implications of NETs, such as potential therapeutic approaches that target NET formation in these renal autoimmune diseases.

11.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 256, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A multi-biomarker disease activity (MBDA) score has been validated as an objective measure of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and shown to track response to treatment with several disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the MBDA score to track response to treatment with rituximab. METHODS: Data were used from 57 RA patients from three cohorts treated with rituximab 1000 mg and methylprednisolone 100 mg at days 1 and 15. The MBDA score was assessed in serum samples obtained at baseline and 6 months. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated for baseline values, 6-month values, and change from baseline to 6 months (∆), between MBDA score and the following measures: disease activity score assessing 28 joints (DAS28) using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), ESR, (hs)CRP, swollen and tender joint counts assessing 28 joints (SJC28, TJC28), patient visual analogue scale for general health (VAS-GH), health assessment questionnaire (HAQ), and radiographic progression over 12 months using Sharp/van der Heijde score (SHS), as well as six bone turnover markers. Additionally, multivariable linear regression analyses were performed using these measures as dependent variable and the MBDA score as independent variable, with adjustment for relevant confounders. The association between ∆MBDA score and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response at 6 months was assessed with adjustment for relevant confounders. RESULTS: At baseline, the median MBDA score and DAS28-ESR were 54.0 (IQR 44.3-70.0) and 6.3 (IQR 5.4-7.1), respectively. MBDA scores correlated significantly with DAS28-ESR, DAS28-hsCRP, ESR and (hs)CRP at baseline and 6 months. ∆MBDA score correlated significantly with changes in these measures. ∆MBDA score was associated with EULAR good or moderate response (adjusted OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.81-0.98, p = 0.02). Neither baseline MBDA score nor ΔMBDA score correlated statistically significantly with ∆SHS (n = 11) or change in bone turnover markers (n = 23), although ∆SHS ≥ 5 was observed in 5 (56%) of nine patients with high MBDA scores. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown, for the first time, that the MBDA score tracked disease activity in RA patients treated with rituximab and that change in MBDA score reflected the degree of treatment response.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Autoimmun ; 91: 45-54, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, excessive formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is observed and their degradation is impaired. In vitro, immune complexes (ICx) trigger NET formation while NET-derived DNA is a postulated autoantigen for anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANAs), found in SLE. Based on these self-perpetuating mechanisms in SLE, this study investigates whether interfering with ICx formation using a combination of rituximab (RTX) and belimumab (BLM) could decrease NET formation and ameliorate disease. METHODS: A phase 2A, open-label, single arm proof-of-concept study was performed wherein 16 SLE patients with severe, refractory disease were treated with a combination of CD20-mediated B-cell depletion with rituximab and sustained inhibition of B-cell activating factor BlyS with belimumab. Besides safety, the study's endpoints were chosen to address the concept of autoantibodies in relation to excessive NET formation. RESULTS: We demonstrated a surge of BlyS levels upon RTX-mediated B-cell depletion which was abrogated by subsequent BLM treatment. As such, therapeutic intervention with RTX + BLM led to specific reductions in ANAs and regression of excessive NET formation. RTX + BLM appeared to be safe and achieved clinically significant responses: low lupus disease activity state was achieved in 10 patients, renal responses in 11 patients and concomitant immunosuppressive medication was tapered in 14 out of the 16 patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel insights into clinical beneficence of reducing excessive NET formation in SLE by therapeutic targeting ANA production with RTX + BLM. Altogether putting forward a new treatment concept that specifically ameliorates underlying SLE pathophysiology. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02284984.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Imunoterapia/métodos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , DNA/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Kidney Int ; 94(1): 139-149, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606398

RESUMO

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are auto-antigenic strands of extracellular DNA covered with myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase3 (PR3) that can be a source for the formation of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCAs). The presence of NETs was recently demonstrated in renal tissue of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). NET formation was enhanced in AAV, suggesting that MPO-ANCA could trigger NET formation, supporting a vicious circle placing NETs in the center of AAV pathogenesis. Here we investigated NET formation in 99 patients with AAV by a novel highly sensitive and automated assay. There was a significant excess of ex vivo NET formation in both MPO-ANCA- and PR3-ANCA-positive patients with AAV compared to healthy individuals. Excessive NET formation did not correlate with serum ANCA levels. Likewise, immunoglobulin G depletion had no effect on excessive NET formation in patients with AAV, indicating an ANCA-independent process. Next, we explored the relation of excessive NET formation to clinical disease in ten patients with AAV and showed that excessive NET formation was predominantly found during active disease, more so than during remission. Excessive NET formation was found in patients with AAV hospitalized for disease relapse but not during severe infection. Thus, excessive NET formation in AAV is independent of ANCA, and an excess of ex vivo NET formation was related to active clinical disease in patients with AAV and a marker of autoimmunity rather than infection.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Autoimunidade , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Adulto , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/sangue , Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/sangue , Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Kidney Int ; 93(1): 214-220, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28950993

RESUMO

In 2012, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) presented a new classification for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this classification, biopsy-confirmed lupus nephritis with positive antinuclear or anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies became a stand-alone criterion. Because of the unknown diagnostic performance among patients from nephrology clinics, we aimed to test the validity of the SLICC classification, compared with the American College of Rheumatology classification, in a cohort of patients whose renal biopsies would raise the clinicopathologic suspicion of lupus nephritis. All patients with a renal biopsy showing full house glomerular deposits and clinical follow-up in our center were included and reevaluated, after which clinicians and a pathologist reached a consensus on the reference-standard clinical diagnosis of SLE. The diagnostic performance and net reclassification improvement were assessed in 149 patients, 117 of whom had clinical SLE. Compared with the American College of Rheumatology classification, the SLICC classification had better sensitivity (100 vs. 94%); although, this was at the expense of specificity (91 vs. 100%; net reclassification improvement -0.03). Excluding the stand-alone renal criterion, the specificity of the SLICC classification reached 100%, with a significant net reclassification improvement of 0.06 compared with the American College of Rheumatology classification. The SLICC classification performed well in terms of diagnostic sensitivity among patients with full house glomerular deposits; whereas, the stand-alone renal criterion had no additional value and compromised the specificity. Thus, presumed patients with lupus nephritis in nephrology clinics reflect a distinct SLE disease spectrum warranting caution when applying SLE classification criteria.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Biópsia , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Glomérulos Renais/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/classificação , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(10): 1707-1720, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165607

RESUMO

Patients with SLE are often young females of childbearing age and a pregnancy wish in this patient group is common. However, SLE patients are at high risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes that require adequate guidance. It is widely acknowledged that pre-pregnancy counselling is the pivotal first step in the management of SLE patients with a wish to become pregnant. Next, management of these patients is usually multidisciplinary and often requires specific expertise from the different physicians involved. Very recently a EULAR recommendation was published emphasizing the need for adequate preconception counselling and risk stratification. Therefore the present review specifically addresses the issue of pre-pregnancy counselling for SLE patients with an evidence-based approach. The review summarizes data retrieved from recently published, high-quality cohort studies that have contributed to a better understanding and estimation of pregnancy-related risks for SLE patients. The present review categorizes risks from a patient-oriented point of view, that is, the influence of pregnancy on SLE, of SLE on pregnancy, of SLE on the foetus/neonate and of SLE-related medication. Lastly, pre-pregnancy counselling of SLE patients with additional secondary APS is reviewed. Collectively these data can guide clinicians to formulate appropriate preventive strategies and patient-tailored monitoring plans during pre-pregnancy counselling of SLE patients.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/métodos , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 12(5): 734-743, 2017 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28473317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prognostic significance of histopathologic (sub)classes in the current classification of lupus nephritis (LN) is controversial. We analyzed clinical and histopathologic predictors of renal outcome in LN outside the framework of the classification. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Variables (50 histopathologic and ten clinical) were tested in mixed, linear, and Cox regression models for their association with renal flare, ESRD, and eGFR during follow-up (1, 5, and 10 years) in 105 patients with LN who underwent biopsy from 1987 to 2011. The Cockcroft-Gault (normalized to a body surface area of 1.73 m2) and Schwartz formulas were used to calculate eGFR for adults and children, respectively. RESULTS: During median follow-up of 9.9 years (25th-75th percentile, 5.9-13.8), 47 patients experienced a renal flare and 21 progressed to ESRD. Renal flare was predicted by fibrinoid necrosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04 per %; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.00 to 1.07) and nonwhite race (HR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.23 to 4.04). ESRD was predicted by fibrinoid necrosis (HR, 1.08 per %; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.13), fibrous crescents (HR, 1.09 per %; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.17), interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA) ≥25% (HR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.25 to 12.14), eGFR at baseline (HR, 0.98 per ml/min per 1.73 m2; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.00), and nonwhite race (HR, 7.16; 95% CI, 2.34 to 21.91). A higher mean eGFR during follow-up was associated with normal glomeruli (+0.2 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per %; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.4). Like ESRD, a lower eGFR during follow-up was associated with fibrous crescents, IF/TA≥25%, and nonwhite race, as well as with cellular/fibrocellular crescents (-0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per %; 95% CI, -0.6 to -0.2) and age (-0.8 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; 95% CI, -1.2 to -0.4). CONCLUSION: The LN classification should include an index of evidence-based prognosticators. Awaiting validation of a formal index, we suggest that at least fibrinoid necrosis, fibrous crescents, and IF/TA warrant explicit independent scoring to assess the risk of progressive renal dysfunction in conjunction with clinical findings.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/patologia , Rim/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fibrose , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Modelos Lineares , Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/fisiopatologia , Nefrite Lúpica/terapia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Necrose , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 32(4): 654-662, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28340077

RESUMO

Background: Full-house immunofluorescence in combination with various histopathologic lesions in the renal biopsies of patients without overt systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) poses a diagnostic challenge. In this setting, the biopsy findings are sometimes termed non-lupus 'full-house nephropathy' (FHN). It is presently unknown whether idiopathic non-lupus FHN is clinicopathologically and prognostically distinct from lupus FHN. Methods: We included non-lupus FHN patients and lupus FHN controls (four or more American College of Rheumatology or Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics criteria) who were biopsied between 1968 and 2014 at the Leiden University Medical Centre. Non-lupus FHN patients were studied for progression to SLE and/or the presence of other conditions with FHN. The clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of idiopathic non-lupus FHN patients were compared with those of lupus FHN patients. Results: Of 149 included patients, 32 had non-lupus FHN. During the median follow-up of 20 years, no non-lupus FHN patients developed SLE. In all, 20 non-lupus FHN patients had idiopathic non-lupus FHN, and in 12 patients, secondary non-lupus FHN was considered due to membranous nephropathy (anti-PLA2R-positive, n = 1; cancer-associated, n = 3), IgA nephropathy ( n = 4), infection-related glomerulonephritis ( n = 2) or anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis ( n = 2). Idiopathic non-lupus FHN patients were more often male (P < 0.001) than lupus FHN patients and their renal biopsies more often showed a mesangial (P = 0.04) or membranous pattern of injury (P = 0.02) and less intense C1q staining (P = 0.002). Clinically, they presented with lower-range erythrocyturia (P = 0.04), more proteinuria (P < 0.01) and less complement consumption in the classical pathway (P < 0.001) than lupus FHN patients. By multivariable Cox regression analysis of patients with a lupus nephritis class III/IV pattern of injury, idiopathic non-lupus FHN compared with lupus FHN was an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease [hazard ratio 5.31 (95% confidence interval 1.47-19.24)]. Conclusions: Our results show that the clinical recognition of idiopathic non-lupus FHN as a diagnostic category is critical.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite por IGA/etiologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/etiologia , Glomerulonefrite/etiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/patologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/patologia , Humanos , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Kidney Int Rep ; 2(6): 1018-1031, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634043

RESUMO

The 2016 European Vasculitis Society (EUVAS) meeting, held in Leiden, the Netherlands, was centered around phenotypic subtyping in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). There were parallel meetings of the EUVAS petals, which here report on disease assessment; database; and long-term follow-up, registries, genetics, histology, biomarker studies, and clinical trials. Studies currently conducted will improve our ability to discriminate between different forms of vasculitis. In a project that involves the 10-year follow-up of AAV patients, we are working on retrieving data on patient and renal survival, relapse rate, the cumulative incidence of malignancies, and comorbidities. Across Europe, several vasculitis registries were developed covering over 10,000 registered patients. In the near future, these registries will facilitate clinical research in AAV on a scale hitherto unknown. Current studies on the genetic background of AAV will explore the potential prognostic significance of genetic markers and further refine genetic associations with distinct disease subsets. The histopathological classification of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis is currently evaluated in light of data coming out of a large international validation study. In our continuous search for biomarkers to predict clinical outcome, promising new markers are important subjects of current research. Over the last 2 decades, a host of clinical trials have provided evidence for refinement of therapeutic regimens. We give an overview of clinical trials currently under development, and consider refractory vasculitis in detail. The goal of EUVAS is to stimulate ongoing research in clinical, serological, and histological management and techniques for patients with systemic vasculitis, with an outlook on the applicability for clinical trials.

19.
Autoimmun Rev ; 15(6): 577-84, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26925759

RESUMO

A newly-described first-line immune defence mechanism of neutrophils is the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Immune complexes (ICxs) induce low level NET release. As such, the in vitro quantification of NETs is challenging with current methodologies. In order to investigate the role of NET release in ICx-mediated autoimmune diseases, we developed a highly sensitive and automated method for quantification of NETs. After labelling human neutrophils with PKH26 and extracellular DNA with Sytox green, cells are fixed and automatically imaged with 3-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy (3D-CLSM). NET release is then quantified with digital image analysis whereby the NET amount (Sytox green area) is corrected for the number of imaged neutrophils (PKH26 area). A high sensitivity of the assay is achieved by a) significantly augmenting the area of the well imaged (11%) as compared to conventional assays (0.5%) and b) using a 3D imaging technique for optimal capture of NETs, which are topologically superimposed on neutrophils. In this assay, we confirmed low levels of NET release upon human ICx stimulation which were positive for citrullinated histones and neutrophil elastase. In contrast to PMA-induced NET release, ICx-induced NET release was unchanged when co-incubated with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI). We were able to quantify NET release upon stimulation with serum from RA and SLE patients, which was not observed with normal human serum. To our knowledge, this is the first semi-automated assay capable of sensitive detection and quantification of NET release at a low threshold by using 3D CLSM. The assay is applicable in a high-throughput manner and allows the in vitro analysis of NET release in ICx-mediated autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/imunologia , DNA/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
20.
Lupus Sci Med ; 3(1): e000169, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28123768

RESUMO

Current guidelines do not mention tacrolimus (TAC) as a treatment option and no consensus has been reported on the role of TAC in lupus nephritis (LN). The present study aimed to guide clinical judgement on the use of TAC in patients with LN. A meta-analysis was performed for clinical studies investigating TAC regimens in LN on the basis of treatment target (induction or maintenance), concomitant immunosuppression and quality of the data. 23 clinical studies performed in patients with LN were identified: 6 case series, 9 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies and 6 randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 6 RCTs, 5 RCTs investigated TAC regimens as induction treatment and 1 RCT as maintenance treatment. Five RCTs investigated TAC in combination with steroids and 2 TAC with mycophenolate plus steroids. All RCTs were performed in patients of Asian ethnicity. In a meta-analysis, TAC regimens achieved a significantly higher total response (relative risk (RR) 1.23, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.34, p<0.05) and significantly higher complete response (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.77, p<0.05). The positive outcome was predominantly defined by the largest RCT investigating TAC with mycophenolate plus steroids. Regarding safety, the occurrence of leucopoenia was significantly lower, while the occurrence of increased creatine was higher. Clinical studies on TAC regimens for LN are limited to patients of Asian ethnicity and hampered by significant heterogeneity. The positive results on clinical efficacy of TAC as induction treatment in LN cannot be extrapolated beyond Asian patients with LN. Therefore, further confirmation in multiethnic, randomised trials is mandatory. Until then, TAC can be considered in selected patients with LN.

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