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1.
Schizophr Res Cogn ; 16: 25-28, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671352

RESUMO

The Work Behavior Inventory (WBI) is a widely used and validated assessment of work functioning in people with schizophrenia. WBI ratings are based on workplace observation and interview with work supervisors. Workplace observation may not be acceptable in all employment settings. A WBI assessment based only on supervisor interview may offer more utility. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of a modified WBI among individuals with schizophrenia participating in VA vocational rehabilitation programs - similar to the original WBI validation study. Results suggest evidence for reliability, validity and sensitivity to change for an interview only format. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

2.
J Gen Intern Med ; 29 Suppl 4: 885-94, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25355089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recognizing that clergy and spiritual care providers are a key part of mental health care systems, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense (DoD) jointly examined chaplains' current and potential roles in caring for veterans and service members with mental health needs. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the intersection of chaplain and mental health care practices in VA and DoD in order to determine if improvement is needed, and if so, to develop actionable recommendations as indicated by evaluation findings. DESIGN: A 38-member multidisciplinary task group partnered with researchers in designing, implementing, and interpreting a mixed methods study that included: 1) a quantitative survey of VA and DoD chaplains; and 2) qualitative interviews with mental health providers and chaplains. PARTICIPANTS: Quantitative: the survey included all full-time VA chaplains and all active duty military chaplains (n = 2,163 completed of 3,464 invited; 62 % response rate). Qualitative: a total of 291 interviews were conducted with mental health providers and chaplains during site visits to 33 VA and DoD facilities. MAIN MEASURES: Quantitative: the online survey assessed intersections between chaplaincy and mental health care and took an average of 37 min to complete. Qualitative: the interviews assessed current integration of mental health and chaplain services and took an average of 1 h to complete. KEY RESULTS: When included on interdisciplinary mental health care teams, chaplains feel understood and valued (82.8-100 % of chaplains indicated this, depending on the team). However, findings from the survey and site visits suggest that integration of services is often lacking and can be improved. CONCLUSIONS: Closely coordinating with a multidisciplinary task group in conducting a mixed method evaluation of chaplain-mental health integration in VA and DoD helped to ensure that researchers assessed relevant domains and that findings could be rapidly translated into actionable recommendations.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Assistência Religiosa/organização & administração , Clero/psicologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veteranos/psicologia
3.
J Health Care Chaplain ; 19(1): 3-21, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23551047

RESUMO

Chaplains play important roles in caring for Veterans and Service members with mental health problems. As part of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Department of Defense (DoD) Integrated Mental Health Strategy, we used a sequential approach to examining intersections between chaplaincy and mental health by gathering and building upon: 1) input from key subject matter experts; 2) quantitative data from the VA / DoD Chaplain Survey (N = 2,163; response rate of 75% in VA and 60% in DoD); and 3) qualitative data from site visits to 33 VA and DoD facilities. Findings indicate that chaplains are extensively involved in caring for individuals with mental health problems, yet integration between mental health and chaplaincy is frequently limited due to difficulties between the disciplines in establishing familiarity and trust. We present recommendations for improving integration of services, and we suggest key domains for future research.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Assistência Religiosa/organização & administração , United States Department of Defense , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos , Veteranos/psicologia
4.
Psychiatr Serv ; 64(1): 51-7, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23070062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with serious mental illness have elevated rates of comorbid chronic general medical conditions and may benefit from interventions designed to support illness self-management. This study examined the effectiveness of a modified version of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program called Living Well for individuals with serious mental illness. METHODS: A total of 63 mental health consumers with serious mental illness and at least one concurrent chronic general medical condition were randomly assigned to receive the 13-session peer-cofacilitated Living Well intervention or usual care. Participants were evaluated on attitudinal, behavioral, and functional outcomes at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at a two-month follow-up. RESULTS: Living Well participants showed significant postintervention improvements across a range of attitudinal (self-efficacy and patient activation), behavioral (illness self-management techniques), and functional (physical and emotional well-being and general health functioning) outcomes. Although attenuation of effect was observed for most outcomes at two months postintervention, evidence was found of continued improvement in general self-management behaviors (use of action planning, brainstorming, and problem-solving). Continued advantage was found for the Living Well group in other areas, such as health-related locus of control and reports of healthy eating and physical activity. Receipt of Living Well was associated with a notable decrease in use of the emergency room for medical care, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Living Well shows promise in helping mental health consumers more effectively manage chronic general medical conditions and experience improved functioning and well-being.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Satisfação Pessoal , Melhoria de Qualidade , Autocuidado/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Autoeficácia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Schizophr Bull ; 36(1): 48-70, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19955389

RESUMO

The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) psychosocial treatment recommendations provide a comprehensive summary of current evidence-based psychosocial treatment interventions for persons with schizophrenia. There have been 2 previous sets of psychosocial treatment recommendations (Lehman AF, Steinwachs DM. Translating research into practice: the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) treatment recommendations. Schizophr Bull. 1998;24:1-10 and Lehman AF, Kreyenbuhl J, Buchanan RW, et al. The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT): updated treatment recommendations 2003. Schizophr Bull. 2004;30:193-217). This article reports the third set of PORT recommendations that includes updated reviews in 7 areas as well as adding 5 new areas of review. Members of the psychosocial Evidence Review Group conducted reviews of the literature in each intervention area and drafted the recommendation or summary statement with supporting discussion. A Psychosocial Advisory Committee was consulted in all aspects of the review, and an expert panel commented on draft recommendations and summary statements. Our review process produced 8 treatment recommendations in the following areas: assertive community treatment, supported employment, cognitive behavioral therapy, family-based services, token economy, skills training, psychosocial interventions for alcohol and substance use disorders, and psychosocial interventions for weight management. Reviews of treatments focused on medication adherence, cognitive remediation, psychosocial treatments for recent onset schizophrenia, and peer support and peer-delivered services indicated that none of these treatment areas yet have enough evidence to merit a treatment recommendation, though each is an emerging area of interest. This update of PORT psychosocial treatment recommendations underscores both the expansion of knowledge regarding psychosocial treatments for persons with schizophrenia at the same time as the limitations in their implementation in clinical practice settings.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Esquizofrenia/reabilitação , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Comitês Consultivos , Alcoolismo/reabilitação , Terapia Comportamental , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Terapia Combinada , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Readaptação ao Emprego , Terapia Familiar , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Socialização , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Reforço por Recompensa , Perda de Peso
6.
J Clin Psychol ; 65(8): 831-41, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19551711

RESUMO

Co-occurring substance use disorders are highly prevalent among individuals with schizophrenia and other serious and persistent mental illnesses (SPMI) and are associated with clinically significant consequences. A multifaceted behavioral treatment called Behavioral Treatment for Substance Abuse in Serious and Persistent Mental Illness (BTSAS) can reduce substance abuse in persons with SPMI. The key treatment strategies in BTSAS include a urinalysis contingency, short-term goal setting, training in drug refusal skills, psychoeducation about the impact of drug use, and relapse prevention training. A case example illustrating the application of BTSAS is presented and relevant clinical issues are discussed.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Esquizofrenia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Anedotas como Assunto , Comorbidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
J Rehabil Res Dev ; 44(6): 827-35, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18075940

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits are a primary factor in the social and functional impairments characteristic of schizophrenia and an important predictor of treatment success in psychosocial rehabilitation. This study examined the association between abstract reasoning and social functioning by assessing whether learning potential on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) relates to changes in social competence following social skills training (SST). Fifty-six veterans with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed a series of assessments followed by eight SST sessions. To evaluate learning potential, we assessed participants with the WCST and Category Test (CT), taught them a training protocol for the WCST, and retested on both measures. Participants learned the WCST, generalized this learning to improve their performance on the CT, and retained these gains for several weeks. Participants showed small improvements on the Maryland Assessment of Social Competence (MASC), but WCST learning potential and CT generalization were unrelated to improvement on the MASC.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Reabilitação Vocacional/métodos , Esquizofrenia/reabilitação , Valores Sociais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci ; 42(1): 5-14, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16134402

RESUMO

In the last decade, impairments in several cognitive domains have been recognized as a central feature of schizophrenia. Consistent evidence has accumulated that documents the contribution of these deficits to poor outcome in social and occupational functioning, and thus they are important targets for psychosocial as well as pharmacological intervention. After reviewing the literature on cognitive remediation for brain injury as well as schizophrenia patients, consulting with research groups which have implemented cognitive remediation programs for schizophrenia, and conducting pilot work with patients, our group has developed a broadly-targeted computer-based remediation intervention that is based on using exercises that engage several cognitive capacities simultaneously, teaching of a set of cognitive strategies by a supportive therapist in a one-on-one setting, and addressing many of the treatment issues that are specific to schizophrenia. The strategies that are emphasized in the intervention are derived from the learning and remediation literatures and include the following: 1) Verbalization to enhance encoding and recall of stimuli; 2) Breaking problems down to promote organized problem solving; 3) Articulation of problem solving to encourage deliberate responding and self-monitoring; 4) Self-checking of performance and adjustment as necessary; 5) Strategic probe questions to prompt participants to monitor their work and make planful responses; 6) Scaffolding aids to provide ongoing support as needed. We are currently conducting a randomized trial of the intervention in which patients complete 24 sessions of remediation or an equivalent number of sessions with a therapist using computer games that have minimal cognitive demand. Our initial experience with the intervention is encouraging and suggests that it is feasible, the tasks are extremely well-received and patients are willing to come to the clinic several times per week to work on them. It is premature to assess whether participation in cognitive remediation is effective in improving cognition, but patients have thus far demonstrated improvement on trained computer exercises. The potential of psychosocial and pharmacological interventions, alone and in combination, for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is a promising research issue.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/instrumentação , Ensino de Recuperação , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Terapia Assistida por Computador , Humanos
9.
Schizophr Res ; 75(2-3): 405-16, 2005 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15885531

RESUMO

The token economy is a treatment intervention based on principles of operant conditioning and social learning. Developed in the 1950s and 1960s for long-stay hospital patients, the token economy has fallen out of favor since that time. The current review was undertaken as part of the 2003 update of the schizophrenia treatment recommendations of the Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT). A total of 13 controlled studies of the token economy were reviewed. As a group, the studies provide evidence of the token economy's effectiveness in increasing the adaptive behaviors of patients with schizophrenia. Most of the studies are limited, however, by methodological shortcomings and by the historical context in which they were performed. More research is needed to determine the specific benefits of the token economy when administered in combination with contemporary psychosocial and psychopharmacological treatments.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia/terapia , Reforço por Recompensa , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Condicionamento Operante , Humanos , Comportamento Social
10.
Schizophr Bull ; 30(2): 193-217, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15279040

RESUMO

Since publication of the original Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) treatment recommendations in 1998, considerable scientific advances have occurred in our knowledge about how to help persons with schizophrenia. Today an even stronger body of research supports the scientific basis of treatment. This evidence, taken in its entirety, points to the value of treatment approaches combining medications with psychosocial treatments, including psychological interventions, family interventions, supported employment, assertive community treatment, and skills training. The most significant advances lie in the increased options for pharmacotherapy, with the introduction of second generation antipsychotic medications, and greater confidence and specificity in the application of psychosocial interventions. Currently available treatment technologies, when appropriately applied and accessible, should provide most patients with significant relief from psychotic symptoms and improved opportunities to lead more fulfilling lives in the community. Nonetheless, major challenges remain, including the need for (1) better knowledge about the underlying etiologies of the neurocognitive impairments and deficit symptoms that account for much of the disability still associated with schizophrenia; (2) treatments that more directly address functional impairments and that promote recovery; and (3) approaches that facilitate access to scientifically based treatments for patients, the vast majority of whom currently do not have such access.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/normas , Psicoterapia/métodos , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Antipsicóticos/classificação , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
11.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 72(1): 121-5, 2004 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14756621

RESUMO

This study provides preliminary psychometric support for a version of the Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Scale (CAPS; D. D. Blake et al., 1990) adapted for use with patients with schizophrenia (CAPS-S; J. S. Gearon. S. Thomas-Lohrman, & A. S. Bellack, 2001). Nineteen women with schizophrenia and co-occurring illicit drug use disorders were administered the CAPS-S, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). and scales measuring trauma-related psychopathology. The results indicate that the CAPS-S can distinguish between those with and without PTSD and that the symptom clusters measure unified constructs. Interrater and test-retest reliability were high for PTSD diagnosis and symptom clusters. Solid convergent validity was demonstrated between the CAPS-S and SCID-based PTSD diagnoses and the Impact of Event Scale. There is also preliminary evidence of discriminant validity. These results support the use of the CAPS-S in women with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
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