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3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 524(1): 50-56, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980166

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare, but progressive and devastating vascular disease with few treatment options to prevent the advancement to right ventricular dysfunction hypertrophy and failure. Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, enhances urinary glucose excretion as well as reduces cardiovascular events and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes. While empagliflozin has been reported to lower systemic hypertension due to increased diuresis, the effect of empagliflozin on PAH is unknown. We used monocrotaline (MCT)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats to determine if empagliflozin alters PAH-associated outcomes. Compared to vehicle control, daily empagliflozin administration significantly improved survival in rats with severe MCT-induced PAH. Hemodynamic assessments showed that empagliflozin treatment significantly reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricular systolic pressure, and increased pulmonary acceleration time. Empagliflozin treatment resulted in reduced right ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Histological and molecular assessments of lung vasculature revealed significantly reduced medial wall thickening and decreased muscularization of pulmonary arterioles after empagliflozin treatment compared to vehicle-treated rats. In summary, SGLT2 inhibition with empagliflozin lowered mortality, reduced right ventricle systolic pressure, and attenuated maladaptive pulmonary remodeling in MCT-induced PAH. Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of SGLT-2 inhibition should be considered for patients with PAH.

5.
Cell Metab ; 30(4): 609-613, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477497

RESUMO

Hess et al. quantified circulating aldehyde dehydrogenase-expressing (ALDHhi) cell subsets in people with T2DM given either empagliflozin (EMPA) or placebo. EMPA treatment increased circulating pro-angiogenic CD133+ progenitor cells, decreased pro-inflammatory ALDHhi granulocyte precursors, and increased ALDHhi monocytes with M2 polarization. EMPA treatment improved T2DM-associated "regenerative cell depletion" contributing to enhanced vascular health.

6.
Circulation ; 140(21): 1693-1702, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SGLT2 (sodium-glucose cotransporter 2) inhibitors lower cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus but whether they promote direct cardiac effects remains unknown. We sought to determine if empagliflozin causes a decrease in left ventricular (LV) mass in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. METHODS: Between November 2016 and April 2018, we recruited 97 individuals ≥40 and ≤80 years old with glycated hemoglobin 6.5% to 10.0%, known coronary artery disease, and estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60mL/min/1.73m2. The participants were randomized to empagliflozin (10 mg/day, n=49) or placebo (n=48) for 6 months, in addition to standard of care. The primary outcome was the 6-month change in LV mass indexed to body surface area from baseline as measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Other measures included 6-month changes in LV end-diastolic and -systolic volumes indexed to body surface area, ejection fraction, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, hematocrit, and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide). RESULTS: Among the 97 participants (90 men [93%], mean [standard deviation] age 62.8 [9.0] years, type 2 diabetes mellitus duration 11.0 [8.2] years, estimated glomerular filtration rate 88.4 [16.9] mL/min/1.73m2, LV mass indexed to body surface area 60.7 [11.9] g/m2), 90 had evaluable imaging at follow-up. Mean LV mass indexed to body surface area regression over 6 months was 2.6 g/m2 and 0.01 g/m2 for those assigned empagliflozin and placebo, respectively (adjusted difference -3.35 g/m2; 95% CI, -5.9 to -0.81g/m2, P=0.01). In the empagliflozin-allocated group, there was significant lowering of overall ambulatory systolic blood pressure (adjusted difference -6.8mmHg, 95% CI -11.2 to -2.3mmHg, P=0.003), diastolic blood pressure (adjusted difference -3.2mmHg; 95% CI, -5.8 to -0.6mmHg, P=0.02) and elevation of hematocrit (P=0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, SGLT2 inhibition with empagliflozin was associated with significant reduction in LV mass indexed to body surface area after 6 months, which may account in part for the beneficial cardiovascular outcomes observed in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME (BI 10773 [Empagliflozin] Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients) trial. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02998970.

7.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 459(1-2): 121-130, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127491

RESUMO

The antihyperglycemic agent empagliflozin not only improves glycemic control but has also been associated with clinically meaningful reductions in cardiovascular events. Studies have shown that empagliflozin significantly reduces cardiovascular death and heart failure-associated hospitalizations. Given that endothelial dysfunction is closely linked with the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, we hypothesized that the cardiovascular benefits observed with empagliflozin may be a result of its positive impact on the health of the endothelial glycocalyx (GCX), a critical component for the endothelium homeostasis. Human abdominal aortic endothelial cells (HAAECs) were either statically cultured or subjected to a steady wall shear stress of 10 dyne/cm2. Empagliflozin (50 µM, 24 h) restored heparinase III-mediated GCX disruption and the normal mechanotransduction responses in GCX-compromised HAAECs while reducing the attachment of all-trans retinoic acid-transformed NB4 cells to HAAECs. The current body of work suggests that the cardioprotective properties previously reported for empagliflozin may in part be due to the ability of empagliflozin to preserve and restore the structural integrity of the GCX, which in turn helps to maintain vascular health by promoting an anti-inflammatory endothelium, in the presence of a pro-inflammatory environment. Further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular benefits of empagliflozin.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glicocálix/metabolismo , Aorta Abdominal/citologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Humanos
8.
Trends Mol Med ; 25(7): 640-655, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053416

RESUMO

Ischemic cardiovascular complications remain a major cause of mortality in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Individuals with T2D may have a reduced ability to revascularize ischemic tissues due to abnormal production of circulating provascular progenitor cells. This 'regenerative cell exhaustion' process is intensified by increasing oxidative stress and inflammation and during T2D progression. Chronic exhaustion may be mediated by changes in the bone marrow microenvironment that dysregulate the wingless related integration site network, a central pathway maintaining the progenitor cell pool. Restoration of vascular regenerative cell production by reducing glucotoxicity with contemporary antihyperglycemic agents, by reducing systemic inflammation postbariatric surgery, or by modulating progenitor cell provascular functions using exosomal manipulation, may provide unique approaches for mitigating ischemic disease.

9.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 4(1): 98-112, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847424

RESUMO

Detection of vascular regenerative cell exhaustion is required to combat ischemic complications during type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We used high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and surface marker co-expression to develop a high-throughput flow cytometry-based assay to quantify circulating proangiogenic and proinflammatory cell content in the peripheral blood of individuals with T2D. Circulating proangiogenic monocytes expressing anti-inflammatory M2 markers were decreased in patients with T2D. Individuals with longer duration of T2D exhibited reduced frequencies of circulating proangiogenic ALDHhiCD34+ progenitor cells with primitive (CD133) and migratory (CXCR4) phenotypes. This approach consistently detected increased inflammatory cell burden and decreased provascular progenitor content in individuals with T2D.

10.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 157(1): 185-193, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine if endothelial autophagy affects myocardial energy metabolism. METHODS: We used isolated working mouse hearts to compare cardiac function, energy metabolism, and ischemic response of hearts from endothelial cell-specific ATG7 knockout (EC-ATG7-/-) mice to hearts from their wild-type littermates. We also conducted gene analyses on human umbilical vein endothelial cells incubated with scrambled small interfering RNA or small interfering ATG7. RESULTS: In the presence of insulin, working hearts from EC-ATG7-/- mice, relative to those from wild-type littermates, exhibited greater reductions in insulin-associated palmitate oxidation indicating a diminished reliance on fatty acids as a fuel source. Likewise, palmitate oxidation was markedly lower in the hearts of EC-ATG7-/- mice versus wild-type mice during reperfusion of ischemic hearts. Although hearts from EC-ATG7-/- mice revealed significantly lower triacylglycerol content compared with those from wild-type mice, ATG7-silenced human umbilical vein endothelial cells demonstrated appreciably lower fatty acid binding protein 4 and 5 expression relative to those treated with scrambled small interfering RNA. CONCLUSIONS: Disruption of endothelial autophagy reduces cardiac fatty acid storage and dampens reliance on fatty acid oxidation as a cardiac fuel source. The autophagy network represents a novel target for designing new strategies aimed at resetting perturbed myocardial bioenergetics.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Animais , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Palmitatos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
11.
Diabetes Care ; 42(1): 173-176, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of inclisiran by diabetes status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: ORION-1 (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02597127) randomized 501 subjects with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or ASCVD risk equivalents and high LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), despite maximally tolerated LDL-C-lowering therapies, to one or two doses of placebo or inclisiran. Levels of lipids and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) at baseline and day 180 were compared. RESULTS: Inclisiran was associated with marked declines in LDL-C (median -28% to -52%, P < 0.0001 and -28% to -55%, P < 0.005 for all doses in the without- and with-diabetes groups, respectively) and PCSK9. The inclisiran-treated groups also had lower apolipoprotein B, non-HDL cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a) but higher HDL cholesterol. Inclisiran had an adverse profile similar to that of placebo, and adverse events were proportionally balanced in the baseline with- and without-diabetes groups. CONCLUSIONS: PCSK9-targeted siRNA-driven strategies may provide a novel therapeutic option for managing dyslipidemia in the presence and absence of diabetes.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/sangue , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Dislipidemias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
12.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 3(5): 575-587, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456329

RESUMO

SGLT2 inhibitors have profound benefits on reducing heart failure and cardiovascular mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes, although the mechanism(s) of this benefit remain poorly understood. Because changes in cardiac bioenergetics play a critical role in the pathophysiology of heart failure, the authors evaluated cardiac energy production and substrate use in diabetic mice treated with the SGTL2 inhibitor, empagliflozin. Empagliflozin treatment of diabetic db/db mice prevented the development of cardiac failure. Glycolysis, and the oxidation of glucose, fatty acids and ketones were measured in the isolated working heart perfused with 5 mmol/l glucose, 0.8 mmol/l palmitate, 0.5 mmol/l ß-hydroxybutyrate (ßOHB), and 500 µU/ml insulin. In vehicle-treated db/db mice, cardiac glucose oxidation rates were decreased by 61%, compared with control mice, but only by 43% in empagliflozin-treated diabetic mice. Interestingly, cardiac ketone oxidation rates in db/db mice decreased to 45% of the rates seen in control mice, whereas a similar decrease (43%) was seen in empagliflozin-treated db/db mice. Overall cardiac adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production rates decreased by 36% in db/db vehicle-treated hearts compared with control mice, with fatty acid oxidation providing 42%, glucose oxidation 26%, ketone oxidation 10%, and glycolysis 22% of ATP production in db/db mouse hearts. In empagliflozin-treated db/db mice, cardiac ATP production rates increased by 31% compared with db/db vehicle-treated mice, primarily due to a 61% increase in the contribution of glucose oxidation to energy production. Cardiac efficiency (cardiac work/O2 consumed) decreased by 28% in db/db vehicle-treated hearts, compared with control hearts, and empagliflozin did not increase cardiac efficiency per se. Because ketone oxidation was impaired in db/db mouse hearts, the authors determined whether this contributed to the decrease in cardiac efficiency seen in the db/db mouse hearts. Addition of 600 µmol/l ßOHB to db/db mouse hearts perfused with 5 mmol/l glucose, 0.8 mmol/l palmitate, and 100 µU/ml insulin increased ketone oxidation rates, but did not decrease either glucose oxidation or fatty acid oxidation rates. The presence of ketones did not increase cardiac efficiency, but did increase ATP production rates, due to the additional contribution of ketone oxidation to energy production. The authors conclude that empagliflozin treatment is associated with an increase in ATP production, resulting in an enhanced energy status of the heart.

14.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 3(6): 861-870, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623145

RESUMO

The clinical use of doxorubicin in cancer is limited by cardiotoxic effects that can lead to heart failure. Whereas earlier work focused on the direct impact of doxorubicin on cardiomyocytes, recent studies have turned to the endothelium, because doxorubicin-damaged endothelial cells can trigger the development and progression of cardiomyopathy by decreasing the release and activity of key endothelial factors and inducing endothelial cell death. Thus, the endothelium represents a novel target for improving the detection, management, and prevention of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

15.
J Vasc Surg ; 68(3): 859-871, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiologic processes of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and atherosclerosis often intersect. Given that anomalies in vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) autophagy have been noted in models of atherosclerosis, we sought to evaluate the potential role that SMC autophagy may play in the initiation and progression of AAAs. METHODS: Studies were conducted in ATG7flx/flxSM22α-Cretg/+ (SMC ATG7 knockout [SMC-ATG7-KO]) and ATG7WT/WT; SM22α-Cretg/+ (SMC ATG7 wild-type [SMC-ATG7-WT]) littermates that were continuously infused with angiotensin II (Ang II; 1.5 mg/kg/d) for up to 12 weeks. Mortality, morbidity, hemodynamics, and aortic remodeling were documented. RESULTS: During the 12-week observation window, all of the Ang II-treated SMC-ATG-WT mice (n = 6) survived, whereas 10 of the 19 Ang II-treated SMC-ATG-KO mice had died by week 7 (log-rank test, P < .001). Mean arterial pressure (128.07 ± 3.4 mm Hg for Ang II-treated SMC-ATG-KO vs 138.5 ± 5.87 mm Hg for Ang II-treated SMC-ATG-WT mice) and diastolic arterial pressure (109.7 ± 2.55 mm Hg for Ang II-treated SMC-ATG7-KO vs 119.4 ± 2.12 mm Hg for Ang II-treated SMC-ATG7-WT mice) were significantly different between the two groups (P < .01). Cardiac rupture, myocardial infarct, end-organ damage, pleural effusion, and venous distention were noted in Ang II-treated SMC-ATG7-KO but not in Ang II-treated SMC-ATG7-WT mice. Although the suprarenal aortic diameters of the Ang II-treated SMC-ATG7-KO group demonstrated a trending increase (at week 4, 1.26 ± 0.06 mm [n = 14] for Ang II-treated SMC-ATG-KO mice vs 1.09 ± 0.02 mm [n = 5] for Ang II-treated SMC-ATG-WT mice; P < .05), only 2 of the 19 developed abdominal aortic dissections. CONCLUSIONS: Mice with SMC ATG7 deficiency that are chronically infused with Ang II do not tend to develop dissecting AAA but do exhibit adverse aortic remodeling and appreciable cardiac failure-associated mortality.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Autofagia , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Animais , Hemodinâmica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
16.
Can J Diabetes ; 42(2): 130-137, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28552652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Optimal treatment of blood pressure (BP) and other cardiovascular risk factors, including hyperglycemia, is integral to diabetes management. There are limited data from the primary care setting concerning the contemporary and comprehensive management of type 2 diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors in relation to guideline-recommended BP target achievement. METHODS: The Diabetes Mellitus Status in Canada (DM-SCAN) survey included 5172 ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. Data were collected on patient demographics, medical histories, medication usage, BP levels and laboratory investigations. We stratified the study population based on their attainment of the BP target recommended by the Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada and the Canadian Hypertension Education Program (<130/80 mmHg) and compared patient clinical characteristics and treatments. RESULTS: Of the 5145 patients with available BP data, 36% achieved the BP target. Prevalence of smoking, known coronary artery disease, retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy were similar in the groups with BP 130/80 mmHg or higher and BP 130/80 mmHg or lower. Patients with BP 130/80 mmHg or higher were taking more antihypertensive agents and were more likely to be taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, diuretics and calcium channel blockers. They also had significantly higher glycated hemoglobin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Overall, these patients were also less likely to achieve guideline-recommended glycemic and lipid targets. CONCLUSIONS: Only about one-third of patients with diabetes achieved the target BP of below 130/80 mmHg. Patients with BP 130/80 mmHg or higher were also less likely to achieve optimal guideline-recommended glycated hemoglobin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol targets. Improved comprehensive management of all risk factors in patients with diabetes is warranted.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
BMJ Open ; 7(6): e014491, 2017 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601820

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neurological injury remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality following open aortic arch repair. Systemic hypothermia along with antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) is the accepted cerebral protection approach, with axillary artery cannulation being the most common technique used to establish ACP. More recently, innominate artery cannulation has been shown to be a safe and efficacious method for establishing ACP. Inasmuch as there is a lack of high-quality data comparing axillary and innominate artery ACP, we have designed a randomised, multi-centre clinical trial to compare both cerebral perfusion strategies with regards to brain morphological injury using diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 110 patients undergoing elective aortic surgery with repair of the proximal arch requiring an open distal anastamosis will be randomised to either the innominate artery or the axillary artery cannulation strategy for establishing unilateral ACP during systemic circulatory arrest with moderate levels of hypothermia. The primary safety endpoint of this trial is the proportion of patients with new radiologically significant ischaemic lesions found on postoperative DW-MRI compared with preoperative DW-MRI. The primary efficacy endpoint of this trial is the difference in total operative time between the innominate artery and the axillary artery cannulation group. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol and consent forms have been approved by the participating local research ethics boards. Publication of the study results is anticipated in 2018 or 2019. If this study shows that the innominate artery cannulation technique is non-inferior to the axillary artery cannulation technique with regards to brain morphological injury, it will establish the innominate artery cannulation technique as a safe and potentially more efficient method of antegrade cerebral perfusion in aortic surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02554032.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Parada Circulatória Induzida por Hipotermia Profunda/métodos , Perfusão/métodos , Idoso , Artéria Axilar , Tronco Braquiocefálico , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia
18.
BMJ Open ; 7(5): e015032, 2017 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28566364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gold-standard treatment of severe mitral regurgitation (MR) due to degenerative disease is valve repair, which is surgically performed with either a leaflet resection or leaflet preservation approach. Recent data suggest that functional mitral stenosis (MS) may occur following valve repair using a leaflet resection strategy, which adversely affects patient prognosis. A randomised comparison of these two approaches to mitral repair on functional MS has not been conducted. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective, multicentre randomised controlled trial designed to test the hypothesis that leaflet preservation leads to better preservation of mitral valve geometry, and therefore, will be superior to leaflet resection for the primary outcome of functional MS as assessed by 12-month mean mitral valve gradient at peak exercise. Eighty-eight patients with posterior leaflet prolapse will be randomised intraoperatively once deemed by the operating surgeon to feasibly undergo mitral repair using either a leaflet resection or leaflet preservation approach. Secondary end points include comparison of repair strategies with regard to mitral valve orifice area, leaflet coaptation height, 6 min walk test and a composite major adverse event end point consisting of recurrent MR ≥2+, death or hospital readmission for congestive heart failure within 12 months of surgery. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Institutional ethics approval has been obtained from all enrolling sites. Overall, there remains clinical equipoise regarding the mitral valve repair strategy that is associated with the least likelihood of functional MS. This trial hopes to introduce high-quality evidence to help surgical decision making in this context. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02552771.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Morte , Ecocardiografia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Projetos de Pesquisa , Teste de Caminhada
19.
CMAJ Open ; 5(1): E152-E177, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28459046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given recent discrepant results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we examined the totality of RCT evidence assessing the association between dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and heart failure. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched without language restrictions to August 2016 for RCTs comparing DPP-4 inhibitors to placebo or no therapy for a period of 24 weeks or more. We included all heart failure outcomes when listed either as a serious adverse event or adverse event. Pooled analyses used random-effects. RESULTS: We identified 100 RCTs (n = 79 867) - 3 large cardiovascular-safety RCTs (SAVOR-TIMI 53[saxagliptin]/n = 16 492, EXAMINE[alogliptin]/n = 5380, and TECOS[sitagliptin]/n = 14 735), and 97 smaller RCTs with a primary outcome that was usually change in glycated hemoglobin. Virtually all RCTs were high-quality, multicentre, placebo-controlled trials. A total of 96% (1192/1244) of heart failure events were prespecified, blindly adjudicated and required hospital admission. Pooled results suggested a 13% increase in heart failure (relative risk [RR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.26, I2 = 0%; 32 RCTs, n = 54 640, 1244 events). When including only the 3 large RCTs, the increase was similar, but not significant (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.97-1.32; 3 RCTs, n = 36 543, 1169 adjudicated events; number needed to harm 246) owing to heterogeneity (I2 = 42%), which lead to wider CIs, because SAVOR-TIMI 53 showed increased heart failure (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06-1.49) and TECOS showed no effect (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.83-1.19). INTERPRETATION: Despite pooled data from 79 867 patients, whether DPP-4 inhibitors increase heart failure overall or exhibit within-class differences remains unresolved. Our results highlight the importance of ongoing trials that are comparing DPP-4 inhibitors to placebo, although no large cardiovascular-safety RCTs are comparing different DPP-4 inhibitors to each other; consequently, these will address the overall but not class-difference question.

20.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 154(3): 978-988.e1, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombosis persists as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Given that endothelial cells (ECs) play a central role in regulating thrombosis, understanding the molecular endothelial cues that regulate susceptibility or resistance to thrombosis have important translational implications. Accordingly, we evaluated the role of endothelial autophagy in the development of thrombosis. METHODS: We generated mice in which the essential autophagy-related 7 (ATG7) gene was conditionally deleted from ECs (EC-ATG7-/- mice). Three in vivo models of thrombosis were used, and mechanistic studies were conducted with cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). RESULTS: We silenced ATG7 in HUVECs and observed >60% decreases in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced tissue factor (TF) transcript levels, protein expression, and activity. TF mRNA levels in the carotid arteries of EC-ATG7-/- mice subjected to the prothrombotic stimulus FeCl3 were lower than those in the similarly treated wild-type (WT) littermate group. Compared with WT mice, EC-ATG7-/- mice exhibited prolonged time to carotid (2-fold greater) and mesenteric (1.3-fold greater) artery occlusion following FeCl3 injury. The thrombi generated in laser-injured cremasteric arterioles were smaller in EC-ATG7-/- mice compared with WT mice, and took 2.3-fold longer to appear. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results provide definitive evidence that loss of endothelial ATG7 attenuates thrombosis and reduces the expression of TF. Our findings demonstrate that endothelial ATG7, and thus autophagy, is a critical and previously unrecognized target for modulating the susceptibility to thrombosis.


Assuntos
Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Trombose/metabolismo , Animais , Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Humanos , Artérias Mesentéricas/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Trombose/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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