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1.
Nat Genet ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020668

RESUMO

To elucidate the genetics of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Japanese population, we conducted a large-scale genome-wide association study of 168,228 individuals of Japanese ancestry (25,892 cases and 142,336 controls) with genotype imputation using a newly developed reference panel of Japanese haplotypes including 1,781 CAD cases and 2,636 controls. We detected eight new susceptibility loci and Japanese-specific rare variants contributing to disease severity and increased cardiovascular mortality. We then conducted a trans-ancestry meta-analysis and discovered 35 additional new loci. Using the meta-analysis results, we derived a polygenic risk score (PRS) for CAD, which outperformed those derived from either Japanese or European genome-wide association studies. The PRS prioritized risk factors among various clinical parameters and segregated individuals with increased risk of long-term cardiovascular mortality. Our data improve the clinical characterization of CAD genetics and suggest the utility of trans-ancestry meta-analysis for PRS derivation in non-European populations.

3.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 248, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody is a diagnostic biomarker of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, some non-RA connective tissue disease (CTD) patients also test positive for the anti-CCP antibody and, thus, may ultimately develop RA. We retrospectively investigated whether anti-CCP-positive non-RA CTD patients developed RA and attempted to identify factors that may differentiate RA-overlapping CTD from pure CTD. METHODS: In total, 842 CTD patients with a primary diagnosis that was not RA were selected from our CTD database as of December 2012. Anti-CCP antibody titers were obtained from a retrospective chart review or measured using stored sera. RA was diagnosed according to the 1987 revised American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. Thirty-three anti-CCP-positive non-RA CTD patients were retrospectively followed up for the development of RA. Bone erosions on the hands and feet were assessed by X-ray. Citrullination dependency was evaluated by an in-house ELISA, the HLA-DRB1 allele was typed, and the results obtained were then compared between RA-overlapping and non-RA anti-CCP-positive CTD patients. RESULTS: Two out of 33 anti-CCP-positive CTD patients (6.1%) developed RA during a mean follow-up period of 8.9 years. X-rays were examined in 27 out of the 33 patients, and only one (3.7%) showed bone erosions. The frequency of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) and anti-CCP antibody titers were both significantly higher in anti-CCP-positive RA-overlapping CTD patients than in anti-CCP-positive non-RA CTD patients, while no significant differences were observed in citrullination dependency. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-CCP-positive non-RA CTD patients rarely developed RA. HLA-DRB1 SE and anti-CCP antibody titers may facilitate the differentiation of RA-overlapping CTD from anti-CCP-positive non-RA CTD.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008915, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776928

RESUMO

Sequences homologous to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) are integrated within the nuclear genome of about 1% of humans, but it is not clear how this came about. It is also uncertain whether integrated HHV-6 can reactivate into an infectious virus. HHV-6 integrates into telomeres, and this has recently been associated with polymorphisms affecting MOV10L1. MOV10L1 is located on the subtelomere of chromosome 22q (chr22q) and is required to make PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). As piRNAs block germline integration of transposons, piRNA-mediated repression of HHV-6 integration has been proposed to explain this association. In vitro, recombination of the HHV-6 genome along its terminal direct repeats (DRs) leads to excision from the telomere and viral reactivation, but the expected "solo-DR scar" has not been described in vivo. Here we screened for integrated HHV-6 in 7,485 Japanese subjects using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Integrated HHV-6 was associated with polymorphisms on chr22q. However, in contrast to prior work, we find that the reported MOV10L1 polymorphism is physically linked to an ancient endogenous HHV-6A variant integrated into the telomere of chr22q in East Asians. Unexpectedly, an HHV-6B variant has also endogenized in chr22q; two endogenous HHV-6 variants at this locus thus account for 72% of all integrated HHV-6 in Japan. We also report human genomes carrying only one portion of the HHV-6B genome, a solo-DR, supporting in vivo excision and possible viral reactivation. Together these results explain the recently-reported association between integrated HHV-6 and MOV10L1/piRNAs, suggest potential exaptation of HHV-6 in its coevolution with human chr22q, and clarify the evolution and risk of reactivation of the only intact (non-retro)viral genome known to be present in human germlines.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Herpesvirus Humano 6/genética , Integração Viral , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Evolução Molecular , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
5.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-6, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Biologics have been used to treat refractory Takayasu arteritis (TAK), but their efficacy and safety have not been sufficiently evaluated. METHODS: We extracted clinical information from medical records for TAK patients who were treated with biologics including ustekinumab (UST) at Kyoto University Hospital. We also analysed the patient's genetic backgrounds. RESULTS: Of 163 cases, 12 (7.4%) were treated with infliximab, tocilizumab, or UST (n = 3). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein levels (CRP), and prednisolone (PSL) dose were significantly decreased 12 months after the initiation of biologics. When compared with the 15 patients who were only treated with immunosuppressants (IS group), the change in ESR from baseline was significantly lower in the biologics group than in the IS group (-2 mm/h, p = .005). The proportion of patients with HLA-B*52 and the risk-type alleles of the SNP were similar in both groups. Among the biologics, TCZ showed the highest continuation rate. UST exhibited marginal effects on reducing ESR, CRP levels, and PSL dose. No adverse events were observed in patients with UST for approximately 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: Biological treatments resulted in a reduction in inflammatory markers and PSL dose in refractory TAK patients.

6.
Nat Genet ; 52(7): 669-679, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514122

RESUMO

The overwhelming majority of participants in current genetic studies are of European ancestry. To elucidate disease biology in the East Asian population, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 212,453 Japanese individuals across 42 diseases. We detected 320 independent signals in 276 loci for 27 diseases, with 25 novel loci (P < 9.58 × 10-9). East Asian-specific missense variants were identified as candidate causal variants for three novel loci, and we successfully replicated two of them by analyzing independent Japanese cohorts; p.R220W of ATG16L2 (associated with coronary artery disease) and p.V326A of POT1 (associated with lung cancer). We further investigated enrichment of heritability within 2,868 annotations of genome-wide transcription factor occupancy, and identified 378 significant enrichments across nine diseases (false discovery rate < 0.05) (for example, NKX3-1 for prostate cancer). This large-scale GWAS in a Japanese population provides insights into the etiology of complex diseases and highlights the importance of performing GWAS in non-European populations.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Japão , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
7.
Nature ; 584(7819): 130-135, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581364

RESUMO

The extent to which the biology of oncogenesis and ageing are shaped by factors that distinguish human populations is unknown. Haematopoietic clones with acquired mutations become common with advancing age and can lead to blood cancers1-10. Here we describe shared and population-specific patterns of genomic mutations and clonal selection in haematopoietic cells on the basis of 33,250 autosomal mosaic chromosomal alterations that we detected in 179,417 Japanese participants in the BioBank Japan cohort and compared with analogous data from the UK Biobank. In this long-lived Japanese population, mosaic chromosomal alterations were detected in more than 35.0% (s.e.m., 1.4%) of individuals older than 90 years, which suggests that such clones trend towards inevitability with advancing age. Japanese and European individuals exhibited key differences in the genomic locations of mutations in their respective haematopoietic clones; these differences predicted the relative rates of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (which is more common among European individuals) and T cell leukaemia (which is more common among Japanese individuals) in these populations. Three different mutational precursors of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (including trisomy 12, loss of chromosomes 13q and 13q, and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity) were between two and six times less common among Japanese individuals, which suggests that the Japanese and European populations differ in selective pressures on clones long before the development of clinically apparent chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Japanese and British populations also exhibited very different rates of clones that arose from B and T cell lineages, which predicted the relative rates of B and T cell cancers in these populations. We identified six previously undescribed loci at which inherited variants predispose to mosaic chromosomal alterations that duplicate or remove the inherited risk alleles, including large-effect rare variants at NBN, MRE11 and CTU2 (odds ratio, 28-91). We suggest that selective pressures on clones are modulated by factors that are specific to human populations. Further genomic characterization of clonal selection and cancer in populations from around the world is therefore warranted.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Genoma Humano/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Mutação , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Linhagem da Célula , Células Clonais/citologia , Células Clonais/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Hematopoese/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Humanos , Japão , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Leucemia de Células T/genética , Leucemia de Células T/patologia , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Reino Unido
8.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(545)2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461333

RESUMO

It is challenging to quickly diagnose slowly progressing diseases. To prioritize multiple related diagnoses, we developed G-PROB (Genetic Probability tool) to calculate the probability of different diseases for a patient using genetic risk scores. We tested G-PROB for inflammatory arthritis-causing diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, spondyloarthropathy, psoriatic arthritis, and gout). After validating on simulated data, we tested G-PROB in three cohorts: 1211 patients identified by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes within the eMERGE database, 245 patients identified through ICD codes and medical record review within the Partners Biobank, and 243 patients first presenting with unexplained inflammatory arthritis and with final diagnoses by record review within the Partners Biobank. Calibration of G-probabilities with disease status was high, with regression coefficients from 0.90 to 1.08 (1.00 is ideal). G-probabilities discriminated true diagnoses across the three cohorts with pooled areas under the curve (95% CI) of 0.69 (0.67 to 0.71), 0.81 (0.76 to 0.84), and 0.84 (0.81 to 0.86), respectively. For all patients, at least one disease could be ruled out, and in 45% of patients, a likely diagnosis was identified with a 64% positive predictive value. In 35% of cases, the clinician's initial diagnosis was incorrect. Initial clinical diagnosis explained 39% of the variance in final disease, which improved to 51% (P < 0.0001) after adding G-probabilities. Converting genotype information before a clinical visit into an interpretable probability value for five different inflammatory arthritides could potentially be used to improve the diagnostic efficiency of rheumatic diseases in clinical practice.

9.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-9, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243209

RESUMO

Objective: Although recent clinical trials showed that ultrasound (US) remission is not required to achieve good outcomes at the group level, it currently remains unclear whether the prognosis of individual patients in clinical remission, but not US remission, i.e. those with subclinical sonographic synovitis (SSS), is favorable. However, it is no longer acceptable to perform US on all patients in order to identify those with SSS. Therefore, the present study was initiated to elucidate the conditions under which SSS is frequently detected.Methods: In total, 563 consecutive RA patients were recruited. Bilateral 2-5 MCP, wrist, ankle, and 2-5 MTP joints were scanned by US, and Gray scale and Power Doppler (PD) images were scored semi-quantitatively. Clinical data were obtained by physicians who were blind to US results. Changes in the modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS) of tocilizumab (TCZ) users were calculated.Results: A total of 402 patients were included. SSS was more frequently detected in patients with more severe joint deformity, even if they were in remission. In contrast, a high Patient Global Assessment of Disease (PtGA) did not reflect SSS. Furthermore, the relationship between PtGA and PD scores was weak. Although the frequency of SSS was high in TCZ user, the presence of SSS in TCZ users not always results in the progression of mTSS.Conclusions: While remission is overestimated in patients with severe joint deformity, underestimations may occur in those who do not fulfill remission criteria because of a high PtGA.

10.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092988

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation and subsequent proliferation of synovial tissues, which eventually leads to cartilage and bone destruction without effective treatments. Anti-citrullinated cyclic peptide/protein antibody (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor (RF) are two main characteristic autoantibodies found in RA patients and are associated with unfavorable disease outcomes. Although etiologies and causes of the disease have not been fully clarified yet, it is likely that interactive contributions of genetic and environmental factors play a main role in RA pathology. Previous works have demonstrated several genetic and environmental factors as risks of RA development and/or autoantibody productions. Among these, cigarette smoking and HLA-DRB1 are the well-established environmental and genetic risks, respectively. In this narrative review, we provide a recent update on genetic contributions to RA and the environmental risks of RA with a special focus on cigarette smoking and its impacts on RA pathology. We also describe gene-environmental interaction in RA pathogenesis with an emphasis on cigarette smoking and HLA-DRB1.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1197, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988393

RESUMO

Uterine leiomyoma is one of the most common gynaecologic benign tumours, but its genetic basis remains largely unknown. Six previous GWAS identified 33 genetic factors in total. Here, we performed a two-staged GWAS using 13,746 cases and 70,316 controls from the Japanese population, followed by a replication analysis using 3,483 cases and 4,795 controls. The analysis identified 9 significant loci, including a novel locus on 12q23.2 (rs17033114, P = 6.12 × 10-25 with an OR of 1.177 (1.141-1.213), LINC00485). Subgroup analysis indicated that 5 loci (3q26.2, 5p15.33, 10q24.33, 11p15.5, 13q14.11) exhibited a statistically significant effect among multiple leiomyomas, and 2 loci (3q26.2, 10q24.33) exhibited a significant effect among submucous leiomyomas. Pleiotropic analysis indicated that all 9 loci were associated with at least one proliferative disease, suggesting the role of these loci in the common neoplastic pathway. Furthermore, the risk T allele of rs2251795 (3q26.2) was associated with longer telomere length in both normal and tumour tissues. Our findings elucidated the significance of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of leiomyoma.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Leiomioma/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
13.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 107(5): 1170-1178, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646624

RESUMO

CYP2C9*3 and HLA-B alleles are reportedly associated with phenytoin-induced eruption in some East Asian populations; however, this finding is not readily applicable to the Japanese population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the risk alleles using samples and data from BioBank Japan. A total of 747 patients (24 cases and 723 tolerant controls) were selected for analysis. Case-control association studies were conducted, using CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*27, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, and HLA-B allele genotype data. CYP2C9*3 carrier status was significantly associated with phenytoin-induced eruption (P = 0.0022, odds ratio 7.05, 95% confidence interval, 2.44-20.4). HLA-B*51:01 showed the most prominent association (P = 0.010, odds ratio 3.19, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-7.48). Including both of these features improved predictive performance, measured as area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, by 10%. CYP2C9*3 and HLA-B*51:01 allele carrier statuses are significantly associated with phenytoin-induced eruption; thus, checking this carrier status before prescription would decrease the incidence of phenytoin-induced eruption in clinical practice.

14.
Mod Rheumatol ; 30(1): 17-23, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104539

RESUMO

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an emerging concept of a novel clinical entity, characterized by the swelling of the affected organs, increase in serum total IgG and IgG4 levels, infiltration of plasmacyte and eosinophil, fibrosis of the affected lesions and good response to corticosteroid. IgG4-RD includes diseases with organ-specific fibrosis and infiltration of IgG4-positive plasmacyte, previously known as type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), Mikulicz's disease and others. Although the precise mechanisms of the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD are not yet understood, some studies have suggested genetic components contributing to the onset of IgG4-RD or its subgroup. The recent emergence of the concept of IgG4-RD has made it difficult to conduct genetic analyses of IgG4-RD as a whole. When the analyses are restricted to the various subgroups of IgG4-RD, they require a large number of DNA samples from patients satisfying IgG4-RD diagnostic criteria not completely overlapping the criteria in type 1 AIP, Mikulicz's disease and others. Not only HLA but also non-HLA genes have been described as IgG4-RD risk genes, particularly in type 1 AIP. In this mini-review article, we will explore previous studies analyzing genetic associations with IgG4-RD and its subgroups, and discuss the future direction of the research addressing the existing problems.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/genética , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Polimorfismo Genético , Antígenos HLA/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/metabolismo , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/patologia , Plasmócitos/metabolismo , Plasmócitos/patologia
15.
Nature ; 575(7784): 652-657, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748747

RESUMO

Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in circulating white blood cells is the most common form of clonal mosaicism1-5, yet our knowledge of the causes and consequences of this is limited. Here, using a computational approach, we estimate that 20% of the male population represented in the UK Biobank study (n = 205,011) has detectable LOY. We identify 156 autosomal genetic determinants of LOY, which we replicate in 757,114 men of European and Japanese ancestry. These loci highlight genes that are involved in cell-cycle regulation and cancer susceptibility, as well as somatic drivers of tumour growth and targets of cancer therapy. We demonstrate that genetic susceptibility to LOY is associated with non-haematological effects on health in both men and women, which supports the hypothesis that clonal haematopoiesis is a biomarker of genomic instability in other tissues. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies dysregulated expression of autosomal genes in leukocytes with LOY and provides insights into why clonal expansion of these cells may occur. Collectively, these data highlight the value of studying clonal mosaicism to uncover fundamental mechanisms that underlie cancer and other ageing-related diseases.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Leucócitos/patologia , Mosaicismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/genética , Reino Unido
16.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 49(3S): S49-S53, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779853

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of unknown pathologic mechanism. Extensive single-level analyses have been conducted, including genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and genome-wide copy number variation analyses, whole transcriptomics, and epigenetic analyses. These data are analyzed separately to identify RA-associated genetic components. Recently, it has become possible to integrate these analyses, as multi-omics studies, to obtain more accurate results to infer novel insights into disease causality. GWASs have enabled us to understand RA causal risks, but how these risks are functionally related to RA remains unclear. To date, more than 100 loci have been associated with RA, and 80% of these risk variants are located in non-coding regions. This suggests that polygenic diseases such as RA are likely to be substantiated by changes in the RNA expression of responsible genes, rather than structural or functional changes in proteins. These genetic variants would also affect promoter and enhancer activity, alternative splicing, chromatin configuration, and mRNA stability. Loci identified by GWASs that have no apparent connection to each other may also be controlled by common transcription factors. Statistical approaches such as gene enrichment analysis and polygenic analysis may clarify the key genetic contribution that cannot be identified by GWAS significant signals. These approaches could also clarify many of the missing links between genetic risk variants and causal genetic components, thus expanding our understanding of RA pathogenesis.

17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5175, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729369

RESUMO

Kidney stone disease (nephrolithiasis) is a major clinical and economic health burden with a heritability of ~45-60%. We present genome-wide association studies in British and Japanese populations and a trans-ethnic meta-analysis that include 12,123 cases and 417,378 controls, and identify 20 nephrolithiasis-associated loci, seven of which are previously unreported. A CYP24A1 locus is predicted to affect vitamin D metabolism and five loci, DGKD, DGKH, WDR72, GPIC1, and BCR, are predicted to influence calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) signaling. In a validation cohort of only nephrolithiasis patients, the CYP24A1-associated locus correlates with serum calcium concentration and a number of nephrolithiasis episodes while the DGKD-associated locus correlates with urinary calcium excretion. In vitro, DGKD knockdown impairs CaSR-signal transduction, an effect rectified with the calcimimetic cinacalcet. Our findings indicate that studies of genotype-guided precision-medicine approaches, including withholding vitamin D supplementation and targeting vitamin D activation or CaSR-signaling pathways in patients with recurrent kidney stones, are warranted.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálculos Renais/genética , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Diacilglicerol Quinase/genética , Diacilglicerol Quinase/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Cálculos Renais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo , Reino Unido
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4719, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624269

RESUMO

Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (mLOY) is frequently observed in the leukocytes of ageing men. However, the genetic architecture and biological mechanisms underlying mLOY are not fully understood. In a cohort of 95,380 Japanese men, we identify 50 independent genetic markers in 46 loci associated with mLOY at a genome-wide significant level, 35 of which are unreported. Lead markers overlap enhancer marks in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, P ≤ 1.0 × 10-6). mLOY genome-wide association study signals exhibit polygenic architecture and demonstrate strong heritability enrichment in regions surrounding genes specifically expressed in multipotent progenitor (MPP) cells and HSCs (P ≤ 3.5 × 10-6). ChIP-seq data demonstrate that binding sites of FLI1, a fate-determining factor promoting HSC differentiation into platelets rather than red blood cells (RBCs), show a strong heritability enrichment (P = 1.5 × 10-6). Consistent with these findings, platelet and RBC counts are positively and negatively associated with mLOY, respectively. Collectively, our observations improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying mLOY.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Plaquetas/citologia , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
J Hum Genet ; 64(12): 1195-1202, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586129

RESUMO

It has been reported that there are differences in effects on irinotecan-induced adverse reactions between UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28. In order to compare those differences in the Japanese population, we examined the associations between UGT1A1 and irinotecan-induced adverse reactions using the BioBank Japan Project database. We genotyped UTG1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 and conducted case-control analyses. A total of 651 patients (102 cases and 549 tolerant controls) were included in this study. The results showed that UGT1A1*6/*6 is a predictor of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) (p-value 0.00070, odds ratio 6.59, 95% confidence interval 2.33-18.6), whereas UGT1A1*6/*28 and UGT1A1*28/*28 were not. The subanalysis comprising only patients with UGT1A1*6/*6, UGT1A1*6/*28, and UGT1A1*28/*28 revealed a trend towards an increased risk of ADRs in patients with UGT1A1*6 (p-value 0.0092, odds ratio 4.39, 95% confidence interval 1.57-14.9). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that use of platinum-based antineoplastic drugs and presence of UGT1A1*6/*6 were independent variables, significantly associated with ADRs. The diagnostic performance of a predictive model had a sensitivity of 49.0%, specificity of 70.1%, and a number needed to screen of 5.8. We concluded that UGT1A1 testing could be useful to predict irinotecan-induced ADRs, and that UTG1A1*6 rather than UGT1A1*28 contributed to ADR occurrence.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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