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1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(9): 1489-1494, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196856

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is limited research on associations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sitting with risk of myeloid neoplasms (MN) or MN subtypes. We examined these associations in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. METHODS: Among 109,030 cancer-free participants (mean age 69.2, SD 6.1 years) in 1999, 409 were identified as having been diagnosed with a MN [n = 155 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), n = 154 myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), n = 100 other ML] through June 2013. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations of MVPA (MET-h/wk) and sitting (h/d) with risk of all MN, myeloid leukemia only, MDS, and AML. RESULTS: Compared with insufficient MVPA [>0-<7.5 metabolic equivalent hours/week (MET)-h/wk], the HR (95% CI) for meeting physical activity guidelines (7.5-<15 MET-h/wk MVPA) and risk of MN was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.56-0.98) and for doubling guidelines (15-<22.5 MET-h/wk) was 0.75 (0.53-1.07); however, there was no statistically significant association for higher MVPA (22.5+ MET-h/wk, HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.73-1.20). Similarly, meeting/doubling guidelines was associated with lower risk of MDS (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.92/HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.27-0.98), but there was no association for 22.5+ MET-h/wk (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.63-1.37). MVPA was not associated with risk of myeloid leukemia or AML. Sitting time was not associated with risk of any outcome. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that there may be a nonlinear association between MVPA and risk of MDS and possibly other MN. IMPACT: Further studies are needed to better understand the dose-response relationships between MVPA and risk of MDS, a highly fatal and understudied cancer.

2.
Br J Haematol ; 186(2): 243-254, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977126

RESUMO

There is insufficient evidence linking excess body weight to risk of myeloid malignancies. We investigated this association using data from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II), and a meta-analysis of published cohort studies. Among 152 090 CPS-II participants, 387 acute myeloid leukaemias (AML), 100 chronic myeloid leukaemias (CML) and 170 MDS were identified over 21 years of follow-up. In CPS-II, body mass index (BMI) was weakly associated with risk of CML (hazard ratio [HR] = 1·04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0·99-1·09 per 1 unit increase in BMI), AML (HR = 1·01, 95% CI: 0·98-1·03) and MDS (HR = 1·03, 95% CI: 0·99-1·07). After controlling for other anthropometric factors, no clear association was observed for height, BMI at age 18 years or weight change. In the meta-analysis (n = 7117 myeloid leukaemias), BMI 25-29·9 kg/m2 (HRpooled  = 1·36, 95% CI: 1·12-1·59) and BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (HRpooled  = 1·43, 95% CI: 1·18-1·69) were associated with higher risk of myeloid leukaemia overall, compared to a BMI <25 kg/m2 . Likewise, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 was positively associated with both AML and CML risk individually in the meta-analysis. These results underscore the need for large studies to detect associations with rare cancers, and show a modest, but positive association between excess body weight and myeloid malignancy risk.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737780

RESUMO

Benzene is considered a carcinogen, mostly based on evidence of causality for myeloid leukemia from high levels of exposure in occupational studies. We used United States Environmental Protection Agency National Ambient Toxics Assessment (NATA) estimates of low-level ambient benzene to examine potential associations for the general public between benzene exposure and risk of hematologic cancers. Exposure was estimated by linking participants' residential address to the NATA benzene estimates for that census tract. Among 115,996 American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition cohort participants (52,554 men, 63,442 women), 2,595 were diagnosed with incident hematologic cancer between 1997 and 2013. Extended Cox regression modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among all participants, ambient benzene was positively associated with myelodysplastic syndromes (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.33 per µg/m3 ) and T-cell lymphoma (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.08-1.53 per µg/m3 ). Among men, ambient benzene was also positively associated with any hematologic malignancy (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1.15 per µg/m3 ) and follicular lymphoma (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.09-1.50 per µg/m3 ). No significant associations were observed for women only, but associations were suggestive for MDS and T-cell lymphoma. It is possible that the NATA ambient benzene estimates are a better proxy for benzene exposure for men than women in this cohort. The results of this study support an association between ambient benzene and risk of hematologic malignancies, particularly MDS, T-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. More research in large scale or pooled studies is needed to further explore these associations.

4.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325407

RESUMO

Social isolation is associated with higher mortality in studies of mostly white adults, yet associations among black adults is unclear. This prospective cohort study evaluated whether associations of social isolation with all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality differ by race and sex. Adults enrolled into Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982/1983 were followed for mortality through 2012 (n = 580,182). Sex- and race-specific multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for associations of a five-point social isolation score with risk of death. Social isolation was associated with all-cause mortality in all subgroups (P-trend ≤ 0.005); for the most versus the least isolated, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 2.34 (1.58, 3.46) and 1.60 (1.41, 1.82) among black and white men, respectively (P-interaction = 0.40), and 2.13 (1.44, 3.15) and 1.84 (1.68, 2.01) among black and white women, respectively (P-interaction = 0.89). The association did not differ between black men and women (P-interaction = 0.33) but was slightly stronger in white women than white men (P-interaction = 0.01). Social isolation was associated with cardiovascular disease mortality in each subgroup (P-trend < 0.03) but with cancer mortality only among whites (P-trend < 0.0001). Subgroup differences in the influence of specific social isolation components were identified. Identifying and intervening with socially isolated adults could improve health outcomes.

5.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 68(6): 446-470, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303518

RESUMO

In the United States, it is estimated that more than 1.7 million people will be diagnosed with cancer, and more than 600,000 will die of the disease in 2018. The financial costs associated with cancer risk factors and cancer care are enormous. To substantially reduce both the number of individuals diagnosed with and dying from cancer and the costs associated with cancer each year in the United States, government and industry and the public health, medical, and scientific communities must work together to develop, invest in, and implement comprehensive cancer control goals and strategies at the national level and expand ongoing initiatives at the state and local levels. This report is the second in a series of articles in this journal that, together, describe trends in cancer rates and the scientific evidence on cancer prevention, early detection, treatment, and survivorship to inform the identification of priorities for a comprehensive cancer control plan. Herein, we focus on existing evidence about established, modifiable risk factors for cancer, including prevalence estimates and the cancer burden due to each risk factor in the United States, and established primary prevention recommendations and interventions to reduce exposure to each risk factor.

6.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4182, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305637

RESUMO

Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM)/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) is a rare, chronic B-cell lymphoma with high heritability. We conduct a two-stage genome-wide association study of WM/LPL in 530 unrelated cases and 4362 controls of European ancestry and identify two high-risk loci associated with WM/LPL at 6p25.3 (rs116446171, near EXOC2 and IRF4; OR = 21.14, 95% CI: 14.40-31.03, P = 1.36 × 10-54) and 14q32.13 (rs117410836, near TCL1; OR = 4.90, 95% CI: 3.45-6.96, P = 8.75 × 10-19). Both risk alleles are observed at a low frequency among controls (~2-3%) and occur in excess in affected cases within families. In silico data suggest that rs116446171 may have functional importance, and in functional studies, we demonstrate increased reporter transcription and proliferation in cells transduced with the 6p25.3 risk allele. Although further studies are needed to fully elucidate underlying biological mechanisms, together these loci explain 4% of the familial risk and provide insights into genetic susceptibility to this malignancy.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117163

RESUMO

Cadmium and lead have been classified as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, their associations with breast cancer risk are unknown despite their persistence in the environment and ubiquitous human exposure. We examined associations of circulating levels of cadmium and lead with breast cancer risk in three case-control studies nested within the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) LifeLink Cohort, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - Italy (EPIC-Italy) and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS) cohorts. Metal levels were measured in stored erythrocytes from 1,435 cases and 1,433 controls using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models with each study result weighted by the within- and between-study variances. I2 values were calculated to estimate proportion of between study variation. Using common cut-points, cadmium levels were not associated with breast cancer risk in the CPS-II cohort (continuous RR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.76-1.34), but were inversely associated with risk in the EPIC- Italy (continuous RR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.61-1.03) and NSHDS cohorts (continuous RR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.97). The inverse association was also evident in the meta-analysis (continuous RR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.69-1.01) with low between-study heterogeneity. Large differences in lead level distributions precluded a meta-analysis of their association with breast cancer risk; no associations were found in the three studies. Adult cadmium and lead levels were not associated with higher risk of breast cancer in our large meta-analysis.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(10): 1186-1194, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038049

RESUMO

Background: Antibody responses to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (SGG) proteins, especially pilus protein Gallo2178, have been consistently associated with colorectal cancer risk. Previous case-control studies and prospective studies with up to 8 years of follow-up, however, were unable to decipher the temporality of antibody responses to SGG in the context of the long-term multistep development of colorectal cancer. In this study, we analyzed a large U.S. colorectal cancer cohort consortium with follow-up beyond 10 years for antibody responses to SGG.Methods: We applied multiplex serology to measure antibody responses to 9 SGG proteins in participants of 10 prospective U.S. cohorts (CLUE, CPSII, HPFS, MEC, NHS, NYUWHS, PHS, PLCO, SCCS, and WHI) including 4,063 incident colorectal cancer cases and 4,063 matched controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess whether antibody responses to SGG were associated with colorectal cancer risk, overall and by time between blood draw and diagnosis.Results: Colorectal cancer risk was increased among those with antibody responses to Gallo2178, albeit not statistically significant [OR, 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-1.52]. This association was stronger for cases diagnosed <10 years after blood draw (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.79), but was not found among cases diagnosed ≥10 years after blood draw (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.24).Conclusions: In a large cohort consortium, we reproduced the association of antibody responses to SGG Gallo2178 with colorectal cancer risk for individuals diagnosed within 10 years after blood draw.Impact: This timing-specific finding suggests that antibody responses to SGG are associated with increased colorectal cancer risk only after tumorigenesis has begun. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(10); 1186-94. ©2018 AACR.

9.
Cancer Res ; 78(14): 4086-4096, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735552

RESUMO

A growing number of loci within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region have been implicated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Here, we test a complementary hypothesis of "heterozygote advantage" regarding the role of HLA and NHL, whereby HLA diversity is beneficial and homozygous HLA loci are associated with increased disease risk. HLA alleles at class I and II loci were imputed from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNP2HLA for 3,617 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 2,686 follicular lymphomas (FL), 2,878 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas (CLL/SLL), 741 marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), and 8,753 controls of European descent. Both DLBCL and MZL risk were elevated with homozygosity at class I HLA-B and -C loci (OR DLBCL = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.06-1.60; OR MZL = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.12-1.89) and class II HLA-DRB1 locus (OR DLBCL = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24-3.55; OR MZL = 2.10, 95% CI = 0.99-4.45). Increased FL risk was observed with the overall increase in number of homozygous HLA class II loci (P trend < 0.0001, FDR = 0.0005). These results support a role for HLA zygosity in NHL etiology and suggests that distinct immune pathways may underly the etiology of the different NHL subtypes.Significance: HLA gene diversity reduces risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Res; 78(14); 4086-96. ©2018 AACR.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(2): 219-223, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254936

RESUMO

Background: The presence of circulating antibodies to the p53 tumor suppressor protein is a potential early detection colorectal cancer biomarker. However, studies of prediagnostic measures of p53 seropositivity in relation to colorectal cancer risk are limited.Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study of serum p53 autoantibodies and risk of colorectal cancer within the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. Among cohort participants who were cancer free at the time of blood collection, 392 were subsequently diagnosed with colorectal cancer over 11 years of follow-up. Two controls were matched to each case on birth date, blood draw date, race, and sex. Autoantibodies to p53 were detected in 41 of the 392 cases (10.5%) and 49 of the 774 controls (6.3%).Results: Participants who were seropositive for p53 antibodies before diagnosis were more likely to be subsequently diagnosed with colorectal cancer [RR = 1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.78]. This association was strongest within 3 years of diagnosis (RR = 2.26; 95% CI, 1.06-4.83). An association was also suggested when colorectal cancer was diagnosed 4 to <6 years after p53 measurement (RR = 1.84; 95% CI, 0.89-3.79), but not 6 or more years later (RR = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.44-2.99).Conclusions: If these results are confirmed, serum p53 antibodies may be useful on a panel of early detection markers for colorectal cancer.Impact: Individuals who were seropositive for p53 antibodies were twice as likely to develop colorectal cancer within the next 3 years compared with those who were seronegative. This marker is a good candidate for inclusion on an early detection marker panel for colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(2); 219-23. ©2017 AACR.

11.
Br J Cancer ; 117(8): 1241-1245, 2017 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28829767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by adipose tissue. A prior hospital-based case-control study reported serum resistin levels to be inversely associated with risk of multiple myeloma (MM). To date, this association has not been investigated prospectively. METHODS: We measured resistin concentrations for pre-diagnosis peripheral blood samples from 178 MM cases and 358 individually matched controls from three cohorts participating in the MM cohort consortium. RESULTS: In overall analyses, higher resistin levels were weakly associated with reduced MM risk. For men, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between resistin levels and MM (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24-0.83 and 0.54; 95% CI 0.29-0.99, for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, vs the lowest quartile; Ptrend=0.03). No association was observed for women. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first prospective evidence that low circulating resistin levels may be associated with an increased risk of MM, particularly for men.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Resistina/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/sangue , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14175, 2017 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28165464

RESUMO

Several chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) susceptibility loci have been reported; however, much of the heritable risk remains unidentified. Here we perform a meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies, imputed using a merged reference panel of 1,000 Genomes and UK10K data, totalling 6,200 cases and 17,598 controls after replication. We identify nine risk loci at 1p36.11 (rs34676223, P=5.04 × 10-13), 1q42.13 (rs41271473, P=1.06 × 10-10), 4q24 (rs71597109, P=1.37 × 10-10), 4q35.1 (rs57214277, P=3.69 × 10-8), 6p21.31 (rs3800461, P=1.97 × 10-8), 11q23.2 (rs61904987, P=2.64 × 10-11), 18q21.1 (rs1036935, P=3.27 × 10-8), 19p13.3 (rs7254272, P=4.67 × 10-8) and 22q13.33 (rs140522, P=2.70 × 10-9). These new and established risk loci map to areas of active chromatin and show an over-representation of transcription factor binding for the key determinants of B-cell development and immune response.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Adulto , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cancer ; 123(11): 2014-2024, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28171707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prospective cohort studies contribute importantly to understanding the role of lifestyle, genetic, and other factors in chronic disease etiology. METHODS: The American Cancer Society (ACS) recruited a new prospective cohort study, Cancer Prevention Study 3 (CPS-3), between 2006 and 2013 from 35 states and Puerto Rico. Enrollment took place primarily at ACS community events and at community enrollment "drives." At enrollment sites, participants completed a brief survey that included an informed consent, identifying information necessary for follow-up, and key exposure information. They also provided a waist measure and a nonfasting blood sample. Most participants also completed a more comprehensive baseline survey at home that included extensive medical, lifestyle, and other information. Participants will be followed for incident cancers through linkage with state cancer registries and for cause-specific mortality through linkage with the National Death Index. RESULTS: In total, 303,682 participants were enrolled. Of these, 254,650 completed the baseline survey and are considered "fully" enrolled; they will be sent repeat surveys periodically for at least the next 20 years to update exposure information. The remaining participants (n = 49,032) will not be asked to update exposure information but will be followed for outcomes. Twenty-three percent of participants were men, 17.3% reported a race or ethnicity other than "white," and the median age at enrollment was 47 years. CONCLUSIONS: CPS-3 will be a valuable resource for studies of cancer and other outcomes because of its size; its diversity with respect to age, ethnicity, and geography; and the availability of blood samples and detailed questionnaire information collected over time. Cancer 2017;123:2014-2024. © 2017 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , American Cancer Society , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Escolaridade , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Carne Vermelha , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Verduras , Circunferência da Cintura
14.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 2016 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27618563

RESUMO

Collectively, lymphoid neoplasms are the fourth most common cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The authors provide contemporary lymphoid neoplasm statistics by subtype based on the 2008 World Health Organization classifications, including the most current US incidence and survival data. Presented for the first time are estimates of the total numbers of US lymphoid neoplasm cases by subtype as well as a detailed evaluation of incidence and survival statistics. In 2016, 136,960 new lymphoid neoplasms are expected. Overall lymphoma incidence rates have declined in recent years, but trends vary by subtype. Precursor lymphoid neoplasm incidence rates increased from 2001 to 2012, particularly for B-cell neoplasms. Among the mature lymphoid neoplasms, the fastest increase was for plasma cell neoplasms. Rates also increased for mantle cell lymphoma (males), marginal zone lymphoma, hairy cell leukemia, and mycosis fungoides. Like incidence, survival for both mature T-cell lymphomas and mature B-cell lymphomas varied by subtype and by race. Patients with peripheral T-cell lymphomas had among the worst 5-year relative survival (36%-56%, depending on race/sex), while those with mycosis fungoides had among the best survival (79%-92%). For B-cell lymphomas, 5-year survival ranged from 83% to 91% for patients with marginal zone lymphoma and from 78% to 92% for those with hairy cell leukemia; but the rates were as low as 47% to 63% for patients with Burkitt lymphoma and 44% to 48% for those with plasma cell neoplasms. In general, black men had the lowest survival across lymphoid malignancy subtypes. These contemporary incidence and survival statistics are useful for developing management strategies for these cancers and can offer clues regarding their etiology. CA Cancer J Clin 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 108(10)2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27147231

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) incidence and mortality are higher among African Americans (AAs) than among other population groups. The prevalence of obesity is also elevated among AAs, but few studies have examined risk of this cancer in relation to body size among AAs. We combined data from seven prospective cohorts tracking mortality among 239 597 AA adults and used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death because of MM according to body mass index (BMI) at cohort entry, adjusted for age (as time-scale) and sex. Relative to those with normal BMIs (18.5-25 kg/m(2)), mortality increased monotonically as BMI increased, with hazard ratios reaching 1.43 (95% CI = 1.03 to 1.97) for BMIs of 35 kg/m(2) or greater. The findings suggest that obesity is a risk factor for MM and a contributor to the elevated rates and rising incidence trends of MM among AAs in the United States.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mieloma Múltiplo/etnologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Obesidade/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Helicobacter ; 21(6): 488-492, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27006167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Study results on overall seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori and colorectal cancer risk have been inconsistent. However, one study found positive associations with antibodies to specific H. pylori proteins. To follow up on those findings, we assessed associations of 15 H. pylori specific proteins with colorectal cancer incidence in the prospective Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants in this nested case-control study included 392 cases and 774 controls who were predominantly elderly (median age at blood draw: 71 years) and Caucasian (98%). Seroreactivity against 15 H. pylori proteins was assessed by fluorescent bead-based multiplex serology and associations with colorectal cancer were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Helicobacter pylori serostatus was not associated with colorectal cancer incidence (odds ratio (OR), 1.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.91-1.50). Among individual antigens, GroEl serostatus was associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR, 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03-1.70), whereas CagM was associated with colon cancer risk only (OR, 1.35, 95% CI: 1.01-1.80). No dose-response relationships were observed for any of the antigens, including GroEl and CagM. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study do not support an association between H. pylori infection and colorectal cancer risk in this elderly, mostly Caucasian population.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Helicobacter pylori/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
17.
Environ Res ; 148: 46-54, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27015563

RESUMO

Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148Bq/m(3)) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74Bq/m(3)) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23-2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HRcontinuous=1.38, 95% CI:1.15-1.65 per 100Bq/m(3); p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Radônio/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Oral Oncol ; 55: 1-5, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27016010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is an innate-immunity protein displaying antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties that is found in high concentrations in saliva. The role of extracellular salivary SLPI in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unclear. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the association between SLPI and HNSCC risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 53,180 men and women with no history of cancer who provided an oral rinse between 2001 and 2002, 60 were subsequently diagnosed with incident HNSCC between specimen collection and June 2009. In this nested case-control study, archived oral supernatants were evaluated using the Human SLPI Quantikine ELISA Kit for all 60 cases and 180 controls individually matched on gender, race, date of birth, and date of oral rinse collection. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate HNSCC risk. RESULTS: Overall, pre-diagnostic salivary SLPI was associated with a non-statistically significant higher risk of HNSCC (OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.9-3.0). Among never smokers, high SLPI was associated with a non-statistically significant lower risk (OR=0.5, 95% CI=0.1-1.9), whereas among ever smokers, high SLPI was associated with a statistically significant higher risk (OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.0-4.3) of HNSCC, compared to low SLPI. CONCLUSION: While results from this study suggest that higher concentrations of salivary SLPI might increase the risk of HNSCC among ever smokers, more research is needed to verify these findings and define the mechanisms by which SLPI and smoking influence the etiology of HNSCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Inibidor Secretado de Peptidases Leucocitárias/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(8): 1663-76, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27008888

RESUMO

Evidence from a small number of studies suggests that longer telomere length measured in peripheral leukocytes is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, these studies may be biased by reverse causation, confounded by unmeasured environmental exposures and might miss time points for which prospective telomere measurement would best reveal a relationship between telomere length and NHL risk. We performed an analysis of genetically inferred telomere length and NHL risk in a study of 10 102 NHL cases of the four most common B-cell histologic types and 9562 controls using a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising nine telomere length-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This approach uses existing genotype data and estimates telomere length by weighing the number of telomere length-associated variant alleles an individual carries with the published change in kb of telomere length. The analysis of the telomere length GRS resulted in an association between longer telomere length and increased NHL risk [four B-cell histologic types combined; odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95% CI 1.22-1.82,P-value = 8.5 × 10(-5)]. Subtype-specific analyses indicated that chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) was the principal NHL subtype contributing to this association (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.93-3.51,P-value = 4.0 × 10(-10)). Significant interactions were observed across strata of sex for CLL/SLL and marginal zone lymphoma subtypes as well as age for the follicular lymphoma subtype. Our results indicate that a genetic background that favors longer telomere length may increase NHL risk, particularly risk of CLL/SLL, and are consistent with earlier studies relating longer telomere length with increased NHL risk.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Telômero/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10933, 2016 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26956414

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy with strong heritability. To further understand the genetic susceptibility for CLL and identify common loci associated with risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS) composed of 3,100 cases and 7,667 controls with follow-up replication in 1,958 cases and 5,530 controls. Here we report three new loci at 3p24.1 (rs9880772, EOMES, P=2.55 × 10(-11)), 6p25.2 (rs73718779, SERPINB6, P=1.97 × 10(-8)) and 3q28 (rs9815073, LPP, P=3.62 × 10(-8)), as well as a new independent SNP at the known 2q13 locus (rs9308731, BCL2L11, P=1.00 × 10(-11)) in the combined analysis. We find suggestive evidence (P<5 × 10(-7)) for two additional new loci at 4q24 (rs10028805, BANK1, P=7.19 × 10(-8)) and 3p22.2 (rs1274963, CSRNP1, P=2.12 × 10(-7)). Pathway analyses of new and known CLL loci consistently show a strong role for apoptosis, providing further evidence for the importance of this biological pathway in CLL susceptibility.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteína 11 Semelhante a Bcl-2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Serpinas/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética
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