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1.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(10): 3432-3446, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390656

RESUMO

Purpose: Cone/cone-rod dystrophy is a large group of retinal disorders with both phonotypic and genetic heterogeneity. The purpose of this study was to characterize the phenotype of eight patients from seven families harboring POC1B mutations in a cohort of the Japan Eye Genetics Consortium (JEGC). Methods: Whole-exome sequencing with targeted analyses identified homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations of the POC1B gene in 7 of 548 families in the JEGC database. Ophthalmologic examinations including the best-corrected visual acuity, perimetry, fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, optical coherence tomography, and full-field and multifocal electroretinography (ERGs) were performed. Results: There were four men and four women whose median age at the onset of symptoms was 15.6 years (range, 6-23 years) and that at the time of examination was 40.3 years (range, 22-67 years). The best-corrected visual acuity ranged from -0.08 to 1.52 logMAR units. The funduscopic appearance was normal in all the cases except in one case with faint mottling in the fovea. Optical coherence tomography revealed an absence of the interdigitation zone and blurred ellipsoid zone in the posterior pole, but the foveal structures were preserved in three cases. The full-field photopic ERGs were reduced or extinguished with normal scotopic responses. The central responses of the multifocal ERGs were preserved in two cases. The diagnosis was either generalized cone dystrophy in five cases or cone dystrophy with foveal sparing in three cases. Conclusions: Generalized or peripheral cone dystrophy with normal funduscopic appearance is the representative phenotype of POC1B-associated retinopathy in our cohort.

2.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(8): 2942-2949, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284311

RESUMO

Purpose: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is characterized by an accumulation of fluid in the macula due to diabetic retinopathy. Currently, anti-VEGF drugs are the standard treatment worldwide for DME. This study aimed to assess whether the existence of epiretinal membrane (ERM) affects anti-VEGF efficacy, due to reduced permeability of the antibody through the ERM. Methods: We retrospectively examined clinical data of DME patients who underwent anti-VEGF treatment and evaluated whether clinical differences existed between DME eyes with ERM and those without ERM. We then created an in vitro ERM model using MIO-M1, ARPE-19, and NTI-4 cells on Transwell membranes and evaluated antibody permeability through this in vitro ERM model using fluorescently labeled antibodies. Results: Central retinal thickness (CRT) change between before and 1 month after first anti-VEGF treatment, as well as final CRT and final visual acuity 12 months after first anti-VEGF treatment, significantly differed between DME eyes with ERM and those without ERM. The in vitro ERM model led to production of collagen I in a manner similar to that of human ERM specimens. Fluorescence intensity of the lower chamber of the in vitro ERM model was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: Clinical data analysis indicated that the existence of ERM in DME eyes lowered the efficacy of anti-VEGF treatment. Reduced antibody permeability through the in vitro ERM model suggested ERM presence was associated with resistance to anti-VEGF treatment in DME eyes with ERM.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218216, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269030

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the influence of residual submacular fluid (SMF) on the recovery of function and structure of the retina after successful rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) reattachment. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all patients who had undergone successful RRD repair by scleral buckling (SB) surgery or by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) from March 2011 to August 2014. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic images of the macular regions were used at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months following the surgery. The best-corrected visual acuities (BCVA) were evaluated at the same times. RESULTS: The eyes with a macula-off RRD that were treated by SB surgery had a significant higher incidence of residual SMF (52%) than those treated by PPV (6.8%; P <0.001). Nevertheless, the postoperative BCVA was significantly improved in the eyes that had undergone SB surgery (P = 0.007). The postoperative BCVAs were not significantly different between the groups in which the SMF was absorbed (12 eyes) and not absorbed (13 eyes) within 1 month after the SB surgery. The photoreceptor outer segment length and the presence of a foveal bulge were not significantly different between these two groups at 12 months. Multiple regression analyses showed that the presence of a foveal bulge (ß = 0.531, P = 0.001) and the duration of the retinal detachment before surgery (ß = 0.465, P = 0.002) but not the duration of the SMF were independent factors significantly correlated with the final BCVA. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the postoperative residual SMF does not significantly disrupt the functional and structural recovery of eyes with macula-off RRD treated by SB surgery.

4.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(8): 3135-3141, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335951

RESUMO

Purpose: A posterior staphyloma has been reported to be present in some eyes with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and the purpose of this study was to determine the macular curvature of non-highly myopic RP eyes. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study. The medical charts of the right eyes of 143 patients with RP and 60 controls whose axial length ranged from 21.5 mm to 26.0 mm were reviewed. The mean curvature of Bruch's membrane within 6 mm of the central macula obtained from the horizontal optical coherence tomographic images were evaluated as the mean macular curvature index (MMCI). The relationships between the MMCI and other clinical factors were assessed. Results: The mean MMCI of RP patients (-13.73 ± 9.63 × 10-5 µm-1) was significantly lower than that of the controls (-6.63 ± 5.63 × 10-5 µm-1). This indicated a deeper concave shape of the macula in RP eyes (P < 0.001). The MMCI was significantly correlated with the age (r = 0.20; P = 0.016) and the axial length (r = -0.24; P = 0.004). Further analysis suggested a nonlinear effect of the ellipsoid zone width on the macular curvature in the RP eyes. Conclusions: There is a high incidence of steeper macular curvatures even in non-highly myopic RP eyes, and the steepness was also affected by the degree of photoreceptor degeneration.

6.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(7): 2543-2550, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206141

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the relationship between the amplitudes of the electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) and the number of optic nerve axons at a late stage of retinal degeneration in rhodopsin P347L transgenic (Tg) rabbits, a model of retinitis pigmentosa. Methods: Six eyes of six wild-type (WT) (43.8 ± 7.5 months of age) and six eyes of six Tg (40.3 ± 2.6 months of age) rabbits were studied. The EEPs were elicited by 1 to 5 mA of transcorneal electrical stimulation. The first positive wave, the P1 component, was analyzed. After euthanasia, the number of axons in the optic nerve was counted. Results: The threshold current to elicit a P1 was significantly higher in Tg rabbits than WT rabbits. The amplitude of P1 elicited by 5 mA in Tg rabbits was about 24% of that in WT rabbits (P < 0.01). The number of axons in the optic nerve of Tg rabbits was reduced to about 59% of that of WT rabbits (P < 0.01). The correlation between the axon number and the amplitude of the P1 in Tg and WT rabbits was not significant. The mean ratio of the P1 amplitude/axon in Tg rabbits was decreased to 53% of that in WT rabbits (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The degree of reduction in the EEP in Tg rabbits is more severe than the reduction in the number of optic nerve axons. The use of transcorneal electrical stimulation to determine the suitable candidates for prosthesis at the end-stage of retinitis pigmentosa may underestimate the condition of the optic nerves.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(24): e16062, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192968

RESUMO

To evaluate the changes in the blood flow on retina and the optic nerve head (ONH) after conventional laser treatment and to compare it to that after patterned scanning laser (PASCAL) treatment in patients with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (S-NPDR).In this prospective, cross-sectional study, the blood flow on retina and the ONH was assessed by laser speckle flowgraphy using the mean blur rate (MBR) in 39 eyes with S-NPDR before, 1, 4, 8, 12 weeks after panretinal photocoagulation (PRP). Of 39 eyes, 17eyes with 17 patients treated by conventional laser and 22 eyes with 22 patients treated by PASCAL.The mean age was 55.5 ±â€Š11.5 years in the conventional laser group, 55.6 ±â€Š11.8 years in the PASCAL group. The MBR-vessel, which can be dominantly expressed as retinal blood flow, was significantly reduced after PRP treated by conventional laser (P < .001), but did not change after PRP treated by PASCAL. The ratio of MBR-vessel to the baseline was significantly lower in the conventional laser group only at Week 1 (P = .045). The MBR-tissue, which can be dominantly expressed as the ONH blood flow, did not significantly change after PRP in the both group. The multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that the laser burns was an independent factor significantly correlated with the ratio of MBR-vessel at Week 1 to the baseline (ß = -0.550, P = .012).The retinal blood flow was significantly reduced during the 12 weeks only after completion of PRP by conventional laser treatment. Our results indicate that short pulse on PRP treatment performed by the PASCAL would not significantly reduce the retinal blood flow.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/terapia , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Disco Óptico/irrigação sanguínea , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Estudos Transversais , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Disco Óptico/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2884, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253780

RESUMO

Hereditary retinal degenerations (HRDs) are Mendelian diseases characterized by progressive blindness and caused by ultra-rare mutations. In a genomic screen of 331 unrelated Japanese patients, we identify a disruptive Alu insertion and a nonsense variant (p.Arg1933*) in the ciliary gene RP1, neither of which are rare alleles in Japan. p.Arg1933* is almost polymorphic (frequency = 0.6%, amongst 12,000 individuals), does not cause disease in homozygosis or heterozygosis, and yet is significantly enriched in HRD patients (frequency = 2.1%, i.e., a 3.5-fold enrichment; p-value = 9.2 × 10-5). Familial co-segregation and association analyses show that p.Arg1933* can act as a Mendelian mutation in trans with the Alu insertion, but might also associate with disease in combination with two alleles in the EYS gene in a non-Mendelian pattern of heredity. Our results suggest that rare conditions such as HRDs can be paradoxically determined by relatively common variants, following a quasi-Mendelian model linking monogenic and complex inheritance.


Assuntos
Ciliopatias/genética , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Retinianas/genética , Elementos Alu/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Japão , Mutação , Linhagem
10.
J Med Genet ; 56(10): 662-670, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic profile of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in East Asian populations has not been well characterised. Therefore, we conducted a large-scale sequencing study to investigate the genes and variants causing RP in a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 1209 Japanese patients diagnosed with typical RP were enrolled. We performed deep resequencing of 83 known causative genes of RP using next-generation sequencing. We defined pathogenic variants as those that were putatively deleterious or registered as pathogenic in the Human Gene Mutation Database or ClinVar database and had a minor allele frequency in any ethnic population of ≤0.5% for recessive genes or ≤0.01% for dominant genes as determined using population-based databases. RESULTS: We successfully sequenced 1204 patients with RP and determined 200 pathogenic variants in 38 genes as the cause of RP in 356 patients (29.6%). Variants in six genes (EYS, USH2A, RP1L1, RHO, RP1 and RPGR) caused RP in 65.4% (233/356) of those patients. Among autosomal recessive genes, two known founder variants in EYS [p.(Ser1653fs) and p.(Tyr2935*)] and four East Asian-specific variants [p.(Gly2752Arg) in USH2A, p.(Arg658*) in RP1L1, p.(Gly2186Glu) in EYS and p.(Ile535Asn) in PDE6B] and p.(Cys934Trp) in USH2A were found in ≥10 patients. Among autosomal dominant genes, four pathogenic variants [p.(Pro347Leu) in RHO, p.(Arg872fs) in RP1, p.(Arg41Trp) in CRX and p.(Gly381fs) in PRPF31] were found in ≥4 patients, while these variants were unreported or extremely rare in both East Asian and non-East Asian population-based databases. CONCLUSIONS: East Asian-specific variants in causative genes were the major causes of RP in the Japanese population.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0216304, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034505

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Vessel maturation is considered to proceed by pruning branches resulting in less branching vessels. This study investigated the vessel junction densities of type 1 and type 2 choroidal neovascularizations (CNVs) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: We collected consecutive data from treatment-naïve eyes diagnosed with typical age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The OCTA images with CNV were analyzed to calculate vessel areas, vessel lengths, and vessel junction densities. RESULTS: Of 60 eyes in 60 patients, type 1 CNV diagnoses had been made in 40 eyes, and type 2 CNV in 20 eyes. We found no significant difference in vessel areas between type 1 CNV and type 2 CNV (type 1 CNV, 0.44 ± 0.37 mm2; type 2 CNV, 0.37 ± 0.48 mm2), and no significant difference in vessel lengths (type 1 CNV, 18.24 ± 15.96 mm; type 2 CNV, 16.13 ± 21.45 mm). However, the vessel junction density of type 1 CNV was significantly lower than that of type 2 CNV by 16.0% (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: OCTA revealed that the vessel junction densities of type 1 CNVs were lower than those of type 2 CNVs, suggesting type 1 CNV vessels are more mature than type 2 CNV vessels.

12.
Exp Eye Res ; 184: 192-200, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029790

RESUMO

Long living animal models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) can provide important information on the retinal changes that occur at the late stages of photoreceptor degeneration. The rhodopsin Pro347Leu transgenic rabbit (P347L Tg) is a model of RP, and it has been used to analyze the functional and morphological changes in the retina following the degeneration of the photoreceptors. They have also been used to test newly-developed therapies to treat eyes with photoreceptor degeneration. However, assessments of the retinal changes in P347L Tg rabbits older than 1-year have not been reported even though the data are important for research on developing new therapies to restore vision at the end stages of RP. The purpose of this study was to determine the time course of the loss of photoreceptor function and the changes in the morphology of the retina of P347L Tg rabbits. The experiments were performed on 26 older P347L Tg rabbits. The results showed that the amplitudes of the ERGs of the P347L Tg rabbits gradually decreased and reached <10 µV between 30- and 54-months-of-age. Histological analysis at these later stages showed a loss of the photoreceptor layer, and OCT analysis showed absence of the layering of the retina. However, the thickness between the inner limiting membrane and the outer plexiform layer was about 1.7 times thicker than the corresponding thickness of WT rabbits in the OCT images. This thickening was caused by a marked gliosis of the entire retina which was confirmed by light and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis showed there was excessive staining of the glial fibrillary acid protein in the older P347L Tg rabbits although the rod ON bipolar cells and horizontal cells were still present in the inner nuclear layer. Our results indicate that the P347L Tg rabbit progressed to complete photoreceptor loss within 30- and 54-months-of-age and severe gliosis altered the morphology of the retina.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3217, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824755

RESUMO

We evaluated the preoperative optical coherence tomographic (OCT) findings in eyes with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and determined the factors that were significantly correlated with the postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). The length of the preoperative photoreceptors was defined as the distance between the external limiting membrane (ELM) and the outer end of the outer segments of the photoreceptors in the OCT images. The mean length of the photoreceptors was 102.8 ± 28.7 µm with a range of 20 to 159 µm in eyes with RRD. The length of the preoperative photoreceptors was not significantly correlated with the preoperative BCVA but it was significantly correlated with the postoperative BCVA (r = -0.353, P = 0.003). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that the length of the photoreceptors (ß = -0.388, P = 0.001) and the preoperative BCVA (ß = 0.274, P = 0.021) were the only independent factors that were significantly associated with the postoperative BCVA. The length of the preoperative photoreceptors was significantly correlated with the postoperative photoreceptor length (r = 0.486, P < 0.001). Longer preoperative photoreceptors were significantly correlated with longer postoperative photoreceptors and better BCVA after successful reattachment. These results suggest that the preoperative length of the photoreceptors can be good factor to use for predicting the final BCVA following successful reattachment of macula-off RRD.

14.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 97(5): e742-e746, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698352

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Based on the hypothesis that silicone oil (SO) with a higher refractive index than water induces unexpected vignetting effects during surgeries, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the volume of SO and light intensity using a surgical microscope. METHODS: Using a light-sensitive paper and model eye filled with varying volumes (0%, 50%, 62.5%, 75%, 87.5% and 100%) of SO, the light intensity of intraocular lens (IOL) with various refractive powers (0, 10 and 20 dioptres) illuminated by a surgical microscope was measured. RESULTS: Light exposure density with 1.0% coaxial and oblique light was approximately 22-fold higher than that with 0.1% coaxial and oblique light. Further, it was approximately 34-fold higher in eyes with +20 D IOL than in those with no IOL. The density in eyes with 75% SO was the highest among all groups followed by that with 0% SO. Light exposure densities in the eyes with 75% and 0% SO were significantly higher than those with other volumes of SO. In SO-filled eyes, a microscope set with only an oblique light and a filter successfully reduced light exposure. CONCLUSION: Silicone oil-related vision loss (SORVL) during SO removal surgeries might be due to increased light exposure on the macular retina caused by the SO-associated vignetting effect. SORVL could be prevented by placing a filter in the microscope during SO removal surgeries.


Assuntos
Cegueira/etiologia , Fóvea Central/efeitos da radiação , Luz/efeitos adversos , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Descolamento Retiniano/cirurgia , Óleos de Silicone/efeitos adversos , Vitrectomia/efeitos adversos , Biometria , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Tamponamento Interno/efeitos adversos , Fóvea Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lentes Intraoculares , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Refração Ocular , Descolamento Retiniano/diagnóstico , Acuidade Visual , Vitrectomia/métodos
15.
Jpn J Ophthalmol ; 63(2): 172-180, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604114

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the findings in 3 cases of bilateral negative electroretinograms (ERGs) with acute onset of photophobia. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: The medical charts of the 3 patients were reviewed. RESULTS: A 43-year-old woman, a 68-year-old woman, and a 41-year-old woman were referred to Nagoya University Hospital. Their main symptom was bilateral acute photophobia. None of the patients had any systemic diseases or specific medical history. The decimal best-corrected visual acuity (> 0.8) and Humphrey visual fields (mean deviation > -3 dB) were relatively well preserved in all 3 patients. The optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus autofluorescence findings were essentially normal. Fluorescein angiography showed mild leakage in 1 patient but no abnormality in the other 2 patients. However, the ERGs of the 3 patients had the features of abnormal ERGs found in patients with incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). Exome analyses found no pathogenic variants related to known CSNB-related genes. The symptoms and ERGs of the 3 patients have not progressed or recovered after a relatively long follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The ERG characteristics of 3 patients with bilateral photophobia were similar to those of incomplete CSNB, suggesting post-phototransductional abnormalities. The symptoms and genetic analyses indicated the possibility of an acquired condition rather than a hereditary retinal disease.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/complicações , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/complicações , Miopia/complicações , Cegueira Noturna/complicações , Fotofobia/diagnóstico , Acuidade Visual , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletrorretinografia/métodos , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Cegueira Noturna/diagnóstico , Cegueira Noturna/fisiopatologia , Fotofobia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 171, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655586

RESUMO

The effect of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) on the peripheral retinochoroidal thickness was determined after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with scatter photocoagulation in eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The peripheral retinochoroidal thickness was measured at 5 mm from the limbus in the four quadrants using anterior segment optical coherence tomography before, and 3 days, and 1 and 2 weeks after the surgery. The total peripheral thickness was significantly thicker than the baseline thickness after PPV alone (P < 0.001; 18 eyes), PPV combined with intravitreal TA injection (IVTA; P = 0.011; 19 eyes), and PPV combined with sub-tenon TA injection (STTA; P = 0001; 23 eyes). The total peripheral thickness in the PPV group at 3 days after surgery was significantly thicker than that of the PPV + IVTA (P = 0.015) and of the PPV + STTA groups (P = 0.016). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the injection of TA by the two routes and the number of photocoagulation burns were significantly correlated with the total peripheral thicknesses at 3 days after the surgery. The results indicate that the PPV with large number of intraoperative scatter photocoagulation burns caused an increase in the total peripheral thickness and an administration of either IVTA and STTA can reduced the degree of thickening.

17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 59(15): 5854-5861, 2018 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550616

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the clinical characteristics, prognosis, and effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents on eyes with a central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) with and without supernormal flicker ERG amplitudes. Methods: Forty-eight eyes of 48 patients with a CRVO were studied. Flicker ERGs were recorded from fully dilated eyes with the RETeval system. The amplitudes and implicit times of the fundamental component were analyzed. "Supernormal flicker ERGs" were defined as those whose amplitudes were ≥117% of the unaffected fellow eyes. Results: Ten of the 48 eyes (20.8%) with a CRVO showed supernormal flicker ERGs before the treatment. The difference in the implicit times of these 10 CRVO eyes and those of normal fellow eyes was <4 millisecond. There was a significant correlation between the implicit time delay and the relative amplitude in the 48 CRVO eyes. All 10 CRVO eyes with supernormal flicker ERGs had the nonischemic type of CRVO and tended to have better visual acuities than did the 28 nonischemic CRVO eyes without supernormal flicker ERGs at 12 months after the treatment (P = 0.058). The CRVO eyes with supernormal flicker ERGs had a significant amplitude reduction after a single injection of an anti-VEGF agent. Conclusions: These results indicated that the supernormal flicker ERGs can be a sign of a mild degree of ischemia, and these eyes have a better prognosis. The results also suggest that the supernormal flicker ERG may be caused by changes in the electrical activities of retinal cells following a mild increase in the VEGF levels in eyes with CRVO.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Eletrorretinografia/métodos , Fusão Flicker/fisiologia , Retina/fisiopatologia , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(46): e13278, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431615

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Earlier studies have shown that laser photocoagulation treatments are associated with good long-term visual acuity in most patients with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (S-NPDR). Histopathologic studies of autopsied eyes have demonstrated defects in the choriocapillaris beneath the retinal laser lesions secondary to photocoagulation for S-NPDR. These lesions have been observed to expand centrifugally over time especially in the posterior pole, and the atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can be significantly enlarged. There are, however, limited studies detailing the in vivo changes that occur in the RPE and choriocapillaris following laser photocoagulation. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old woman presented with visual disturbances in both eyes. DIAGNOSES: Fundus examinations showed many retinal hemorrhages and soft exudates in the four quadrants due to S-NPDR. INTERVENTIONS: Laser photocoagulations with a 532-nm wavelength argon laser with power of 170 to 230 mW and spot size of 200 µm were performed to treat the S-NPDR. The changes in the choriocapillaris and retinal vasculature were followed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. OUTCOMES: The choriocapillaris beneath the laser spots was disrupted from 1 hour following the photocoagulation but it was restored at week 2. The choriocapillaris appeared almost normal at some laser spots, but they were still some spots that were altered at 1 year. The outer retina and RPE were disrupted beneath the laser spots at 1 year. On the contrary, there were no visible retinal vascular changes in the superficial and deep plexuses of retinal vasculature determined by OCT angiography with manual and automated segmentation. LESSONS: The choriocapillaris in human eyes can recover after laser photocoagulation although the outer retina and RPE remain disrupted and do not recover.


Assuntos
Corioide/irrigação sanguínea , Retinopatia Diabética/cirurgia , Fotocoagulação a Laser/métodos , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Angiografia/métodos , Animais , Corioide/cirurgia , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Retina/patologia , Retina/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Retina ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422937

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether the size of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) is significantly correlated with the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and to examine the relationship between the size and microstructural changes of the photoreceptors in eyes with a branch retinal vein occlusion. METHODS: The medical records of 69 eyes of patients (mean age, 64.6 ± 11.7 years) with a branch retinal vein occlusion were reviewed after the resolution of macular edema. All the patients underwent optical coherence tomography angiography for measurement of the FAZ area and spectral domain optical coherence tomography for determination of microstructural changes of the photoreceptors at the fovea. RESULTS: The superficial and deep FAZ areas in eyes with a branch retinal vein occlusion were 0.39 ± 0.36 mm and 0.63 ± 0.18 mm, respectively, and both were significantly larger than those observed in the fellow eyes (both, P < 0.001). The superficial FAZ area correlated with the posttreatment BCVA (r = 0.285, P = 0.027) but not with any parameters regarding the microstructures of the photoreceptors. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the pretreatment BCVA (ß = 0.519, P < 0.001) and integrity of the external limiting membrane (ß = -0.373, P = 0.001) were independent factors that significantly correlated with the posttreatment BCVA. CONCLUSION: There was no significant correlation between the FAZ area and microstructural parameters. However, the integrity of the external limiting membrane was significantly correlated with the posttreatment BCVA in eyes with a branch retinal vein occlusion.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17235, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467382

RESUMO

The time course of the changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow in response to changes in the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by an artificial elevation of the intraocular pressure (IOP) has not been determined. We measured the blood flow, represented by the mean blur rate (MBR), on the ONH determined by laser speckle flowgraphy. The MBR was determined before, during, and after the IOP was elevated by 20 or 30 mmHg by pressure applied on the eye by an ophthalmodynamometer in a total of 27 healthy eyes. For an IOP elevation of 20 mmHg, the percentage reduction in the MBR-vessel was -24.7%, and in the MBR-tissue was -16.0% (P < 0.001). For an IOP elevation of 30 mmHg, the percentage reduction of the MBR-vessel was -35.3% and the MBR-tissue was -24.7% (P < 0.001). During the 30 mmHg IOP elevation for 10 minutes, both the MBR-vessel and MBR-tissue began returning to the baseline level from 1 minute after the beginning of the IOP elevation (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively) and continued returning during the 10 minutes IOP elevation (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, respectively). We conclude that the ONH can autoregulate its blood flow in response to experimental changes in OPP induced by IOP elevations.

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