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2.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(18): 1995-2005, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare 5-year cardiovascular, renal, and bioprosthetic valve durability outcomes in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). BACKGROUND: Patients with severe AS and CKD undergoing TAVR or SAVR are a challenging, understudied clinical subset. METHODS: Intermediate-risk patients with moderate to severe CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/m2) from the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve) 2A trial (patients randomly assigned to SAPIEN XT TAVR or SAVR) and SAPIEN 3 Intermediate Risk Registry were pooled. The composite primary outcome of death, stroke, rehospitalization, and new hemodialysis was evaluated using Cox regression analysis. Patients with and without perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) were followed through 5 years. A core laboratory-adjudicated analysis of structural valve deterioration and bioprosthetic valve failure was also performed. RESULTS: The study population included 1,045 TAVR patients (512 SAPIEN XT, 533 SAPIEN 3) and 479 SAVR patients. At 5 years, SAVR was better than SAPIEN XT TAVR (52.8% vs 68.0%; P = 0.04) but similar to SAPIEN 3 TAVR (52.8% vs 58.7%; P = 0.89). Perioperative AKI was more common after SAVR than TAVR (26.3% vs 10.3%; P < 0.001) and was independently associated with long-term outcomes. Compared with SAVR, bioprosthetic valve failure and stage 2 or 3 structural valve deterioration were significantly greater for SAPIEN XT TAVR (P < 0.05) but not for SAPIEN 3 TAVR. CONCLUSIONS: In intermediate-risk patients with AS and CKD, SAPIEN 3 TAVR and SAVR were associated with a similar risk for the primary endpoint at 5 years. AKI was more common after SAVR than TAVR, and SAPIEN 3 valve durability was comparable with that of surgical bioprostheses.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(19): e021014, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585593

RESUMO

Background Concerns about discordance between echocardiographic and invasive mean gradients after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with balloon-expandable valves (BEVs) versus self-expanding valves (SEVs) exist. Methods and Results In a multicenter study, direct-invasive and echocardiography-derived transvalvular mean gradients obtained before and after TAVR were compared as well as post-TAVR and discharge echocardiographic mean gradients in BEVs versus SEVs in 808 patients. Pre-TAVR, there was good correlation (R=0.614; P<0.0001) between direct-invasive and echocardiography-derived mean gradients and weak correlation (R=0.138; P<0.0001) post-TAVR. Compared with post-TAVR echocardiographic mean gradients, both valves exhibit lower invasive and higher discharge echocardiographic mean gradients. Despite similar invasive mean gradients, a small BEV exhibits higher post-TAVR and discharge echocardiographic mean gradients than a large BEV, whereas small and large SEVs exhibit similar post-TAVR and discharge mean gradients. An ejection fraction <50% (P=0.028) and higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality score (P=0.007), but not invasive or echocardiographic mean gradient ≥10 mm Hg (P=0.378 and P=0.341, respectively), nor discharge echocardiographic mean gradient ≥20 mm Hg (P=0.393), were associated with increased 2-year mortality. Conclusions Invasively measured and echocardiography-derived transvalvular mean gradients correlate well in aortic stenosis but weakly post-TAVR. Post-TAVR, echocardiography overestimates transvalvular mean gradients compared with invasive measurements, and poor correlation suggests these modalities cannot be used interchangeably. Moreover, echocardiographic mean gradients are higher on discharge than post-TAVR in all valves. Despite similar invasive mean gradients, a small BEV exhibits higher post-TAVR and discharge echocardiographic mean gradients than a large BEV, whereas small and large SEVs exhibit similar post-TAVR and discharge mean gradients. Immediately post-TAVR, elevated echocardiographic-derived mean gradients should be assessed with caution and compared with direct-invasive mean gradients. A low ejection fraction and higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, but not elevated mean gradients, are associated with increased 2-year mortality.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(8): e012364, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is diagnosed by an indexed effective orifice area <0.65 cm2/m2, which is derived from stroke volume index. We examined the impact of flow, determined by stroke volume index, on severe PPM following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). METHODS: We included SAVR patients from the PARTNER 2A trial (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve 2A) and TAVR patients from the PARTNER 2 S3i (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve 2 S3i) registry. The primary end point was the separate analysis of all-cause death, cardiac death, and rehospitalization at 5 years. Following TAVR and SAVR, we compared the primary end points between severe versus no-severe PPM in all patients, in low flow (LF), and in normal flow. Multivariable analysis was performed to determine variables associated with the end points. RESULTS: Nine hundred fifty-four TAVR and 726 SAVR patients with PPM and flow data were included. Severe PPM following TAVR was significantly lower compared with SAVR in all patients (9% versus 28%, P<0.0001), in normal flow (5% versus 8%, P=0.04), and in LF (20% versus 42%, P<0.0001). Severe PPM was associated with rehospitalization following TAVR (odds ratio, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.01-2.29], P=0.0456) and SAVR (odds ratio, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.06-2.16], P=0.0237). Severe PPM in LF was independently associated with cardiac death following TAVR (odds ratio, 1.85 [95% CI, 1.06-3.23], P=0.0308). Following SAVR, severe PPM in LF and low ejection fraction was associated with increased cardiac death (35.26% versus 12.51%, P=0.01) and rehospitalization (37.59% versus 15.46%, P=0.006) compared with severe PPM in LF and preserved ejection fraction, respectively. Severe PPM in normal flow was not associated with clinical outcomes despite higher gradients and smaller valves compared with severe PPM in LF. CONCLUSIONS: Severe PPM is more common following SAVR compared with TAVR. Regardless of the implanted valve size or gradient, severe PPM impacts mortality only in patients with LF following TAVR and LF and low ejection fraction following SAVR. Severe PPM in normal flow is not associated with poor outcomes. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifiers: NCT01314313 and NCT02687035.

5.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(13): 1466-1477, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare incidence and impact of measured prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPMM) versus predicted PPM (PPMP) after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: TAVR studies have used measured effective orifice area indexed (EOAi) to body surface area (BSA) to define PPM, but most SAVR series have used predicted EOAi. This difference may contribute to discrepancies in incidence and outcomes of PPM between series. METHODS: The study analyzed SAVR patients from the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) 2A trial and TAVR patients from the PARTNER 2 SAPIEN 3 Intermediate Risk registry. PPM was classified as moderate if EOAi ≤0.85 cm2/m2 (≤0.70 if obese: body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and severe if EOAi ≤0.65 cm2/m2 (≤0.55 if obese). PPMM was determined by the core lab-measured EOAi on 30-day echocardiogram. PPMP was determined by 2 methods: 1) using normal EOA reference values previously reported for each valve model and size (PPMP1; n = 929 SAVR, 1,069 TAVR) indexed to BSA; and 2) using normal reference EOA predicted from aortic annulus size measured by computed tomography (PPMP2; n = 864 TAVR only) indexed to BSA. Primary endpoint was the composite of 5-year all-cause death and rehospitalization. RESULTS: The incidence of moderate and severe PPMP was much lower than PPMM in both SAVR (PPMP1: 28.4% and 1.2% vs. PPMM: 31.0% and 23.6%) and TAVR (PPMP1: 21.0% and 0.1% and PPMP2: 17.0% and 0% vs. PPMM: 27.9% and 5.7%). The incidence of severe PPMM and severe PPMP1 was lower in TAVR versus SAVR (P < 0.001). The presence of PPM by any method was associated with higher transprosthetic gradient. Severe PPMP1 was independently associated with events in SAVR after adjustment for sex and Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (hazard ratio: 3.18;95% CI: 1.69-5.96; P < 0.001), whereas no association was observed between PPM by any method and outcomes in TAVR. CONCLUSIONS: EOAi measured by echocardiography results in a higher incidence of PPM following SAVR or TAVR than PPM based on predicted EOAi. Severe PPMP is rare (<1.5%), but is associated with increased all-cause death and rehospitalization after SAVR, whereas it is absent following TAVR.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 2: 100030, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173627

RESUMO

Background: A reduction of admission for MI has been reported in most countries affected by COVID-19. No clear explanation has been provided. Methods: To report the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) admission during COVID-19 pandemic and in particular during national lockdown in two unequally affected French provinces (10-million inhabitants) with a different media strategy, and to describe the magnitude of MI incidence changes relative to the incidence of COVID-19-related deaths. A longitudinal study to collect all MIs from January 1 until May 17, 2020 (study period) and from the identical time period in 2019 (control period) was conducted in all centers with PCI-facilities in northern "Hauts-de-France" province and western "Pays-de-la-Loire" Province. The incidence of COVID-19 fatalities was also collected. Findings: In "Hauts-de-France", during lockdown (March 18-May 10), 1500 COVID-19-related deaths were observed. A 23% decrease in MI-IR (IRR=0.77;95%CI:0.71-0.84, p<0.001) was observed for a loss of 272 MIs (95%CI:-363,-181), representing 18% of COVID-19-related deaths. In "Pays-de-la-Loire", 382 COVID-19-related deaths were observed. A 19% decrease in MI-IR (IRR=0.81; 95%CI=0.73-0.90, p<0.001) was observed for a loss of 138 MIs (95%CI:-210,-66), representing 36% of COVID-19-related deaths. While in "Hauts-de-France" the MI decline started before lockdown and recovered 3 weeks before its end, in "Pays-de-la-Loire", it started after lockdown and recovered only by its end. In-hospital mortality of MI patients was increased during lockdown in both provinces (5.0% vs 3.4%, p=0.02). Interpretation: It highlights one of the potential collateral damages of COVID-19 outbreak on cardiovascular health with a dramatic reduction of MI incidence. It advocates for a careful and weighted communication strategy in pandemic crises. Funding: The study was conducted without external funding.

8.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(5): 415-425, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cardiovascular comorbidities seem to be strongly associated with worse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), data regarding patients with preexisting heart failure are limited. AIMS: To investigate the incidence, characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 with a history of heart failure with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: We performed an observational multicentre study including all patients hospitalized for COVID-19 across 24 centres in France from 26 February to 20 April 2020. The primary endpoint was a composite of in-hospital death or need for orotracheal intubation. RESULTS: Overall, 2809 patients (mean age 66.4±16.9years) were included. Three hundred and seventeen patients (11.2%) had a history of heart failure; among them, 49.2% had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and 50.8% had heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. COVID-19 severity at admission, defined by a quick sequential organ failure assessment score>1, was similar in patients with versus without a history of heart failure. Before and after adjustment for age, male sex, cardiovascular comorbidities and quick sequential organ failure assessment score, history of heart failure was associated with the primary endpoint (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.90; P=0.02). This result seemed to be mainly driven by a history of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.13-2.27; P=0.01) rather than heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.79-1.81; P=0.41). CONCLUSIONS: History of heart failure in patients with COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death or orotracheal intubation. These findings suggest that patients with a history of heart failure, particularly heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, should be considered at high risk of clinical deterioration.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , COVID-19/sangue , Comorbidade , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 661355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109225

RESUMO

Introduction: Simulation-based training in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) seems promising. However, data are limited to non-randomized or single-center studies. To assess the impact of simulation-based vs. traditional teaching on TEE knowledge and performance for medical residents in cardiology. Materials and Methods: Nationwide prospective randomized multicenter study involving 43 centers throughout France allowing for the inclusion of >70% of all French cardiology residents. All cardiology residents naive from TEE will be included. Randomization with stratification by center will allocate residents to either a control group receiving theoretical knowledge by e-learning only, or to an intervention group receiving two simulation-based training sessions on a TEE simulator in addition. Results: All residents will undergo both a theoretical test (0-100 points) and a practical test on a TEE simulator (0-100 points) before and 3 months after the training. Satisfaction will be assessed by a 5-points Likert scale. The primary outcomes will be to compare the scores in the final theoretical and practical tests between the two groups, 3 months after the completion of the training. Conclusion: Data regarding simulation-based learning in TEE are limited to non-randomized or single-center studies. The randomized multicenter SIMULATOR study will assess the impact of simulation-based vs. traditional teaching on TEE knowledge and performance for medical residents in cardiology, and whether such an educational program should be proposed in first line for TEE teaching.

10.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(4): 788-799, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The French left atrial appendage (LAA) closure registry (FLAAC) aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of LAA closure in daily practice. BACKGROUND: LAA closure has emerged as an alternative for preventing thromboembolic events (TE) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Clinical data in this field remains limited and few investigator-initiated, real-world registries have been reported. METHODS: This nationwide, prospective study was performed in 36 French centers. The primary endpoint was the TE rate after successful LAA closure. RESULTS: The FLAAC registry included 816 patients with a mean age of 75.5 ± 0.3 years, mean follow-up of 16.0 ± 0.3 months, high TE (CHA2 DS2 -VASc score: 4.6 ± 0.1) and bleeding risks (HAS-BLED score: 3.2 ± 0.05) and common contraindications to long-term anticoagulation (95.7%). Procedure or device-related serious adverse events occurred in 49 (6.0%) patients. The annual rate of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism was 3.3% (2.4-4.6). This suggests a relative 57% reduction compared to the risk of stroke in historical NVAF populations without antithrombotic therapy. By multivariate analysis, history of TE was the only factor associated with stroke/systemic embolism during follow-up (HR, 3.3 [1.58-6.89], p = 0.001). The annual mortality rate was 10.2% (8.4-12.3). Most of the deaths were due to comorbidities or underlying cardiovascular diseases and unrelated to the device or to TE. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that LAA closure can be an option in patients with NVAF. Long-term follow-up mortality was high, mostly due to comorbidities and underlying cardiovascular diseases, highlighting the importance of multidisciplinary management after LAA closure. REGISTRATION: NCT02252861.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial , Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Apêndice Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Circulation ; 143(25): e1088-e1114, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980041

RESUMO

Aortic stenosis with concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a clinical challenge. Aortic stenosis is more prevalent and progresses more rapidly and unpredictably in CKD, and the presence of CKD is associated with worse short-term and long-term outcomes after aortic valve replacement. Because patients with advanced CKD and end-stage kidney disease have been excluded from randomized trials, clinicians need to make complex management decisions in this population that are based on retrospective and observational evidence. This statement summarizes the epidemiological and pathophysiological characteristics of aortic stenosis in the context of CKD, evaluates the nuances and prognostic information provided by noninvasive cardiovascular imaging with echocardiography and advanced imaging techniques, and outlines the special risks in this population. Furthermore, this statement provides a critical review of the existing literature pertaining to clinical outcomes of surgical versus transcatheter aortic valve replacement in this high-risk population to help guide clinical decision making in the choice of aortic valve replacement and specific prosthesis. Finally, this statement provides an approach to the perioperative management of these patients, with special attention to a multidisciplinary heart-kidney collaborative team-based approach.

13.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 227, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is an alternative to oral anticoagulation (OAC) for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with high thromboembolism risk, particularly with contraindications to OAC. The LAA itself could possess proarrhythmogenic properties. As patients undergoing LAA closure could be candidates for cardioversion or ablation, we aimed to evaluate AF disease progression following LAA closure and the outcome of patients undergoing a rhythm control strategy after the procedure. METHODS: The prospective multicenter French Nationwide Observational LAA Closure Registry (FLAAC) comprises 33 French interventional cardiology departments. Patients were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: history of non-valvular AF, successful LAA closure and long-term ECG follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 331 patients with successful LAA closure were enrolled in the study. Patients mean age was 75.4 ± 0.5 years. The study population was characterized by a high thromboembolic risk (CHA2DS2-VASc score: 4.5 ± 0.1) and frequent comorbidities. The median follow-up was 11.9 months. One hundred and nineteen (36.0%) patients were in sinus rhythm (SR) at baseline. Among SR patients, documented AF was observed in 16 (13.4%) patients whereas 15 (7.1%) patients in AF at baseline restored SR, at the end of follow up. Finally, only 13 patients (4%) underwent procedures to restore SR without complications during the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of patients undergoing LAA closure have the same AF status at baseline and one year after the index procedure. During the follow-up, a very small proportion (4%) of our population underwent procedures to restore SR without complications whatever the post-procedural antithrombotic strategy was.

14.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(8-9): 537-549, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transfemoral percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TF-TAVI) is a safe, reproducible and established procedure, mainly performed under local anaesthesia, which is mostly administered and monitored by a dedicated anaesthesia team (regular approach). Our centre has developed a standardized pathway of care, and eligible patients are selected for a minimalist TF-TAVI, entirely managed by operators without the presence of the anaesthesia team in the operating room, like most interventional coronary procedures ("percutaneous coronary intervention-like" approach [PCI approach]). AIM: To compare the safety and efficacy of TF-TAVI performed with the PCI approach versus the regular approach. METHODS: The analysis population comprised all patients who underwent TF-TAVI with the PCI or regular approach in our institution from November 2016 to July 2019. The two co-primary endpoints were early safety composite and early efficacy composite at 30days as defined by the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2. The PCI (n=137) and Regular (n=221) approaches were compared using the propensity score based method of inverse probability of treatment weighting. RESULTS: No differences were observed after comparison of TAVI performed with the PCI or regular approach regarding the composite safety endpoint (7.3% vs. 11.3%; odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.37 to 1.07; P=0.086) or the composite efficacy endpoint (4.4% vs. 6.3%; odds ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.41 to 1.49; P=0.45). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the efficacy and safety of TF-TAVI entirely managed by a PCI approach for selected patients are not different to those when TF-TAVI is performed with the attendance of a full anaesthesia care team. The PCI approach appears to be a safe and efficient clinical pathway, providing an appropriate and rational utilization of anaesthesiology resources, and could be used for the majority of TF-TAVI procedures.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Circulation ; 143(10): 1043-1061, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683945

RESUMO

After 15 years of successive randomized, controlled trials, indications for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are rapidly expanding. In the coming years, this procedure could become the first line treatment for patients with a symptomatic severe aortic stenosis and a tricuspid aortic valve anatomy. However, randomized, controlled trials have excluded bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), which is the most frequent congenital heart disease occurring in 1% to 2% of the total population and representing at least 25% of patients 80 years of age or older referred for aortic valve replacement. The use of a less invasive transcatheter therapy in this elderly population became rapidly attractive, and approximately 10% of patients currently undergoing TAVR have a BAV. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the "European Conformity" have approved TAVR for low-risk patients regardless of the aortic valve anatomy whereas international guidelines recommend surgical replacement in BAV populations. Given this progressive expansion of TAVR toward younger and lower-risk patients, heart teams are encountering BAV patients more frequently, while the ability of this therapy to treat such a challenging anatomy remains uncertain. This review will address the singularity of BAV anatomy and associated technical challenges for the TAVR procedure. We will examine and summarize available clinical evidence and highlight critical knowledge gaps regarding TAVR utilization in BAV patients. We will provide a comprehensive overview of the role of computed tomography scans in the diagnosis, and classification of BAV and TAVR procedure planning. Overall, we will offer an integrated framework for understanding the current role of TAVR in the treatment of bicuspid aortic stenosis and for guiding physicians in clinical decision-making.

19.
Sci Adv ; 7(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523852

RESUMO

Unbalanced energy partitioning participates in the rise of obesity, a major public health concern in many countries. Increasing basal energy expenditure has been proposed as a strategy to fight obesity yet raises efficiency and safety concerns. Here, we show that mice deficient for a muscle-specific enzyme of very-long-chain fatty acid synthesis display increased basal energy expenditure and protection against high-fat diet-induced obesity. Mechanistically, muscle-specific modulation of the very-long-chain fatty acid pathway was associated with a reduced content of the inner mitochondrial membrane phospholipid cardiolipin and a blunted coupling efficiency between the respiratory chain and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) synthase, which was restored by cardiolipin enrichment. Our study reveals that selective increase of lipid oxidative capacities in skeletal muscle, through the cardiolipin-dependent lowering of mitochondrial ATP production, provides an effective option against obesity at the whole-body level.

20.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(7): 1103-1111, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with high-gradient (HG) severe aortic stenosis (AS) and reduced left-ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) are unknown. METHODS: Patients undergoing TAVR for native severe AS between 2009 and 2018 were retrospectively included and classified into 3 groups: HG (≥ 40 mm Hg) and preserved EF (≥ 50%), HG low EF (< 50%), and low gradient (LG < 40 mm Hg) low EF. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular mortality and readmission for heart failure at 1 year after TAVR. RESULTS: Of the 526 patients included, 323 (61%) had HG preserved EF, 69 (13%) had HG low EF, and 134 (26%) had LG low EF. HG low EF group had higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation and heart failure and higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons score compared with the HG preserved EF group. Patients in the LG low EF group were older and had higher prevalence of coronary artery disease compared with those in the HG groups. All-cause mortality at 30 days (4.0%) was similar across the 3 groups. After adjustment, the risk of primary endpoint was similar in the HG low-EF vs preserved EF groups. Conversely, the risk of primary endpoint was higher in the LG low EF group vs the HG preserved EF group (hazard ratio [HR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.36-3.70; P = 0.002) and vs HG low EF group (HR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.55-7.90; P = 0.003), whereas the risk of all-cause mortality was similar across the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of patients with HG low EF severe AS following TAVR is as good as that of patients with HG preserved EF.

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