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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628475

RESUMO

Data regarding the safety and efficacy of COVID-10 vaccines among cancer patients are lacking. Factors such as age, underlying disease and antineoplastic treatment confer negatively to the immune response due to vaccination. The degree of immunosuppression though may be lessen by targeted treatments like the androgen receptor-targeted agents (ARTA) that are commonly used in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Herein, we report our data on 25 patients with prostate cancer under treatment with ARTA who were vaccinated for COVID-19. Our data suggest that these patients develop neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 similarly to healthy volunteers. No safety issues were noted.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638744

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells, and accounts for 10% of all hematologic malignancies and 1% of all cancers. MM is characterized by genomic instability which results from DNA damage with certain genomic rearrangements being prognostic factors for the disease and patients' clinical response. Following genotoxic stress, the evolutionary conserved DNA damage response (DDR) is activated and, in turn, coordinates DNA repair with cell-cycle events. However, the process of carcinogenesis cannot be attributed only to the genetic alterations, but also involves epigenetic processes. Regulation of expression and activity of key players in DNA repair and checkpoint proteins are essential and mediated partly by posttranslational modifications (PTM), such as acetylation. Crosstalk between different PTMs is important for regulation of DNA repair pathways. Acetylation, which is mediated by acetyltransferases (HAT) and histone deacetylases (HDAC), not only affects gene expression through its modulation of histone tails but also has recently been implicated in regulating non-histone proteins. Currently, several HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been developed both in pre-clinical and clinical studies, with some of them exhibiting significant anti-MM activities. Due to reversibility of epigenetic changes during the evolutionary process of myeloma genesis, the potency of epigenetic therapies seems to be of great importance. The aim of the present paper is the summary of all data on the role of HDACi in DDR, the interference with each DNA repair mechanism and the therapeutic implications of HDACi in MM.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642126

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine with a key role in proinflammation and multiple diseases, including cancer. The gene encoding TNF-α is located within a highly polymorphic region on chromosome 6p21.3; two polymorphisms -308G/A (rs1800629) and -238G/A (rs361525) have been associated with occurrence of human diseases. There is a debate in recent meta-analyses that reached discrepant conclusions regarding the potential role of TNF-α polymorphisms in multiple myeloma (MM) risk. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to investigate the association between the aforementioned two polymorphisms with the risk and survival of MM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible articles were identified through an extensive search in PubMed database (end of search: June 18, 2020). The pooled effect estimates were calculated following the random-effects models by Der Simonian and Laird. Separate analyses were conducted by ethnicity. Between-study heterogeneity was quantified, and the deviation of genotype frequencies in controls from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was evaluated. RESULTS: Eighteen studies (2934 cases, 4291 controls) have been included in the quantitative synthesis examining risk and 5 studies for survival (557 cases). No association was found between -308G/A and -238G/A TNF-α polymorphisms and MM susceptibility in all genetic models for both Caucasian and East Asian populations. There was no association between -308G/A and -238G/A TNF-α polymorphisms and survival (overall or progression-free) of MM. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis did not reveal a significant effect of -308G/A and -238G/A TNF-α polymorphisms upon risk or survival of MM.

4.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578426

RESUMO

COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic with high morbidity and mortality. Despite meticulous research, only dexamethasone has shown consistent mortality reduction. Convalescent plasma (CP) infusion might also develop into a safe and effective treatment modality on the basis of recent studies and meta-analyses; however, little is known regarding the kinetics of antibodies in CP recipients. To evaluate the kinetics, we followed 31 CP recipients longitudinally enrolled at a median of 3 days post symptom onset for changes in binding and neutralizing antibody titers and viral loads. Antibodies against the complete trimeric Spike protein and the receptor-binding domain (Spike-RBD), as well as against the complete Nucleocapsid protein and the RNA binding domain (N-RBD) were determined at baseline and weekly following CP infusion. Neutralizing antibody (pseudotype NAb) titers were determined at the same time points. Viral loads were determined semi-quantitatively by SARS-CoV-2 PCR. Patients with low humoral responses at entry showed a robust increase of antibodies to all SARS-CoV-2 proteins and Nab, reaching peak levels within 2 weeks. The rapid increase in binding and neutralizing antibodies was paralleled by a concomitant clearance of the virus within the same timeframe. Patients with high humoral responses at entry demonstrated low or no further increases; however, virus clearance followed the same trajectory as in patients with low antibody response at baseline. Together, the sequential immunological and virological analysis of this well-defined cohort of patients early in infection shows the presence of high levels of binding and neutralizing antibodies and potent clearance of the virus.

5.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587246

RESUMO

Large-scale immune monitoring is becoming routinely used in clinical trials to identify determinants of treatment responsiveness, particularly to immunotherapies. Flow cytometry remains one of the most versatile and high throughput approaches for single-cell analysis; however, manual interpretation of multidimensional data poses a challenge to capture full cellular diversity and provide reproducible results. We present FlowCT, a semi-automated workspace empowered to analyze large datasets that includes pre-processing, normalization, multiple dimensionality reduction techniques, automated clustering and predictive modeling tools. As a proof of concept, we used FlowCT to compare the T cell compartment in bone marrow (BM) vs peripheral blood (PB) of patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (MM); identify minimally-invasive immune biomarkers of progression from smoldering to active MM; define prognostic T cell subsets in the BM of patients with active MM after treatment intensification; and assess the longitudinal effect of maintenance therapy in BM T cells. A total of 354 samples were analyzed and immune signatures predictive of malignant transformation in 150 smoldering MM patients (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.7; P <.001), and of progression-free (HR: 4.09; P <.0001) and overall survival (HR: 3.12; P =.047) in 100 active MM patients, were identified. New data also emerged about stem cell memory T cells, the concordance between immune profiles in BM vs PB and the immunomodulatory effect of maintenance therapy. FlowCT is a new open-source computational approach that can be readily implemented by research laboratories to perform quality-control, analyze high-dimensional data, unveil cellular diversity and objectively identify biomarkers in large immune monitoring studies.

6.
Br J Haematol ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528249

RESUMO

Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have a suboptimal antibody response following vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and lower seroconversion rates following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared with healthy individuals. In this context, we evaluated the development of neutralising antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in non-vaccinated patients with MM and COVID-19 compared with patients after vaccination with two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Serum was collected either four weeks post confirmed diagnosis or four weeks post a second dose of BNT162b2. NAbs were measured with a Food and Drug Administration-approved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology. Thirty-five patients with COVID-19 and MM along with 35 matched patients were included. The two groups did not differ in age, sex, body mass index, prior lines of therapy, disease status, lymphocyte count, immunoglobulin levels and comorbidities. Patients with MM and COVID-19 showed a superior humoral response compared with vaccinated patients with MM. The median (interquartile range) NAb titre was 87·6% (71·6-94%) and 58·7% (21·4-91·8%) for COVID-19-positive and vaccinated patients, respectively (P = 0·01).Importantly, there was no difference in NAb production between COVID-19-positive and vaccinated patients who did not receive any treatment (median NAb 85·1% vs 91·7%, P = 0·14). In conclusion, our data indicate that vaccinated patients with MM on treatment without prior COVID-19 should be considered for booster vaccine doses.

7.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529762

RESUMO

The urgency of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to accelerated vaccine development within less than a year. Immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies are more susceptible to COVID-19 and at higher risk of severe complications and worse outcomes compared with general population. In this context, we evaluated the humoral response by determining the titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM) after vaccination with the BNT162b2 or AZD1222 vaccine. An FDA-approved, ELISA-based methodology was implemented to evaluate NAbs on the day of the first vaccine shot, as well as on day 22 and 50 afterwards. 106 patients with WM (43% males, median age 73 years) and 212 healthy controls (46% males, median age 66 years) who were vaccinated during the same period, at the same center were enrolled in the study (which is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04743388). Our data indicate that vaccination with either 2 doses of the BNT162b2 or 1 dose of the AZD1222 vaccine leads to lower production of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with WM compared with controls both on day 22 and on day 50 (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Disease-related immune dysregulation and therapy-related immunosuppression are involved in the low humoral response. Importantly, active treatment with either Rituximab or Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors was proven as an independent prognostic factor for suboptimal antibody response following vaccination. In conclusion, patients with WM have low humoral response following COVID-19 vaccination, which underlines the need for timely vaccination ideally during a treatment-free period and for continuous vigilance on infection control measures.

8.
Breast ; 60: 58-61, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481366

RESUMO

Undoubtedly, the development of COVID-19 vaccines displays a critical step towards ending this devastating pandemic, considering their protective benefits in the general population. Yet, data regarding their efficacy and safety in cancer patients are limited. Herein we provide the initial analysis of immune responses after the first dose of vaccination in 21 breast cancer patients receiving cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors. The levels of neutralizing antibodies post vaccination were similar to the matched healthy controls, whereas no safety issues have been raised. Further exploration is needed to reduce the uncertainty of SARS-CoV-2 immunity among cancer patients under treatment.

9.
Amyloid ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468250

RESUMO

Daratumumab has major and rapid activity in AL amyloidosis with favourable toxicity. We used as a consolidation a short course of daratumumab in 25 patients with AL amyloidosis or light chain deposition disease (LCDD), who had not achieved a haematologic complete response (hemCR) after standard therapy with bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD). We evaluated minimal residual disease (MRD) and changes in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment before and after consolidation using next generation flow cytometry (NGF). At the time of consolidation, 21 patients were in very good partial response (VGPR) and four in partial response (PR); all had detectable MRD. One month after consolidation completion, 8 patients (32%) achieved a hemCR, of whom 5 (20%) became also MRD negative. In the BM, we observed significant changes in B-cell precursors, naïve B-cells, T-cells, CD27+ NK & NKT cells, mast cells and erythroblasts. After a median follow-up of 25 months, none of the patients in hemCR has relapsed and all have achieved an organ response; a haematologic relapse occurred in 6/17 patients that did not achieve hemCR. In conclusion, consolidation with a short course of daratumumab can improve depth of response in patients with AL amyloidosis or LCDD and significantly affects BM environment.

10.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009701, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551020

RESUMO

The speed of development, versatility and efficacy of mRNA-based vaccines have been amply demonstrated in the case of SARS-CoV-2. DNA vaccines represent an important alternative since they induce both humoral and cellular immune responses in animal models and in human trials. We tested the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA-based vaccine regimens expressing different prefusion-stabilized Wuhan-Hu-1 SARS-CoV-2 Spike antigens upon intramuscular injection followed by electroporation in rhesus macaques. Different Spike DNA vaccine regimens induced antibodies that potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and elicited robust T cell responses. The antibodies recognized and potently neutralized a panel of different Spike variants including Alpha, Delta, Epsilon, Eta and A.23.1, but to a lesser extent Beta and Gamma. The DNA-only vaccine regimens were compared to a regimen that included co-immunization of Spike DNA and protein in the same anatomical site, the latter of which showed significant higher antibody responses. All vaccine regimens led to control of SARS-CoV-2 intranasal/intratracheal challenge and absence of virus dissemination to the lower respiratory tract. Vaccine-induced binding and neutralizing antibody titers and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis inversely correlated with transient virus levels in the nasal mucosa. Importantly, the Spike DNA+Protein co-immunization regimen induced the highest binding and neutralizing antibodies and showed the strongest control against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques.


Assuntos
Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Viral/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunização Passiva , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/análise , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
11.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440710

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-S-RBD IgGs up to three months after the second vaccination dose with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. NAbs and anti-S-RBD levels were measured on days 1 (before the first vaccine shot), 8, 22 (before the second shot), 36, 50, and three months after the second vaccination (D111) (NCT04743388). 283 health workers were included in this study. NAbs showed a rapid increase from D8 to D36 at a constant rate of about 3% per day and reached a median (SD) of 97.2% (4.7) at D36. From D36 to D50, a slight decrease in NAbs values was detected and it became more prominent between D50 and D111 when the rate of decline was determined at -0.11 per day. The median (SD) NAbs value at D111 was 92.7% (11.8). A similar pattern was also observed for anti-S-RBD antibodies. Anti-S-RBDs showed a steeper increase during D22-D36 and a lower decline rate during D36-D111. Prior COVID-19 infection and younger age were associated with superior antibody responses over time. In conclusion, we found a persistent but declining anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity at 3 months following full vaccination with BNT162b2 in healthy individuals.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Formação de Anticorpos , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 208, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has caused a still evolving global pandemic. Given the worldwide vaccination campaign, the understanding of the vaccine-induced versus COVID-19-induced immunity will contribute to adjusting vaccine dosing strategies and speeding-up vaccination efforts. METHODS: Anti-spike-RBD IgGs and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) titers were measured in BNT162b2 mRNA vaccinated participants (n = 250); we also investigated humoral and cellular immune responses in vaccinated individuals (n = 21) of this cohort 5 months post-vaccination and assayed NAbs levels in COVID-19 hospitalized patients (n = 60) with moderate or severe disease, as well as in COVID-19 recovered patients (n = 34). RESULTS: We found that one (boosting) dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine triggers robust immune (i.e., anti-spike-RBD IgGs and NAbs) responses in COVID-19 convalescent healthy recipients, while naïve recipients require both priming and boosting shots to acquire high antibody titers. Severe COVID-19 triggers an earlier and more intense (versus moderate disease) immune response in hospitalized patients; in all cases, however, antibody titers remain at high levels in COVID-19 recovered patients. Although virus infection promotes an earlier and more intense, versus priming vaccination, immune response, boosting vaccination induces antibody titers significantly higher and likely more durable versus COVID-19. In support, high anti-spike-RBD IgGs/NAbs titers along with spike (vaccine encoded antigen) specific T cell clones were found in the serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively, of vaccinated individuals 5 months post-vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support vaccination efficacy, also suggesting that vaccination likely offers more protection than natural infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/terapia , Humanos , Cinética , Leucócitos Mononucleares , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma bone disease (MMBD) constitutes a common and severe complication of multiple myeloma (MM), impacting the quality of life and survival. We evaluated the clinical value of a panel of 19 miRNAs associated with osteoporosis in MMBD. METHODS: miRNAs were isolated from the plasma of 62 newly diagnosed MM patients with or without MMBD. First-strand cDNA was synthesized, and relative quantification was performed using qPCR. Lastly, we carried out extensive biostatistical analysis. RESULTS: Circulating levels of let-7b-5p, miR-143-3p, miR-17-5p, miR-214-3p, and miR-335-5p were significantly higher in the blood plasma of MM patients with MMBD compared to those without. Receiver operating characteristic curve and logistic regression analyses showed that these miRNAs could accurately predict MMBD. Furthermore, a standalone multi-miRNA-based logistic regression model exhibited the best predictive potential regarding MMBD. Two of those miRNAs also have a prognostic role in MM since survival analysis indicated that lower circulating levels of both let-7b-5p and miR-335-5p were associated with significantly worse progression-free survival, independently of the established prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study proposes a miRNA signature to facilitate MMBD diagnosis, especially in ambiguous cases. Moreover, we provide evidence of the prognostic role of let-7b-5p and miR-335-5p as non-invasive prognostic biomarkers in MM.

14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358129

RESUMO

It is unclear whether the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine can induce the development of anti-PF4 antibodies in vaccinated individuals who have not developed thrombosis. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the presence of antibodies against heparin/PF4 in adults who received a first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine, and correlate them with clinical data and antibody responses to the vaccine. We detected non-platelet activating anti-PF4 antibodies in 67% (29/43) of the vaccinated individuals on day 22 following the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine, though these were detected in low titers. Furthermore, there was no correlation between the presence of anti-PF4 IgG antibodies and the baseline clinical characteristics of the patients. Our findings suggest that the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine can elicit anti-PF4 antibody production even in recipients without a clinical manifestation of thrombosis. The presence of anti-PF4 antibodies was not sufficient to provoke clinically evident thrombosis. Our results offer an important insight into the ongoing investigations regarding the underlying multifactorial pathophysiology of thrombotic events induced by the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine.

15.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(8): 138, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341335

RESUMO

Recent data suggest a suboptimal antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with hematological malignancies. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 were evaluated in 276 patients with plasma cell neoplasms after vaccination with either the BNT162b2 or the AZD1222 vaccine, on days 1 (before the first vaccine shot), 22, and 50. Patients with MM (n = 213), SMM (n = 38), and MGUS (n = 25) and 226 healthy controls were enrolled in the study (NCT04743388). Vaccination with either two doses of the BNT162b2 or one dose of the AZD1222 vaccine leads to lower production of NAbs in patients with MM compared with controls both on day 22 and on day 50 (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Furthermore, MM patients showed an inferior NAb response compared with MGUS on day 22 (p = 0.009) and on day 50 (p = 0.003). Importantly, active treatment with either anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) or belantamab mafodotin and lymphopenia at the time of vaccination were independent prognostic factors for suboptimal antibody response following vaccination. In conclusion, MM patients have low humoral response following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, especially under treatment with anti-CD38 or belamaf. This underlines the need for timely vaccination, possibly during a treatment-free period, and for continuous vigilance on infection control measures in non-responders.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Mieloma Múltiplo , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/sangue , Mieloma Múltiplo/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
16.
Cell Rep ; 36(6): 109504, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352226

RESUMO

Early responses to vaccination are important for shaping both humoral and cellular protective immunity. Dissecting innate vaccine signatures may predict immunogenicity to help optimize the efficacy of mRNA and other vaccine strategies. Here, we characterize the cytokine and chemokine responses to the 1st and 2nd dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer/BioNtech) vaccine in antigen-naive and in previously coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected individuals (NCT04743388). Transient increases in interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels early after boost correlate with Spike antibody levels, supporting their use as biomarkers of effective humoral immunity development in response to vaccination. We identify a systemic signature including increases in IL-15, IFN-γ, and IP-10/CXCL10 after the 1st vaccination, which were enriched by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 after the 2nd vaccination. In previously COVID-19-infected individuals, a single vaccination results in both strong cytokine induction and antibody titers similar to the ones observed upon booster vaccination in antigen-naive individuals, a result with potential implication for future public health recommendations.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-15/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia
17.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270382

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the ocular manifestations in 91 Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) patients.Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational analysis.Results: Ocular impairments, detected in 19 patients, included flame-shaped hemorrhages, venous sausaging, papilledema, macular detachments, or central retinal vein occlusion in 16 patients; paraproteinemic keratopathy in 2; and a CANOMAD syndrome in 1. Best-corrected visual acuity was ≥0.5 logMAR units in 11 of 38 eyes. Intraocular pressure was increased in seven eyes. Genetic analysis in seven patients showed a mutation in the MYD88 gene in six patients and a nonsense mutation in the CXCR4 gene in five patients. Plasmapheresis followed by chemotherapy with or without the addition of rituximab resulted in improvement or normalization of the ophthalmological findings in 15 patients.Conclusion: The ocular manifestations of WM are protean and potentially sight threatening. Recent advances in genomic profiling and chemotherapy have remarkably improved the hematological and ophthalmological outcomes of these patients.

18.
Clin Exp Med ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283338

RESUMO

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is considered as the most important preventive strategy against COVID-19, but its efficacy in patients with hematological malignancies is largely unknown. We investigated the development of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). After the first dose of the vaccine, on D22, WM/CLL/NHL patients had lower NAb titers compared to controls: the median NAb inhibition titer was 17% (range 0-91%, IQR 8-27%) for WM/CLL/NHL patients versus 32% (range 2-98%, IQR 19-48%) for controls (P < 0.001). Only 8 (14%) patients versus 114 (54%) controls developed NAb titers ≥ 30% on D22 (p < 0.001). Our data indicate that the first dose of both BNT162b2 and AZD1222 leads to lower production of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with WM/CLL/NHL compared to controls of similar age and gender and without malignant disease. Even though the response rates were not optimal, vaccination is still considered essential and if possible should be performed before treatment initiation. These patients with suboptimal responses should be considered to be prioritized for booster doses.

19.
Haematologica ; 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261295

RESUMO

According to the updated International Myeloma Working Group criteria, smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic plasma cell disorder characterized by an M-component >3 g/dL, bone marrow plasma cell infiltration >10% and <60%, and absence of any myeloma-defining event. Active multiple myeloma is preceded by SMM, with a median time to progression of approximately 5 years. Cases of SMM range from the extremes of "monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance-like", in which patients never progress during their lifetimes, to "early multiple myeloma", in which transformation into symptomatic disease, based on genomic evolution, may be rapid and devastating. Such a "split personality" makes the prognosis and management of individual patients challenging, particularly with regard to the identification and possible early treatment of high-risk SMM. Outside of clinical trials, the conventional approach to SMM generally remains close observation until progression to active multiple myeloma. However, two prospective, randomized trials have recently demonstrated a significant clinical benefit in terms of time to progression, and of overall survival in one of the two studies, for some patients with higher-risk SMM treated with lenalidomide ± dexamethasone, raising the question of whether such an approach should be considered a new standard of care. In this paper, experts from the European Myeloma Network describe current biological and clinical knowledge on SMM, focusing on novel insights into its molecular pathogenesis, new prognostic scoring systems proposed to identify SMM patients at higher risk of early transformation, and updated results of completed or ongoing clinical trials. Finally, some practical recommendations for the real-life management of these patients, based on Delphi consensus methodology, are provided.

20.
J BUON ; 26(3): 1040-1055, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268971

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the potential associations between anthropometric characteristics and bladder cancer risk, synthesizing longitudinal cohort studies. METHODS: Literature search across MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central was performed up to December 31, 2019 and data abstraction was performed independently by two authors. Random-effects (DerSimonian-Laird) models were used to estimate pooled relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI); subgroup analyses were performed in geographical region, mean age, publication year, length of follow-up, sample size, method of body mass index (BMI) estimation and adjustment for smoking. RESULTS: 27 studies were included (88 593 bladder cancer cases in a total cohort of 49 647 098 subjects). Increased bladder cancer risk was noted in overweight men (pooled RR=1.12, 95%CI: 1.04-1.21) but not in overweight women. Both obese men (pooled RR=1.14, 95%CI: 1.06-1.22) and women (pooled RR=1.19, 95%CI: 1.02-1.38) showed increased risk. Interestingly, height increase per 5 cm did not seem to affect risk of bladder cancer in men (pooled RR=1.03, 95%CI: 0.99- 1.06) and women (pooled RR=1.02, 95%CI: 0.97-1.06). Larger waist circumference was associated with bladder cancer risk in men (pooled RR=1.18, 95%CI: 1.09-1.26) but not women. CONCLUSION: Bladder cancer risk seems to be related with obesity overall and central obesity in men. In contrast to other cancer types, height does not seem to affect risk, but more studies are needed to extract safe conclusions.

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