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1.
Chemistry ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634149

RESUMO

Organic materials with multiple emissions tunable by external stimuli represent a great challenge. TTPyr, crystallizing in different polymorphs, shows a very rich photophyisics comprising excitation-dependent fluorescence and phosphorescence at ambient conditions, and mechanochromic and thermochromic behavior. Transformation among the different species has been followed by thermal and X-ray diffraction analyses and the emissive features interpreted through structural results and DFT/TDDFT calculations. Particularly intriguing is the polymorph TTPyr(HT), serendipitously obtained at high temperature but stable also at room temperature, whose non-centrosymmetric structure guarantees an SHG efficiency 10 times higher than that of standard urea. Its crystal packing, where only the TT units are strongly rigidified by π-π stacking interactions while the Pyr moieties possess partial conformational freedom, is responsible for the observed dual fluorescence. The potentialities of TTPyr for bioimaging have been successfully established.

2.
Chemphyschem ; 22(22): 2281-2285, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541753

RESUMO

In this communication experimental and theoretical results are reported affording strong evidence that interactions between electron rich atoms and the metal of tetroxide anions of group 7 elements are a new case of attractive and σ-hole interactions. Single crystal X-ray analyses, molecular electrostatic potentials, quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules, and noncovalent interaction plot analyses show that in crystalline permanganate and perrhenate salts the metal in Mn/ReO4 - anion can act as electron acceptors, the oxygen of another Mn/ReO4 - anion can act as the donor and supramolecular anionic dimers or polymers are formed. The name matere bond (MaB) is proposed to categorize these noncovalent interactions and to differentiate them from the classical metal-ligand coordination bond.

3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 271: 118031, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364545

RESUMO

Cellulose ester films were prepared by esterification of cellulose with a multibranched fluorinated carboxylic acid, "BRFA" (BRanched Fluorinated Acid), at different anhydroglucose unit:BRFA molar ratios (i.e., 1:0, 10:1, 5:1, and 1:1). Morphological and optical analyses showed that cellulose-BRFA materials at molar ratios 10:1 and 5:1 formed flat and transparent films, while the one at 1:1 M ratio formed rough and translucent films. Degrees of substitution (DS) of 0.06, 0.09, and 0.23 were calculated by NMR for the samples at molar ratios 10:1, 5:1, and 1:1, respectively. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the esterification. DSC thermograms showed a single glass transition, typical of amorphous polymers, at -11 °C. The presence of BRFA groups shifted the mechanical behavior from rigid to ductile and soft with increasing DS. Wettability was similar to standard fluoropolymers such as PTFE and PVDF. Finally, breathability and water uptake were characterized and found comparable to materials typically used in textiles.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(38): 20723-20727, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260810

RESUMO

This communication reports experimental and theoretical evidences of σ-hole interactions in adducts between nitrogen or oxygen nucleophiles and tetroxides of osmium or other group 8 elements. Cocrystals between pyridine or pyridine N-oxide derivatives and osmium tetroxide are characterized through various techniques and rationalized as σ-hole interactions using DFT calculations and several other computational tools. We propose the term "osme bond" (OmB, Om=Fe, Ru, Os, (Hs)) for naming the noncovalent interactions wherein group 8 elements have the role of the electrophile. The word osme is the transcription of ὀσµÎ®, the ancient Greek word for smell that was used to name the heaviest group 8 element in relation to the smoky odor of its tetroxide.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(26): 14385-14389, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872450

RESUMO

Interactions in crystalline tetrachloridoaurates of acetylcholine and dimethylpropiothetine are characterized by Au⋅⋅⋅Cl and Au⋅⋅⋅O short contacts. The former interactions assemble the AuCl4 - units into supramolecular anionic polymers, while the latter interactions append the acetylcholine and propiothetine units to the polymer. The distorted octahedral geometry of the bonding pattern around the gold center is rationalized on the basis of the anisotropic distribution of the electron density, which enables gold to behave as an electrophile (π-hole coinage-bond donor). Computational studies prove that gold atoms in negatively charged species can function as acceptors of electron density. The attractive nature of the Au⋅⋅⋅Cl/O interactions described here complement the known aurophilic bonds involved in gold-centered interactions.

6.
Chempluschem ; 86(3): 469-474, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704927

RESUMO

We report halogen-bonded complexes between 1-polyfluoroalkyl-3-alkylimidazolium iodides and mono-iodoperfluoroalkanes of different chain lengths or di-iodoperfluorooctane. 19 F NMR analyses revealed that the preferred stoichiometry between the donors and acceptors is 1 : 1 in the cases of the mono-iodoperfluoroalkanes, and 2 : 1 with di-iodoperfluorooctane, as a result of the monodentate behavior of the iodide anion (halogen bond acceptor). Single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses showed the presence of a perfluorinated superanion, which interdigitates with the cation fluorinated chains, favoring the formation of lamellar structures. All of the obtained supramolecular complexes exhibit enantiotropic liquid crystalline phases over a broad range of temperatures. Most of the obtained complexes show melting points lower than 100 °C, two of them being liquid at room temperature, thus representing a new family of fluorinated ionic liquid crystals.

7.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(2): 795-809, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444021

RESUMO

The independent gradient model (IGM) is a recent electron density-based computational method that enables to detect and quantify covalent and noncovalent interactions. When applied to large systems, the original version of the technique still relies on promolecular electron densities given by the sum of spherically averaged atomic electron distributions, which leads to approximate evaluations of the inter- and intramolecular interactions occurring in systems of biological interest. To overcome this drawback and perform IGM analyses based on quantum mechanically rigorous electron densities also for macromolecular systems, we coupled the IGM approach with the recently constructed libraries of extremely localized molecular orbitals (ELMOs) that allow fast and reliable reconstructions of polypeptide and protein electron densities. The validation tests performed on small polypeptides and peptide dimers have shown that the novel IGM-ELMO strategy provides results that are systematically closer to the fully quantum mechanical ones and outperforms the IGM method based on the crude promolecular approximation, but still keeping a quite low computational cost. The results of the test calculations carried out on proteins have also confirmed the trends observed for the IGM analyses conducted on small systems. This makes us envisage the future application of the novel IGM-ELMO approach to unravel complicated noncovalent interaction networks (e.g., in protein-protein contacts) or to rationally design new drugs through molecular docking calculations and virtual high-throughput screenings.


Assuntos
Proteínas , Substâncias Macromoleculares , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
8.
Chemistry ; 26(51): 11701-11704, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529674

RESUMO

Decamethonium diiodide is reported to perform the chemo- and regioselective encapsulation of para-dihalobenzenes through the competitive formation of halogen-bonded cocrystals starting from solutions that also contain ortho and meta isomers. Selective caging in the solid occurs even when an excess ortho or meta isomers, or even a mixture of them, is present in the solution. A prime matching between the size and shape of the dication and the formed dianions plays a key role in enabling the selective self-assembly, as proven by successful encapsulation of halogen-bond donors as weak as 1,4-dichlorobenzene and by the results of cocrystallization trials involving mismatching tectons. Encapsulated para-dihalobenzenes guest molecules can be removed quantitatively by heating the cocrystals under reduced pressure and be recovered as pure materials. The residual decamethonium diiodide can be recycled with no reduction in selectivity.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(22): 12757-12765, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463046

RESUMO

This manuscript reports a combination of crystallographic analysis (Cambridge Structural Database) and theoretical DFT calculations in chalcogen bonding interactions involving radicals in both the Ch bond (ChB) donor and acceptor. As a radical ChB acceptor (nucleophile) we have used benzodithiazolyl radical (BDTA) and as Ch bond donors (electrophile) we have used dithiadiazolyl and diselenadiazolyl radicals of the general formula p-X-C6F4-CNChChN (Ch = S, and Se). We have evaluated how the para substituent (X) affects the interaction energy, spin density and charge/spin transfer from the electron rich BDTA radical to the electron poor dichalcogenadiazolyl ring. The ability of the latter rings to form ChBs in the solid state has been examined by a comprehensive search in the CSD; several cases are used to exemplify the preferred geometric features of the complexes and they are compared with the theory. The molecular surface electrostatic potentials calculated for these ChB donors allow for a very precise rationalization of the self-assembly motifs most frequently adopted in the crystalline state and of their relative robustness.

10.
ChemistryOpen ; 9(2): 253-260, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110506

RESUMO

Here, we demonstrate that introduction of halogen atoms at the tyrosine 10 phenol ring of the DSGYEV sequence derived from the flexible amyloid-ß N-terminus, promotes its self-assembly in the solid state. In particular, we report the crystal structures of two halogen-modified sequences, which we found to be stabilized in the solid state by halogen-mediated interactions. The structural study is corroborated by Non-Covalent Interaction (NCI) analysis. Our results prove that selective halogenation of an amino acid enhances the supramolecular organization of otherwise unstructured biologically-relevant sequences. This method may develop as a general strategy for stabilizing highly polymorphic peptide regions.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Bromo/química , Tirosina/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos/química , Cristalização , Halogenação , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Conformação Molecular , Oxirredução
11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(41): 14472-14476, 2019 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418497

RESUMO

A cyclic hexapeptide with three pyridyl moieties connected to its backbone forms a hydrogen-bonded dimer, which tightly encapsulates a single xenon atom, like a pearl in its shell. The dimer imprints its shape and symmetry to the captured xenon atom, as demonstrated by 129 Xe NMR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and computational studies. The dimers self-assemble hierarchically into tubular structures to form a porous supramolecular architecture, whose cavities are filled by small molecules and gases.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(36): 12456-12459, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313458

RESUMO

Although instrumental for optimizing their pharmacological activity, a molecular understanding of the preferential interactions given by volatile anesthetics is quite poor. This paper confirms the ability of halothane to work as a hydrogen-bond (HB) donor and gives the first experimental proof that halothane also works as a halogen-bond (HaB) donor in the solid state and in solution. A halothane/hexamethylphosphortriamide co-crystal is described and its single-crystal X-ray structure shows short HaBs between bromine, or chlorine, and the phosphoryl oxygen. New UV/Vis absorption bands appear upon addition of diazabicyclooctane and tetra(n-butyl)ammonium iodide to halothane solutions, indicating that nitrogen atoms and anions may mediate the HaB-driven binding processes involving halothane as well. The ability of halothane to work as a bidentate/tridentate tecton by acting as a HaB and HB donor gives an atomic rationale for the eudismic ratio shown by this agent.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/química , Halogênios/química , Halotano/química , Oxigênio/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Modelos Moleculares , Teoria Quântica
13.
Chemistry ; 25(38): 9078-9087, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184410

RESUMO

A small series of boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes, characterized by the presence of multibranched fluorinated residues, were designed and synthesized. The dyes differ in both the position (para-perfluoroalkoxy-substituted phenyl ring or boron functionalization) and number of magnetically equivalent fluorine atoms (27 or 54 fluorine atoms per molecule). Photophysical and crystallographic characterization of the synthesized BODIPYs was carried out to evaluate the effect of the presence of highly fluorinated moieties on the optical and morphological properties of such compounds.

14.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(5): 1313-1324, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082186

RESUMO

The distribution of the electron density around covalently bonded atoms is anisotropic, and this determines the presence, on atoms surface, of areas of higher and lower electron density where the electrostatic potential is frequently negative and positive, respectively. The ability of positive areas on atoms to form attractive interactions with electron rich sites became recently the subject of a flurry of papers. The halogen bond (HaB), the attractive interaction formed by halogens with nucleophiles, emerged as a quite common and dependable tool for controlling phenomena as diverse as the binding of small molecules to proteinaceous targets or the organization of molecular functional materials. The mindset developed in relation to the halogen bond prompted the interest in the tendency of elements of groups 13-16 of the periodic table to form analogous attractive interactions with nucleophiles. This Account addresses the chalcogen bond (ChB), the attractive interaction formed by group 16 elements with nucleophiles, by adopting a crystallographic point of view. Structures of organic derivatives are considered where chalcogen atoms form close contacts with nucleophiles in the geometry typical for chalcogen bonds. It is shown how sulfur, selenium, and tellurium can all form chalcogen bonds, the tendency to give rise to close contacts with nucleophiles increasing with the polarizability of the element. Also oxygen, when conveniently substituted, can form ChBs in crystalline solids. Chalcogen bonds can be strong enough to allow for the interaction to function as an effective and robust tool in crystal engineering. It is presented how chalcogen containing heteroaromatics, sulfides, disulfides, and selenium and tellurium analogues as well as some other molecular moieties can afford dependable chalcogen bond based supramolecular synthons. Particular attention is given to chalcogen containing azoles and their derivatives due to the relevance of these moieties in biosystems and molecular materials. It is shown how the interaction pattern around electrophilic chalcogen atoms frequently recalls the pattern around analogous halogen, pnictogen, and tetrel derivatives. For instance, directionalities of chalcogen bonds around sulfur and selenium in some thiazolium and selenazolium derivatives are similar to directionalities of halogen bonds around bromine and iodine in bromonium and iodonium compounds. This gives experimental evidence that similarities in the anisotropic distribution of the electron density in covalently bonded atoms translates in similarities in their recognition and self-assembly behavior. For instance, the analogies in interaction patterns of carbonitrile substituted elements of groups 17, 16, 15, and 14 will be presented. While the extensive experimental and theoretical data available in the literature prove that HaB and ChB form twin supramolecular synthons in the solid, more experimental information has to become available before such a statement can be safely extended to interactions wherein elements of groups 14 and 15 are the electrophiles. It will nevertheless be possible to develop some general heuristic principles for crystal engineering. Being based on the groups of the periodic table, these principles offer the advantage of being systematic.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(29): 4234-4237, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900713

RESUMO

Herein, we report the crystal structures of the antimicrobial agent diiodomethyl-p-tolylsulfone and of three halogen bonded co-crystals demonstrating that the bioactive moiety -SO2CHI2 can function as a quite effective halogen bond based motif in the solid state and in solution, namely demonstrating that α-iodosulfones may become a new entry in the quite small group of alkyl-iodides functioning as reliable halogen bond-donors.

16.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 75(Pt 2): 189-195, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720457

RESUMO

Aminobenzylnaphthols are a class of compounds containing a large aromatic molecular surface which makes them suitable candidates to study the role of C-H...π interactions. We have investigated the effect of methyl or methoxy substituents on the assembling of aromatic units by preparing and determining the crystal structures of (S,S)-1-{(4-methylphenyl)[(1-phenylethyl)amino]methyl}naphthalen-2-ol, C26H25NO, and (S,S)-1-{(4-methoxyphenyl)[(1-phenylethyl)amino]methyl}naphthalen-2-ol, C26H25NO2. The methyl group influenced the overall crystal packing even if the H atoms of the methyl group did not participate directly either in hydrogen bonding or C-H...π interactions. The introduction of the methoxy moiety caused the formation of new hydrogen bonds, in which the O atom of the methoxy group was directly involved. Moreover, the methoxy group promoted the formation of an interesting C-H...π interaction which altered the orientation of an aromatic unit.

17.
Chemistry ; 24(44): 11364-11376, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29852060

RESUMO

Halogen bonding is an increasingly important tool in crystal engineering, and measuring its influence on the local chemical and electronic environment is necessary to fully understand this interaction. Here, we present a systematic crystallographic and solid-state NMR study of self-complementary halogen-bonded frameworks built from the halide salts (HCl, HBr, HI, HI3 ) of 2-iodoethynylpyridine and 3-iodoethynylpyridine. A series of single crystal X-ray structures reveals the formation of discrete charged dimers in the solid state, directed by simultaneous X- ⋅⋅⋅H-N+ hydrogen bonds and C-I⋅⋅⋅X- halogen bonds (X=Cl, Br, I). Each compound was studied using multinuclear solid-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy, observing 1 H to investigate the hydrogen bonds and 13 C, 35 Cl, and 79/81 Br to investigate the halogen bonds. A natural localized molecular orbital analysis was employed to help interpret the experimental results. 1 H SSNMR spectroscopy reveals a decrease in the chemical shift of the proton participating in the hydrogen bond as the halogen increases in size, whereas the 13 C SSNMR reveals an increased 13 C chemical shift of the C-I carbon for C-I⋅⋅⋅X- relative to C-I⋅⋅⋅N halogen bonds. Additionally, 35 Cl and 79/81 Br SSNMR, along with computational results, have allowed us to compare the C-I⋅⋅⋅X- halogen bond involving each halide in terms of NMR observables. Due to the isostructural nature of these compounds, they are ideal cases for experimentally assessing the impact of different halogen bond acceptors on the solid-state NMR response.

18.
J Vis Exp ; (133)2018 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630052

RESUMO

Herein, we demonstrate that a bottom-up approach, based on halogen bonding (XB), can be successfully applied for the design of a new type of ionic liquid crystals (ILCs). Taking advantages of the high specificity of XB for haloperfluorocarbons and the ability of anions to act as XB-acceptors, we obtained supramolecular complexes based on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium iodides and iodoperfluorocarbons, overcoming the well-known immiscibility between hydrocarbons (HCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs). The high directionality of the XB combined with the fluorophobic effect, allowed us to obtain enantiotropic liquid crystals where a rigid, non-aromatic, XB supramolecular anion acts as mesogenic core. X-ray structure analysis of the complex between 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide and iodoperfluorooctane showed the presence of a layered structure, which is a manifestation of the well-known tendency to segregation of perfluoroalkyl chains. This is consistent with the observation of smectic mesophases. Moreover, all the reported complexes melt below 100 °C, and most are mesomorphic even at room temperature, despite that the starting materials were non-mesomorphic in nature. The supramolecular strategy reported here provides new design principles for mesogen design allowing a totally new class of functional materials.


Assuntos
Halogênios/química , Cristais Líquidos/química , Íons/química
19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(5): 1327-1331, 2018 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226498

RESUMO

Bis(trimethylammonium) alkane diiodides dynamically encapsulate dicarboxylic acids through intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the I- anions of the hosts and the carboxylic OH groups of the guests. A selective recognition is realized when the size of the I- ⋅⋅⋅HOOC(CH2 /CF2 )n COOH⋅⋅⋅I- superanion matches the dication alkyl chain length. Dynamic recognition is also demonstrated in solution, where the presence of the size-matching organic salt boosts the acid solubility profile, thus allowing efficient mixture separation.

20.
Biopolymers ; 2017 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178159

RESUMO

Amyloidogenic peptide fragment KLVFF (H2 N-Lys-Leu-Val-Phe-Phe-COOH, Aß16-20 ), the core-sequence of the polypeptide Aß40, is a well-studied model for amyloid formation. However, due to its low crystallinity, detailed atomic information of KLVFF structure is lacking. Here we report the high-resolution single-crystal X-ray structure of two monohalogenated KLVFF derivatives, KLVFF(I) and KLVFF(Br). The obtained results highlight how halogenation is a good strategy to promote crystallization and facilitate the phase determination of KLVFF(I) and KLVFF(Br) fragments. Detailed structural studies on the packing features of both monohalogenated derivatives reveal the role of the halogen atoms showing that when they are positioned on the Phe aromatic moiety at the C-terminus they do not form halogen bonds and thus do not produce any extra stabilization of the ß-sheet in the self-assembly process. The structural evidences gained from these studies corroborate the various polymorphic nanostructures of the halogenated variants of KLVFF and confirm the possibility to use halogenation as innovative strategy to tune the morphology of this pentapeptide.

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