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1.
Biomedicines ; 9(12)2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944575

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) dysregulation is implicated in several diseases, given their involvement in extracellular matrix degradation and cell motility. In lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a pulmonary rare disease, MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been detected at high levels in serum and urine. LAM cells, characterized by a mutation in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)1 or TSC2, promote cystic lung destruction. The role of MMPs in invasive and destructive LAM cell capability has not yet been fully understood. We evaluated MMP-2 and MMP-7 expression, secretion, and activity in primary LAM/TSC cells that bear a TSC2 germline mutation and an epigenetic modification and depend on epidermal growth factor (EGF) for survival. 5-azacytidine restored tuberin expression with a reduction of MMP-2 and MMP-7 levels and inhibits motility, similarly to rapamycin and anti-EGFR antibody. Both drugs reduced MMP-2 and MMP-7 secretion and activity during wound healing and decreased their expression in lung nodules of a LAM mouse model. In LAM/TSC cells, MMP-2 and MMP-7 are dependent on tuberin expression, cellular adhesion, and migration. MMPs appears sensitive to rapamycin and anti-EGFR antibody only during cellular migration. Our data indicate a complex and differential modulation of MMP-2 and MMP-7 in LAM/TSC cells, likely critical for lung parenchyma remodeling during LAM progression.

2.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 50(11): 327-335, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675433

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common microbial cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Currently, there are no available models of severe pneumococcal pneumonia in mechanically ventilated animals to mimic clinical conditions of critically ill patients. We studied endogenous pulmonary flora in 4 healthy pigs and in an additional 10 pigs in which we intra-bronchially instilled S. pneumoniae serotype 19 A, characterized by its resistance to penicillin, macrolides and tetracyclines. The pigs underwent ventilation for 72 h. All pigs that were not challenged with S. pneumoniae completed the 72-h study, whereas 30% of infected pigs did not. At 24 h, we clinically confirmed pneumonia in the infected pigs; upon necropsy, we sampled lung tissue for microbiological/histological confirmation of pneumococcal pneumonia. In control pigs, Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly encountered pathogens, and their lung tissue mean ± s.e.m. concentration was 7.94 ± 20 c.f.u./g. In infected pigs, S. pneumoniae was found in the lungs of all pigs (mean ± s.e.m. pulmonary concentration of 1.26 × 105 ± 2 × 102 c.f.u./g). Bacteremia was found in 50% of infected pigs. Pneumococcal pneumonia was confirmed in all infected pigs at 24 h. Pneumonia was associated with thrombocytopenia, an increase in prothrombin time, cardiac output and vasopressor dependency index and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance. Upon necropsy, microbiological/histological pneumococcal pneumonia was confirmed in 8 of 10 pigs. We have therefore developed a novel model of penicillin- and macrolide-resistant pneumococcal pneumonia in mechanically ventilated pigs with bacteremia and severe hemodynamic compromise. The model could prove valuable for appraising the pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia, the effects associated with macrolide resistance and the outcomes related to the use of new diagnostic strategies and antibiotic or complementary therapies.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Pneumocócica , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/veterinária , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Suínos
3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 605909, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981713

RESUMO

Background: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis can develop in a sporadic form (S-LAM) or in women with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes potentially involved in cystic lung destruction, and in the process of migration of LAM cells. The aim of the study was to explore the role of MMP-2 and MMP-7, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -C and -D in women with LAM, including patients with minor pulmonary disease (i.e., <10 lung cysts), and TSC with or without LAM. Methods: We evaluated 50 patients: 13 individuals affected by S-LAM, 20 with TSC-LAM, of whom six with minor pulmonary disease, and 17 with TSC without pulmonary involvement. Sixteen healthy women were used as controls. Results: MMP-2 resulted higher in LAM compared to healthy volunteers, and TSC patients (p = 0.040). MMP-7 was higher in TSC-LAM patient, with even greater values in patients with TSC-LAM minor pulmonary disease, than in S-LAM patients, and in controls (p = 0.001). VEGF-D level was lower than 800 pg/mL in all healthy controls and resulted higher in S-LAM and TSC-LAM than in TSC patients and controls (p < 0.001). VEGF-C values were not statistically different in the study population (p = 0.354). The area under ROC curves (AUCs) of MMP-2, and MMP-7 for predicting LAM diagnosis were of 0.756 ± 0.079 (p = 0.004), and 0.828 ± 0.060 (p < 0.001), respectively. Considering only patients with TSC, the AUCs for MMP-2, and MMP-7 in predicting LAM were 0.694 ± 0.088 (p = 0.044), and 0.713 ± 0.090 (p = 0.027), respectively. Conclusions: Our data suggest that MMP-2 and MMP-7 could be promising biomarkers for LAM diagnosis.

4.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808904

RESUMO

Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea is essential for patients' management. We investigated the feasibility and ability of forced oscillation techniques (FOT) in distinguishing between acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD), and acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in a clinical emergency setting. We enrolled 49 patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) for dyspnea and acute respiratory failure for AECOPD, or ADHF, and 11 healthy subjects. All patients were able to perform bedside FOT measurement. Patients with AECOPD showed a significantly higher inspiratory resistance at 5 Hz, Xrs5 (179% of predicted, interquartile range, IQR 94-224 vs. 100 IQR 67-149; p = 0.019), and a higher inspiratory reactance at 5 Hz (151%, IQR 74-231 vs. 57 IQR 49-99; p = 0.005) than patients with ADHF. Moreover, AECOPD showed higher heterogeneity of ventilation (respiratory system resistance difference at 5 and 19 Hz, Rrs5-19: 1.49 cmH2O/(L/s), IQR 1.03-2.16 vs. 0.44 IQR 0.22-0.76; p = 0.030), and a higher percentage of flow limited breaths compared to ADHF (10%, IQR 0-100 vs. 0 IQR 0-12; p = 0.030). FOT, which resulted in a suitable tool to be used in the ED setting, has the ability to identify distinct mechanical properties of the respiratory system in AECOPD and ADHF.

5.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 127, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complicated parapneumonic effusions and empyema represent advanced stages of pleural infections and are characterized by a high mortality. Medical thoracoscopy is a safe and minimally invasive endoscopic technique prescribed to treat severe pleural infections. However, only a few studies evaluated its success rate. A systematic review of observational studies was performed to assess the efficacy of medical thoracoscopy in patients with complicated parapneumonic effusions and empyema, as well as its predictive factors. METHODS: A search of the scientific evidence was carried out using PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Articles describing observational studies on medical thoracoscopy in patients with parapneumonic effusions and empyema were selected. RESULTS: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled treatment success rate of thoracoscopy was 85% (95% CI 80.0-90.0%; I2: 61.8%) when used as first-line intervention or after failure of chest tube. The pooled complication rate was 9.0% (95% CI 6.0-14.0%; I2: 58.8%). A pooled difference of treatment success of 9.0% (95% CI 1.0-18.0%) was found when post-thoracoscopy intra-pleural fibrinolysis was prescribed. Pooled success rate was higher in cases with pleural fluid culture negativity (pooled difference: 14.0%; 95% CI 4.0-24.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Medical thoracoscopy is effective and safe when prescribed for complicated parapneumonic effusions and empyema. Bacteriological negativity of pleural effusion specimens and administration of adjuvant intra-pleural fibrinolysis after the procedure are associated with a higher success rate.


Assuntos
Empiema Pleural/terapia , Derrame Pleural/terapia , Toracoscopia , Exsudatos e Transudatos/microbiologia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(11): 2479-2485, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804431

RESUMO

Individuals with comorbidities are at higher risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and worse outcome, but little information has been available about patients with genetic diseases and COVID-19. This study aims at evaluating the presence and outcome of COVID-19 in a cohort of Italian patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and/or lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), and at reviewing the possible effects of mTOR inhibitors on SARS-CoV-2 infection. We included 102 unselected individuals with a diagnosis of TSC and/or LAM assessed between January 1, 2020 and April 24, 2020 (29% children, 71% adults). Twenty-six patients were on mTOR inhibitors. Demographic data, TSC manifestations, presence, and outcomes in individuals with confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated. Health status and outcomes of all patients on mTOR inhibitors were assessed. One patient with severe TSC had polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, was admitted to ICU, and died. Nine additional patients either met the definition of suspect case or presented with at least two of the most common symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. All recovered fully. None of the patients treated with mTOR inhibitors for their underlying comorbidities was diagnosed with COVID-19, and those who showed suspicious respiratory symptoms recovered fully. This cohort study provides preliminary information on COVID-19 in people with TSC in Italy and suggests feasibility to systematically evaluate the role of mTOR inhibitors in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Linfangioleiomiomatose/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Esclerose Tuberosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
8.
Respir Med ; 168: 105993, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469709

RESUMO

Lymphangioleiomyiomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease affecting women in childbearing age. A sporadic form (S-LAM) affecting previously healthy women, and a form associated with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC-LAM) are described. Some data suggested that TSC-LAM could be a milder disease compared to S-LAM. To investigate whether the different disease behavior is real or due to overdiagnosis of screened TSC women, we compared the natural history of S-LAM and TSC-LAM in patients with incidental diagnosis. Clinical, and functional data from 52 patients (23 with S-LAM and 29 with TSC-LAM) were analysed. At diagnosis functional impairment was mild without differences between groups [FEV1 % pred was 97% (88-105) and 94% (82-106) in TSC-LAM and S-LAM, respectively, p = 0.125]. Patients with S-LAM had less renal angiomyolipoma, and lower VEGF-D serum levels than TSC-LAM. There was no difference in the baseline extent of pulmonary cysts on CT scan and no difference in yearly rate of functional decline between TSC-LAM, and S-LAM patients [e.g. yearly rate of decline of FEV1 % pred was -0.51 (-1.59-2.24) and -0.90 (-1.92--0.42) in TSC-LAM and S-LAM, respectively, p = 0.265]. In conclusion, the natural history of TSC-LAM and S-LAM, when a potential selection bias due to screening in the latter group is balanced, is similar. Our study suggests that the prevalence of S-LAM can be significantly underestimated due to a tendency to diagnosis more frequently patients with more severe impairment, without identifying several ones with asymptomatic disease.


Assuntos
Linfangioleiomiomatose/diagnóstico , Linfangioleiomiomatose/etiologia , Esclerose Tuberosa/diagnóstico , Esclerose Tuberosa/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Linfangioleiomiomatose/epidemiologia , Linfangioleiomiomatose/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Doenças Raras , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Esclerose Tuberosa/epidemiologia , Esclerose Tuberosa/fisiopatologia
9.
Multidiscip Respir Med ; 15(1): 476, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153779

RESUMO

Background: The idea of phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has evolved in the last decades, and the importance of peculiar treatment strategies has now been acknowledged. Although dyspnea and exercise limitation are hallmarks of COPD, this aspect has never been fully explored in literature in terms of disease phenotype. The aim of the present study was to explore the relevance of clinical COPD phenotypes on exercise ventilation and maximal capacity. Methods: In this observational cohort retrospective study we analyzed the data of 50 COPD patients who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise test, categorized as emphysematous (n=29), and non-emphysematous (n=21) according to a previously validated model. Results: We found a significant difference in terms of VE/VCO2 slope (median values 32.4 vs 28.0, p=0.015) and VE/VCO2 ratio at nadir (median values 37 vs. 33, p=0.004), which resulted higher in emphysematous patients, who also presented lower PETCO2 values (median values 32.6 vs 35.6, p=0.008). In a subgroup of 31 tests which met the maximality criteria, emphysematous patients presented a significantly lower work rate at peak (median value 51 vs 72% predicted, p=0.016), and showed a lower peak oxygen consumption, although at the limit of significance (median values of 63 vs 85 % predicted, p=0.051). Conclusions: This study extends our knowledge about the characterization of the COPD phenotypical expression of disease, showing that patients affected by emphysema are more prone to ventilatory inefficiency during exercise, and that this is likely to be an important cause of their overall reduced exercise capacity.

10.
Respir Med ; 157: 14-20, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470185

RESUMO

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare diffuse lung cystic disease (DLCD) that occurs sporadically or in association with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). The diagnostic pathway is tracked on the identification of the disease hallmarks on chest High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT). Aim of this review is to discuss the thoracic HRCT pathognomonic features, essential to rule out other DLCD. It also examines the new evidences emerging from Computed Tomography (CT) quantitative studies that, by demonstrating a specific cysts distribution and a pathological aspect of the parenchyma near the cysts, could improve our understanding of this rare disorder and supply pulmonologists with a new tool for a more appropriate long-term management. Finally, the contribution of other image techniques as low dose chest CT, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Ultrasound (US) is discussed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Linfangioleiomiomatose/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Tuberosa/complicações , Cistos/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Esclerose Tuberosa/patologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(9): 1482-1493, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The correct management of immunocompromised patients with pneumonia is debated. We evaluated the prevalence, risk factors, and characteristics of immunocompromised patients coming from the community with pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of an international, multicenter study enrolling adult patients coming from the community with pneumonia and hospitalized in 222 hospitals in 54 countries worldwide. Risk factors for immunocompromise included AIDS, aplastic anemia, asplenia, hematological cancer, chemotherapy, neutropenia, biological drug use, lung transplantation, chronic steroid use, and solid tumor. RESULTS: At least 1 risk factor for immunocompromise was recorded in 18% of the 3702 patients enrolled. The prevalences of risk factors significantly differed across continents and countries, with chronic steroid use (45%), hematological cancer (25%), and chemotherapy (22%) the most common. Among immunocompromised patients, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) pathogens were the most frequently identified, and prevalences did not differ from those in immunocompetent patients. Risk factors for immunocompromise were independently associated with neither Pseudomonas aeruginosa nor non-community-acquired bacteria. Specific risk factors were independently associated with fungal infections (odds ratio for AIDS and hematological cancer, 15.10 and 4.65, respectively; both P = .001), mycobacterial infections (AIDS; P = .006), and viral infections other than influenza (hematological cancer, 5.49; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could be considered by clinicians in prescribing empiric antibiotic therapy for CAP in immunocompromised patients. Patients with AIDS and hematological cancer admitted with CAP may have higher prevalences of fungi, mycobacteria, and noninfluenza viruses.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Anemia Aplástica/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Micoses/epidemiologia , Neutropenia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/microbiologia , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , América/epidemiologia , Anemia Aplástica/complicações , Anemia Aplástica/imunologia , Anemia Aplástica/microbiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/microbiologia , Humanos , Transplante de Pulmão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/etiologia , Micoses/imunologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Neutropenia/complicações , Neutropenia/imunologia , Neutropenia/microbiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/etiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/imunologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
12.
Respir Care ; 64(7): 760-770, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients on mechanical ventilation, lung hyperinflation is often performed to reverse atelectasis and clear retained mucus. We evaluated the effects of manual hyperinflation and ventilator hyperinflation on mucus clearance, gas exchange, pulmonary mechanics, and hemodynamics. METHODS: Six mechanically ventilated pigs with severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia randomly received either 12 manual hyperinflation breaths over a period of 2 min (through a gradual manual compression of a resuscitation bag within 4 s to achieve 40 cm H2O of airway pressure), or 12 ventilator hyperinflation over 2 min to achieve the same ventilatory end points as in manual hyperinflation. Mucus clearance rate was measured through fluoroscopic tracking of tracheal markers. Prior to each maneuver and 15 min thereafter, we assessed arterial and mixed gas exchange, pulmonary mechanics, and hemodynamics. RESULTS: Both manual hyperinflation and ventilator hyperinflation significantly decreased inspiratory flow by approximately 16 L/min (P < .001) and increased peak expiratory flow by roughly 44 L/min (P < .001). The median (interquartile range) mucus clearance rate was 1.31 (0.84-2.30) prior to the interventions, and 0.70 (0.00-2.58) and 0.65 (0.45-1.47) during manual hyperinflation and ventilator hyperinflation, respectively (P = .09). Hyperinflations, whether delivered manually or through the ventilator, did not significantly modify pulmonary or hemodynamic parameters. CONCLUSIONS: In an animal model of severe P. aeruginosa pneumonia, neither manual hyperinflation nor ventilator hyperinflation improved mucus clearance. If confirmed in comprehensive clinical experimentations, these findings should promote reappraisal of indications for both manual hyperinflation and ventilator hyperinflation as a therapeutic technique for mucus clearance and atelectasis reversal.


Assuntos
Insuflação/métodos , Pneumonia/complicações , Infecções por Pseudomonas/fisiopatologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar , Respiração Artificial , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Depuração Mucociliar , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/terapia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Mecânica Respiratória , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Eur J Intern Med ; 60: 54-70, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Who should be tested for viruses in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), prevalence and risk factors for viral CAP are still debated. We evaluated the frequency of viral testing, virus prevalence, risk factors and treatment coverage with oseltamivir in patients admitted for CAP. METHODS: Secondary analysis of GLIMP, an international, multicenter, point-prevalence study of hospitalized adults with CAP. Testing frequency, prevalence of viral CAP and treatment with oseltamivir were assessed among patients who underwent a viral swab. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to evaluate risk factors. RESULTS: 553 (14.9%) patients with CAP underwent nasal swab. Viral CAP was diagnosed in 157 (28.4%) patients. Influenza virus was isolated in 80.9% of cases. Testing frequency and viral CAP prevalence were inhomogeneous across the participating centers. Obesity (OR 1.59, 95%CI: 1.01-2.48; p = 0.043) and need for invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 1.62, 95%CI: 1.02-2.56; p = 0.040) were independently associated with viral CAP. Prevalence of empirical treatment with oseltamivir was 5.1%. CONCLUSION: In an international scenario, testing frequency for viruses in CAP is very low. The most common cause of viral CAP is Influenza virus. Obesity and need for invasive ventilation represent independent risk factors for viral CAP. Adherence to recommendations for treatment with oseltamivir is poor.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Internacionalidade , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 677, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empirical antibiotic coverage for atypical pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has long been debated, mainly because of a lack of epidemiological data. We aimed to assess both testing for atypical pathogens and their prevalence in hospitalized patients with CAP worldwide, especially in relation with disease severity. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the GLIMP database, an international, multicentre, point-prevalence study of adult patients admitted for CAP in 222 hospitals across 6 continents in 2015, was performed. The study evaluated frequency of testing for atypical pathogens, including L. pneumophila, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and their prevalence. Risk factors for testing and prevalence for atypical pathogens were assessed through univariate analysis. RESULTS: Among 3702 CAP patients 1250 (33.8%) underwent at least one test for atypical pathogens. Testing varies greatly among countries and its frequency was higher in Europe than elsewhere (46.0% vs. 12.7%, respectively, p < 0.0001). Detection of L. pneumophila urinary antigen was the most common test performed worldwide (32.0%). Patients with severe CAP were less likely to be tested for both atypical pathogens considered together (30.5% vs. 35.0%, p = 0.009) and specifically for legionellosis (28.3% vs. 33.5%, p = 0.003) than the rest of the population. Similarly, L. pneumophila testing was lower in ICU patients. At least one atypical pathogen was isolated in 62 patients (4.7%), including M. pneumoniae (26/251 patients, 10.3%), L. pneumophila (30/1186 patients, 2.5%), and C. pneumoniae (8/228 patients, 3.5%). Patients with CAP due to atypical pathogens were significantly younger, showed less cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic comorbidities in comparison to adult patients hospitalized due to non-atypical pathogen CAP. CONCLUSIONS: Testing for atypical pathogens in patients admitted for CAP in poorly standardized in real life and does not mirror atypical prevalence in different settings. Further evidence on the impact of atypical pathogens, expecially in the low-income countries, is needed to guidelines implementation.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/microbiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Geografia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Legionelose/epidemiologia , Legionelose/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
15.
ERJ Open Res ; 4(2)2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796391

RESUMO

We tested the hypothesis that dynamic hyperinflation develops in severe asthmatic subjects during exercise. Changes in inspiratory capacity (IC) were measured during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in severe asthmatic subjects compared with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subjects with a similar degree of bronchial obstruction. We assessed whether changes in IC were associated with changes in dyspnoea perception. 27 severe asthmatic subjects (10 males and 17 females) and 43 COPD subjects (35 males and eight females) were recruited. The two groups performed similarly in the 6MWT (p=0.90). At the end of the test, the Borg score increased significantly in both groups (mean difference: for asthmatic subjects 1.7±1.6; p<0.0001; for COPD subjects 3.1±1.9; p<0.0001). IC measured at the beginning of 6MWT was not different between groups (2.25±0.47 L in asthmatic subjects versus 2.38±0.60 L in COPD subjects; p=0.32) and decreased in both groups (mean difference: for asthmatic subjects 0.160 L; p=0.02; for COPD subjects 0.164 L; p<0.0001). However, changes in IC were significantly associated with changes in the Borg score in the COPD group (r2=0.17; p=0.006), but not in the asthma group (r2=0.06; p=0.20). In severe asthmatic subjects, IC significantly drops during the 6MWT to the same extent as COPD subjects with a similar degree of lung impairment, indicating the development of dynamic hyperinflation. Contrary to COPD, in asthmatic subjects the occurrence of dynamic hyperinflation was not associated with changes in dyspnoea perception.

16.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(7): 403-410, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432982

RESUMO

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a multisystemic condition caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, but a pathogenic variant is not identified in up to 10% of the patients. The aim of this study was to delineate the phenotype of pediatric and adult patients with a definite clinical diagnosis of TSC and no mutation identified in TSC1 or TSC2. We collected molecular and clinical data of 240 patients with TSC, assessing over 50 variables. We compared the phenotype of the homogeneous group of individuals with No Mutation Identified (NMI) with that of TSC patients with a TSC1 and TSC2 pathogenic variant. 9.17% of individuals were classified as NMI. They were diagnosed at an older age (p = 0.001), had more frequent normal cognition (p < 0.001) and less frequent epilepsy (p = 0.010), subependymal nodules (p = 0.022) and giant cell astrocytomas (p = 0.008) than patients with TSC2 pathogenic variants. NMI individuals showed more frequent bilateral and larger renal angiomyolipomas (p = 0.001; p = 0.003) and pulmonary involvement (trend) than patients with TSC1 pathogenic variants. Only one NMI individual had intellectual disability. None presented with a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Other medical problems not typical of TSC were found in 42.86%, without a recurrent pattern of abnormalities. Other TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders and drug-resistance in epilepsy were equally frequent in the three groups. This study provides a systematic clinical characterization of patients with TSC and facilitates the delineation of a distinctive phenotype indicative of NMI patients, with important implications for surveillance.


Assuntos
Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa , Adulto Jovem
17.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 27(1): 51, 2017 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28883469

RESUMO

Factors predicting prescriptions of triple therapy were investigated in a large group of general practitioners in Italy. In the population treated by identified general practitioners, a cohort of newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients was extracted from IMS Health Longitudinal Database during the period 2010-2013. From the diagnosis, 1-year follow-up was evaluated. Thirty-two thousand forty-six newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients were evaluated (57.7% male, mean age 67 years). During 2 years prior to diagnosis less than 13% of patients were requested with a pulmonology evaluation and less than 5% with a spirometry; 65.1% cases were prescribed with a respiratory drug, which in 9.6% of cases was inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting ß2-agonist fixed-dose combination. Two thousand and twenty eight patients (6.3% of the newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients) were treated with triple therapy during the first year of follow-up, whose 858 (42.3%) starting immediately, and 762 (37.6%) following an initial treatment with inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting ß2-agonist fixed-dose combination. Being older, being requested with pulmonologist evaluation or spirometry, being prescribed with a inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting ß2-agonist fixed-dose combination at diagnosis resulted independent predictors of triple therapy use. CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE: ENSURING CORRECT PRESCRIPTIONS FOR EARLY-STAGE DISEASE: An improved education program for doctors promoting correct use of medication for chronic lung disease is needed in Italy. Current guidelines state that inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) should be reserved for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but it appears that doctors do not always follow this advice. Fabiano Di Marco, at San Paolo Hospital-Università degli Studi di Milano, and co-workers analyzed data from 32,046 COPD patients newly-diagnosed by family doctors in Italy between 2010 and 2013. When the researchers followed up on patients after 1 year, 2028 (6.3%) of newly-diagnosed patients were being treated with triple inhaled therapy incorporating ICSs-42% of these patients had started triple therapy immediately upon diagnosis. Being an older male and having been prescribed with a ICS/LABA FDC at diagnosis were strong predictors of triple therapy use within 1 year from the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Clínicos Gerais , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Espirometria
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 17(1): 107, 2017 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis/primary biliary cirrhosis overlap syndrome, lymphangioleiomyomatosis/tuberous sclerosis complex (LAM-TSC), and sarcoidosis are three rare diseases. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first description of a patient with the coexistence of these three diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old woman affected by LAM-TSC and primary biliary cirrosis/autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome. During her follow up a high resolution chest CT scan (HRTC) confirmed the presence of both multiple cysts and micronodular opacities consistent with multifocal micronodular pneumocytes hyperlasia (MMPH), and revealed multiple hilar-mediastinal symmetrical lymphadenopathies suggestive of sarcoidosis. Simultaneously, subcutaneous nodules appeared on her forearm bilaterally. Cutaneous biopsy showed granulomatous dermatitis with sarcoid-like granulomas. A diagnosis of stage I pulmonary sarcoidosis was made. No treatment for sarcoidosis was initiated since the patient had neither systemic involvement, nor respiratory impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of more than one rare disease should challenge the concept of a potential common underlying mechanism, since the a priori probability of the concomitant presence of different conditions with different pathogenic mechanisms - especially if rare diseases - is low. We speculate that the dysregulation of the pathway involving mTOR and MAPK and their interaction might play a role in the pathogenesis of other diseases, including sarcoidosis.


Assuntos
Hepatite Autoimune/complicações , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Linfangioleiomiomatose/complicações , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/complicações , Esclerose Tuberosa/complicações , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfangioleiomiomatose/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Esclerose Tuberosa/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Respir Med ; 127: 7-13, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28502420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The need for additional research on symptomatic smokers with normal spirometry has been recently emphasized. Albeit not meeting criteria for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis, symptomatic smokers may experience activity limitation, evidence of airway disease, and exacerbations. We, therefore, evaluated whether symptomatic smokers with borderline spirometry (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio between 5th to 20th percentile of predicted values) have pulmonary function abnormalities at rest and ventilatory constraints during exercise. METHODS: 48 subjects (aged 60 ± 8 years, mean ± SD, 73% males, 16 healthy, and 17 symptomatic smokers) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), body plethysmography, nitrogen single-breath washout test (N2SBW), lung diffusion for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and forced oscillation technique (FOT). RESULTS: Compared to healthy subjects, symptomatic smokers showed: 1) reduced breathing reserve (36 ± 17 vs. 49 ± 12%, P = 0.050); 2) exercise induced dynamic hyperinflation (-0.20 ± 0.17 vs. -0.03 ± 0.21 L, P = 0.043); 3) higher residual volume (158 ± 22 vs. 112 ± 22%, P < 0.001); 4) phase 3 slope at N2SBW (4.7 ± 2.1 vs. 1.4 ± 0.6%, P < 0.001); 5) no significant differences in DLCO and FOT results. CONCLUSIONS: In smokers with borderline spirometry, CPET and second-line pulmonary function tests may detect obstructive pattern. These subjects should be referred for second line testing, to obtain a diagnosis, or at least to clarify the mechanisms underlying symptoms. Whether the natural history of these patients is similar to COPD, and they deserve a similar therapeutic approach is worth investigating.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Espirometria/métodos , Idoso , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Oscilação da Parede Torácica/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Pletismografia Total/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Capacidade Vital/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 44: 83-87, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28341462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma considerably impairs patients' quality of life and increases healthcare costs. Severity, morbidity, and degree of disease control are the major drivers of its clinical and economic impact. National scientific societies are required to monitor the application of international guidelines and to adopt strategies to improve disease control and better allocate resources. AIM: to provide a detailed picture of the characteristics of asthma patients and modalities of asthma management by specialists in Italy and to develop recommendations for the daily management of asthma in a specialist setting. METHOD: A quantitative research program was implemented. Data were collected using an ad hoc questionnaire developed by a group of specialists selected by the Italian Pneumology Society/Italian Respiratory Society. RESULTS: The records of 557 patients were analyzed. In the next few years, specialists are expected to focus their activity patients with more severe disease and will be responsible for selection of patients for personalized biological therapy; however, only 20% of patients attending Italian specialist surgery can be considered severe. In 84.4% of cases, the visit was a follow-up visit requested in 82.2% of cases by the specialist him/herself. The Asthma Control Test is used only in 65% of patients. When available, a significant association has been observed between the test score and asthma control as judged by the physician, although concordance was only moderate (κ = 0.68). Asthma was considered uncontrolled by the specialist managing the case in 29.1% of patients; nevertheless, treatment was not stepped up in uncontrolled or partly controlled patients (modified in only 37.2% of patients). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this survey support re-evaluation of asthma management by Italian specialists. More resources should be made available for the initial visit and for more severely ill patients. In addition, more extensive use should be made of validated tools, and available drugs should be used more appropriately.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Especialização , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
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