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1.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671003

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to assess the diagnostic relevance of CD4/CD8 ratio in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the etiological diagnosis work-up of uveitis.Methods: We consecutively included patients who were referred to our department for the diagnostic workup of intermediate and/or posterior uveitis. Etiological diagnoses were established in a blind manner regarding CD4/CD8 ratio.Results: Fifty-two patients were included. A diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis was made in 15 (29%) patients, 21% had another determined diagnosis while 50% remained of undetermined origin. Median CD4/CD8 ratio in CSF was 4.57 (IQR 3.39-5.47) in ocular sarcoidosis, 1.74 (1.60-3.18) in uveitis due to other determined cause (P = .008), and 2.83 (2.34-3.54) in those with uveitis of undetermined origin (P = .007). CD4/CD8 ratio >3.23 was associated with a diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis.Conclusion: Determination of CD4/CD8 ratio in CSF can be useful for diagnosis work-up since a CD4/CD8 ratio >3.23 in CSF is associated with ocular sarcoidosis.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5120, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719529

RESUMO

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown cause. 30% of patients have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Here, we describe a genome-wide association study in 676 EGPA cases and 6809 controls, that identifies 4 EGPA-associated loci through conventional case-control analysis, and 4 additional associations through a conditional false discovery rate approach. Many variants are also associated with asthma and six are associated with eosinophil count in the general population. Through Mendelian randomisation, we show that a primary tendency to eosinophilia contributes to EGPA susceptibility. Stratification by ANCA reveals that EGPA comprises two genetically and clinically distinct syndromes. MPO+ ANCA EGPA is an eosinophilic autoimmune disease sharing certain clinical features and an HLA-DQ association with MPO+ ANCA-associated vasculitis, while ANCA-negative EGPA may instead have a mucosal/barrier dysfunction origin. Four candidate genes are targets of therapies in development, supporting their exploration in EGPA.

4.
Autoimmun Rev ; : 102431, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734403

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated myopathy (SScAM) treatment. Herein we evaluated the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in SScAM. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with SScAM in the Internal medicine department of Cochin University Hospital between 1993 and 2017. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were included comprising 18 (34.6%) with limited SSc and 34 (65.4%) with diffuse SSc. SScAM occurred at a median [interquartile range (IQR)] time of 1 month [0-15] after SSc diagnosis. Thirty-four patients (65.4%) had muscle weakness, 28 (53.8%) had myalgia and 24 (46.2%) had dysphagia. Fifty patients (96.2%) had increased creatine kinase, 22/26 (84.6%) had myopathic electromyography, 10/12 (83.3%) had a high intensity signal of girdle muscles on MRI and 49/50 (98%) had abnormal muscle biopsy. Eighteen (34.6%) patients received IVIg. Severe adverse events occurred in 3/18 (16.7%) patients. When compared to patients who did not receive IVIg, patients who received IVIg had a significantly higher maximal corticosteroid (CS) dose ever, a greater decrease of CS at 3 months, and a lower CS dose at one year and at the end of follow up. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the benefit of IVIg as adjunctive therapy, with an acceptable tolerance profile, and supports its use as a CS-sparing agent, in SScAM.

5.
J Autoimmun ; : 102338, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (ILD) is rarely associated with antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). This study focused on the outcomes of ILD patients with associated AAV (AAV-ILD). METHODS: AAV-ILD (cases: microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) or granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) with ILD) were compared to AAV patients without ILD (controls). ILD was defined as a usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) or non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) pattern. Two controls were matched to each case for age (>or ≤65 years), ANCA status (PR3-or MPO-positive) and creatininemia (≥or <150 µmol/L). RESULTS: Sixty-two cases (89% MPO-ANCA+) were included. Median age at AAV diagnosis was 66 years. ILD (63% UIP), was diagnosed before (52%) or simultaneously (39%) with AAV. Cases versus 124 controls less frequently had systemic vasculitis symptoms. One-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates, respectively, were: 96.7%, 80% and 66% for cases versus 93.5%, 89.6% and 83.8% for controls (p = 0.008). Multivariate analyses retained age >65 years (hazard ratio (HR) 4.54; p < 0.001), alveolar haemorrhage (HR 2.25; p = 0.019) and UIP (HR 2.73; p = 0.002), but not immunosuppressant use, as factors independently associated with shorter survival. CONCLUSION: For AAV-ILD patients, only UIP was associated with poorer prognosis. Immunosuppressants did not improve the AAV-ILD prognosis. But in analogy to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, anti-fibrosing agents might be useful and should be assessed in AAV-ILD patients with a UIP pattern.

6.
Intern Emerg Med ; 14(8): 1193-1197, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388893

RESUMO

The European Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) study group first gathered in Firenze in December 2018. The discussion was centred around the clinical and therapeutic needs in EGPA which still remain unmet. Indeed, EGPA is a puzzling and rare disease which shares clinical features with other anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAVs) and hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs). Some of the recommendations published in 2015 are based on data derived from EGPA-related diseases, rather than from EGPA itself, and therefore need to be updated. Thus, the aim of the meeting was to stimulate ongoing research, to promote collaborative European studies and to define the main issues on which future studies should be focused. Current fields of research on EGPA include potential serological biomarkers of disease activity and of specific organ involvement, possible links between different genetic variants and clinical phenotypes, and new therapeutic perspectives. Herein, we give an overview of the meeting with the goal to stimulate an international collaboration and new points of discussion.

8.
Eur Radiol ; 29(12): 6708-6716, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study a muscle-to-muscle standardised uptake value (SUV) ratio with FDG-PET/CT (FDG-PET) as a marker for the detection of disease activity in dermatomyositis (DM). METHODS: Patients with DM (n = 24) who met the European Neuro-Muscular Centre diagnostic criteria were retrospectively identified over a 3-year period through a national survey. Muscle biopsy was performed in all patients. Maximum SUV was measured in proximal muscles (SUVPROX) that had the highest radiotracer uptake on visual grading as well as in the musculus longissimus thoracis (SUVMLT), whereas mean SUV was measured for the liver (SUVLIV). Muscle-to-liver SUV ratios for either muscle group were compared and a SUVPROX/SUVMLT ratio was calculated. SUVPROX/SUVMLT of DM patients were compared with age- and sex-matched control subjects (n = 24) with melanoma who had received FDG-PET scans. RESULTS: DM patients presented with proximal and symmetrical muscle uptake. Differences in SUVPROX/SUVLIV and SUVMLT/SUVLIV ratios in DM subjects were significant (p < 0.001). SUVPROX/SUVMLT ratios in DM and their controls also differed significantly (p = 0.0012). The SUVPROX/SUVMLT ratio threshold between DM subjects and controls was 1.73 with a sensitivity of 50% (CI95%, 29.1 to 70.9%) and specificity at 83.3% (CI95%, 62.6 to 95.3%). When amyopathic DM patients were removed from the analysis, specificity was increased to 95% (CI95%, 75.1 to 99.9%) with a likelihood ratio of 10 and an AUC of 83.4% (CI95%, 71.4 to 95.4%). CONCLUSION: A muscle-to-muscle SUVPROX/SUVMLT ratio with a cut-off value of 1.73 in FDG-PET imaging might serve as a non-invasive marker to determine disease activity in dermatomyositis. KEY POINTS: • [18F]-FDG PET-scanner standardised uptake value (SUV) could reflect disease activity in dermatomyositis (DM). • A ratio of SUV in proximal muscles (SUVPROX) to SUV in musculus longissimus thoracis (SUVMLT) could be used to determine active DM. • Active disease is suspected for SUV PROX /SUV MLT ratios greater than 1.73.

9.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 117(2): 137-143, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rituximab was proven superior to azathioprine for maintenance treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). The high cost of rituximab might, however, limit its routine use. This study determined the cost-effectiveness of intravenous rituximab (5 x 500 mg until month 18), versus oral azathioprine (2 mg/kg per day, gradually decreased between month 12 and 22), for maintenance treatment of patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, or renal-limited vasculitis, aged 18-75. METHODS: We performed a single-trial based economic evaluation. MAINRITSAN was a 28-month multicentre, prospective, randomised, controlled open-label trial. We estimated the cost of healthcare resources and quality of life using prospectively collected data. Healthcare costs were estimated from the perspective of the French Social Health Insurance's perspective, using 2016 tariffs for reimbursement. Utilities were derived from Short Form 36 scores. We estimated total average cost, incremental cost per incremental relapse averted and per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess uncertainty over relapses, severe adverse events, discount rate, utility weights, time horizon and the cost of rituximab. Costs drivers were tested using a generalised linear model. RESULTS: Total average costs were €13,387 (€11,605-€15,646) and €10,217 (€7,567-12,949) in the rituximab and azathioprine groups respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was €12,824 per relapse averted and the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) €37,782 per QALY gained. Besides the unit cost of rituximab, the major cost drivers were relapses and severe adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance treatment by rituximab could be cost-effective for preventing relapses in patients with AAV.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos , Azatioprina/economia , Rituximab/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/economia , Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
10.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 117(2): 130-136, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular (CV) events are highly prevalent in systemic necrotising vasculitides (SNV). Visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT) ratio has been shown to be associated with CV events in various diseases. We aimed to assess the relevance of abdominal adipose tissue measurement to predict major CV events (MCVEs) in SNV. METHODS: Patients with SNV were successively included in a longitudinal study assessing MCVEs and other sequelae. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was performed to evaluate abdominal adipose tissue. Patients were prospectively followed for MCVEs, defined as myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke, arterial revascularisation and/or hospitalisation for or death from CV causes. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty consecutive SNV patients were included and analysed (54 males, mean age 53±18 years). High CV risk was found in 28 (23.3%) patients. In univariate analysis, age, male gender, VDI, VAT/SAT ratio and serum troponin level were significantly associated with high CV risk, whereas age and VAT/SAT ratio remained independently associated with high CV risk. Variables associated with high tertile of VAT/SAT ratio included age and metabolic risk factors. After median follow-up of 42 months, 19 (16%) patients experienced MCVEs. Hazard ratios for incident MCVEs compared with 1st tertile of VAT/SAT ratio were 7.22 (1.02-51.3; p=0.048) and 9.90 (3.15-31.2; p=0.0002) in the 2nd and 3rd tertile, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal visceral adipose tissue is a reliable surrogate marker of CV risk and predicts incident MCVEs in SNV patients. Abdominal adipose tissue should be probably evaluated routinely in these patients to assess CV risk.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Vasculite Sistêmica/complicações , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Vasculite Sistêmica/metabolismo
12.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(12): 2107-2116, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In a previous controlled trial, 1-year adjunction of AZA to glucocorticoids (GC) for patients with non-severe, newly diagnosed eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) failed to lower remission failure, vasculitis relapse and isolated asthma/rhinosinus exacerbation rates, or cumulative GC use at month (M) 24. The aim of this study was to analyse longer-term outcomes to determine whether subsequent vasculitis relapse or isolated asthma/rhinosinus exacerbation (IARE) rates differed. METHODS: After M24, patients were followed prospectively, being treated based on physicians' best judgment. Flares and reasons for increased GC dose or immunosuppressant use were recorded, and reviewed according to randomization group to distinguish vasculitis relapses from IAREs according to EGPA Task Force recommendations. RESULTS: Fifty EGPA trial participants were followed for a median (interquartile range) of 6.3 (5.4-7.6) years; two (4%) died 11 months post-inclusion. By M24, vasculitis had relapsed in 21/49 (43%) patients and 14/50 (28%) had IAREs. Another patient died 4.8 years post-inclusion (infection). Among nine patients with subsequent vasculitis relapses, three had a major relapse and three had their first relapse after M24; among 25 patients with later IAREs, 17 occurred after M24. At 5 years, respective vasculitis relapse and IARE rates were 48% (95% CI 34.0, 62.6) and 56% (95% CI 41.7, 70.8), with no between-arm differences (P = 0.32 and 0.13). No entry clinical or biological parameter was associated with these outcomes during follow-up. CONCLUSION: These results confirmed that 1-year AZA and GC induction obtained good overall survival but no long-term benefit for non-severe EGPA patients. Vasculitis relapses, occurring mostly during the first 2 years, and IAREs, occurring throughout follow-up, require other preventive treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00647166.

13.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(7): 714-720, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age at onset of large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) is commonly used to distinguish giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TA). However, LVV between age 50 and 60 years may be difficult to classify. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study including LVV aged between 50 and 60 years at onset (LVV50-60, cases) and compared them to LVV aged over 60 years (LVV>60, controls). LVV was defined histologically and/or morphologically. Controls fulfilled ACR 1990 criteria for GCA or presented isolated aortitis. RESULTS: We included 183 LVV50-60 and 183 gender-matched LVV>60. LVV50-60 had more frequent peripheral limb manifestations (23 vs. 5%), and less frequent cephalic (73 vs. 90%) and ocular signs (17 vs. 27%) than LVV>60. Compared to LVV>60, CT angiography and PET/CT scan were more frequently abnormal in LVV50-60 (74 vs. 38%, and 90 vs. 72%, respectively), with aorta being more frequently involved (78 vs. 47%). By multivariate analysis, absence of cephalic symptoms, presence of peripheral limb ischemia and aorta involvement, and increased CRP level were significantly associated with LVV50-60 presentation compared to LVV>60. At last follow-up, compared to LVV>60, LVV50-60 received significantly more lines of treatment (2 vs. 1), more frequent biologics (12 vs. 3%), had more surgery (10 vs. 0%), and had higher prednisone dose (8.8 vs. 6.5 mg/d) at last follow-up, CONCLUSION: LVV onset between 50 and 60 years identifies a subset of patients with more frequent aorta and peripheral vascular involvement and more refractory disease compared to patients with LVV onset after 60.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico , Arterite de Células Gigantes/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Kidney Int ; 96(2): 397-408, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142442

RESUMO

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is an autoimmune vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) against proteinase 3 leading to kidney damage. Neutrophils from those patients have increased expression of membrane proteinase 3 during apoptosis. Here we examined whether neutrophils from patients with GPA have dysregulated protein expressions associated with apoptosis. A global proteomic analysis was performed comparing neutrophils from patients with GPA, with healthy individuals under basal conditions and during apoptosis. At disease onset, the cytosolic proteome of neutrophils of patients with GPA before treatment was significantly different from healthy controls, and this dysregulation was more pronounced following ex vivo apoptosis. Proteins involved in cell death/survival were altered in neutrophils of patients with GPA. Several proteins identified were PR3-binding partners involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells, namely calreticulin, annexin-A1 and phospholipid scramblase 1. These proteins form a platform at the membrane of apoptotic neutrophils in patients with GPA but not healthy individuals and this was associated with the clinical presentation of GPA. Thus, our study shows that neutrophils from patients with GPA have an intrinsic dysregulation in proteins involved in apoptotic cell clearance, which could contribute to the unabated inflammation and autoimmunity in GPA. Hence, harnessing these dysregulated pathways could lead to novel biomarkers and targeted therapeutic opportunities to treat kidney disease.

15.
Nephrol Ther ; 15 Suppl 1: S7-S12, 2019 04.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981399

RESUMO

The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal .

16.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(9): 1565-1573, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Orbital mass is a rare and sight-threatening manifestation of ANCA-associated vasculitides, which remains a therapeutic challenge. We aimed to describe the presentation, therapeutic management and outcome of ANCA-associated vasculitides-related orbital mass. METHODS: We conducted a French nationwide retrospective study of patients with orbital mass in the setting of ANCA-associated vasculitides according to ACR criteria and/or Chapel Hill Consensus Conference definitions. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients [33 women, median age 46 (range 7-90) years] were included. Fifty-six (95%) patients had granulomatosis with polyangiitis, two eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis and one microscopic polyangiitis. Orbital mass was unilateral in 47 (80%) cases, and seemed to develop from ENT involvement in most cases. Orbital mass biopsy was available in 32 (54%) patients, showing lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in 65%, fibrosis in 55%, granulomas in 48% and vasculitis in 36%. All patients but one received glucocorticoids as first-line therapy associated with immunosuppressive agents in 82%, mainly cyclophosphamide. Response to therapy was noted in 52% of patients treated with cyclophosphamide compared with 91% of those treated with rituximab. Twenty-seven (46%) patients required a second-line therapy because of relapse (59%) or refractory course (41%). Sequelae included visual impairment in 28%, with definitive blindness in 17%. Refractory course was associated with PR3-ANCA positivity, visual loss and contiguous pachymeningitis. CONCLUSION: Orbital mass is associated with refractory course and high frequency of sequelae, especially blindness. Refractory course is associated with PR3-ANCA positivity, visual loss and contiguous pachymeningitis.

17.
Autoimmun Rev ; 18(5): 493-500, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the ocular manifestations of patients with GPA, their treatment and outcome. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study performed at the National Referral Center for Vasculitis, Cochin Hospital, Paris (France), from January 2005 to December 2015. Among 308 patients with a new diagnosis of GPA in accordance with the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria and/or revised Chapel Hill nomenclature definitions, we identified those with ocular involvement and a subsequent follow up in our center. RESULTS: The prevalence of ocular involvement in our GPA series was 38.6%; 63 patients were analysed with a median follow-up of 50.5 months (IQR: 17.8-82.8). Scleritis (18 patients, 28.6%) and episcleritis (18 patients, 28.6%) were the most common ophthalmologic manifestations, followed by orbital disease (13 patients, 20.6%). Bilateral involvement and visual acuity loss was seen in 29.1% and 16.7% of patients, respectively. Ocular involvement was the first GPA manifestation in 9 patients (14.3%), concomitant with systemic manifestation in 36 (57.1%), and occurred only during follow-up in 18 (28.6%). The indication for GPA treatment was suggested by ocular involvement in 12 patients (19.0%), by systemic features in 40 (63.5%) and by both ocular and systemic involvement in 11 (17.5%). Remission of ocular involvement was achieved in 51 patients (80.9%). In the remaining 12 (19.1%), symptoms persisted or even worsened, finally leading to rituximab (RTX) therapy in 8 of them (66.7%). Altogether, when used as first line or for refractory disease, ocular remission was achieved in 11 of the 12 cases (91.7%) treated with RTX versus 34 of the 47 cases (72.3%) treated with CYC (P = .260). Eye disease relapsed in 14 patients (22.2%). RTX allowed achievement of remission in 8 of them (57.1%). In the remaining six, other immunosuppressive drugs were used. CONCLUSIONS: Scleritis and episcleritis are the most common ocular manifestations in GPA, most of the time associated with other systemic manifestations. In >40% of cases, ocular manifestations were refractory to initial treatment or recurrent and led to RTX prescription, which appeared to be useful in these situations.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Granulomatose com Poliangiite , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Oftalmopatias/terapia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/complicações , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/diagnóstico , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/epidemiologia , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 328, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure related to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a typical presentation of small-vessel vasculitis that requires prompt multidisciplinary management. The primary treatment is based on immunosuppressive drugs, whereas urgent plasma exchange has been proposed in case of life-threatening complications. We addressed the course of respiratory failure in 12 patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis-related DAH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Observational retrospective case series performed in the medical ICU of a tertiary hospital in Paris, France. Consecutive patients with ANCA-associated DAH admitted to our ICU for acute respiratory failure and treated by plasmapheresis were included in the analysis. We evaluated the SpO2/FiO2 ratio and assessed the mechanical ventilation mode hourly for 7 days. RESULTS: Twelve patients were included. Five of them required invasive mechanical ventilation. All patients were treated by plasma exchange in addition to a combination of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents. Oxygenation improved over the first 7 days following initiation of plasma exchange, as shown by a dramatic increase in the median SpO2/FiO2 ratio from 183 [interquartile 137-321] to 353 [239-432] (p = 0.003), along with a decrease in the level of ventilatory support. All but one patient survived. CONCLUSIONS: A multimodal induction regimen combining immunosuppressants and plasma exchange may rapidly reverse the respiratory dysfunction in ANCA-associated vasculitis-related DAH.

19.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-7, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395752

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The diagnostic workup of uveitis is challenging, with 30 to 50% of cases remaining of undetermined etiology despite multiple investigations. Sarcoid granuloma-related increase of 1,25(OH)2D levels could be helpful for the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis. METHODS: Monocentric retrospective cohort study of patients for whom serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels were measured during the etiologic workup of unexplained uveitis in a tertiary referral center. The diagnoses of uveitis' underlying diseases were established according to international diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients were included. The diagnosis of defined, presumed or probable sarcoidosis was made in 37% of patients while 41% of cases remained of undetermined origin. The median serum levels of 25(OH)D in patients with ocular sarcoidosis and in those with uveitis due to another cause were 34.50 [21.2-40.8] and 43.20 [32.2-58.3] nmol/L (P=0.02), respectively. In the same subgroups of patients, the median serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D were 132.4 [107.4-163.9] and 108.0 [84.30-130.5] pmol/l (P=0.02), and the median 1,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D ratio was 4.17 [3.11-5.09] and 2.56 [1.54-3.37] (P=0.0007) respectively. A 1,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D ratio >3.5 was associated with the diagnosis of sarcoidosis with a 68 % sensitivity and a 78% specificity and, in univariate analysis, was associated with an abnormal chest CT-scan (OR=5.7, P=0.003), granulomas on bronchial biopsy (OR=14.7, P=0.007) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid lymphocytosis (OR=12.4, P=0.0006). CONCLUSION: The measurement of serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels is a useful tool in the etiological workup of patients with unexplained uveitis, since a high 1,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D ratio is suggestive of ocular sarcoidosis.

20.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 39(4): 504-510, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404117

RESUMO

Pulmonary vasculitis can be heterogeneous and have some pathophysiological, clinical, and biological specificities that might influence treatment choices. Main vasculitides associated with pulmonary vasculitis include antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, immune complex small vessel vasculitis, and antiglomerular basement membrane disease. Patient characteristics and association of lung involvement with other manifestations affecting disease severity may also influence treatment strategy. Alveolar hemorrhage frequently requires urgent treatment to control the underlying disease and provide supportive care such as mechanical ventilation. The level of evidence of each treatment strategy varies according to the underlying disease, but treatment is usually based on a combination of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents, especially cyclophosphamide and rituximab. The role of plasma exchanges, widely used in patients with severe vasculitis, is controversial, based on results from recent prospective randomized controlled trials.

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