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1.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To update the EULAR points to consider (PtCs) on the use of immunomodulatory therapies in COVID-19. METHODS: According to the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review up to 14 July 2021 was conducted and followed by a consensus meeting of an international multidisciplinary task force. The new statements were consolidated by formal voting. RESULTS: We updated 2 overarching principles and 12 PtC. Evidence was only available in moderate to severe and critical patients. Glucocorticoids alone or in combination with tocilizumab are beneficial in COVID-19 cases requiring oxygen therapy and in critical COVID-19. Use of Janus kinase inhibitors (baricitinib and tofacitinib) is promising in the same populations of severe and critical COVID-19. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and convalescent plasma may find application in early phases of the disease and in selected subgroups of immunosuppressed patients. There was insufficient robust evidence for the efficacy of other immunomodulators with further work being needed in relation to biomarker-based stratification for IL-1 therapy CONCLUSIONS: Growing evidence supports incremental efficacy of glucocorticoids alone or combined with tocilizumab/Janus kinase inhibitors in moderate to severe and critical COVID-19. Ongoing studies may unmask the potential application of other therapeutic approaches. Involvement of rheumatologists, as systemic inflammatory diseases experts, should be encouraged in clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapy in COVID-19.

3.
Br J Haematol ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651299

RESUMO

Azacitidine can be effective in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) associated with inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. Vacuoles, E1 Enzyme, X-linked, Autoinflammatory, Somatic syndrome (VEXAS) is a new monogenic autoinflammatory syndrome caused by somatic ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme 1 (UBA1) mutation, often associated with MDS, whose treatment is difficult and not yet codified. Based on a French nationwide registry of 116 patients with VEXAS, we report the efficacy and safety of azacitidine treatment in 11 patients with VEXAS with MDS. Clinical response of VEXAS to azacitidine was achieved in five patients (46%), during 6, 8+, 12, 21, 27+ months respectively, suggesting that azacitidine can be effective in selected patients with VEXAS and associated MDS.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Coxiella and Bartonella sp. display particular tropism for endothelial or endocardial tissues and an abnormal host response to infections with induced autoimmunity. We aimed, through a case series combined with a comprehensive literature review, to outline characteristics of Coxiella and Bartonella infections presenting as systemic vasculitis. METHODS: We retrospectively included cases of definite Coxiella and Bartonella infections presenting with vasculitis features and performed a comprehensive literature review. RESULTS: Six cases of Bartonella infections were added to 18 cases from literature review. Causative pathogens were mainly B. henselae. Bartonella infection mimicked anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis in 83% with PR3-ANCA and presented as cryoglobulinemic vasculitis in 8%. Glomerulonephritis was present in 92%, and 88% had endocarditis. Complement fractions were low in 82% and rheumatoid factor positive in 85%. Kidney biopsies showed cell proliferation, mostly crescentic, with pauci-immune glomerulonephritis in 29%. Outcome was favorable, with the use of antibiotics alone in one third. Five cases of Coxiella infections were added to 16 from literature review. Sixteen had small-vessel vasculitides, mainly cryoglobulinemia vasculitis in 75%. One patient had polyarteritis nodosa-like vasculitis and four large-vessel vasculitis. Outcome was good except for one death. A highly sensitive next generation sequencing analysis on 3 Coxiella and 2 Bartonella-related vasculitides biopsies did not find any bacterial DNA. CONCLUSION: Coxiella and Bartonella are both able to induce vasculitis but display distinct vasculitis features. Bartonella mimics PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis in the setting of endocarditis, whereas Coxiella may induce vasculitis involving all vessel sizes.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the main features at diagnosis and evolution over time of patients with localised granulomatosis with polyangiitis (L-GPA) compared to those of systemic GPA (S-GPA). METHODS: EULAR definitions of L-GPA, i.e., upper and/or lower respiratory tract involvement, and S-GPA were applied to patients from the French Vasculitis Study Group Registry. L-GPA and S-GPA patients' characteristics at diagnosis and long-term outcomes were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Among the 795 Registry patients, 79 (10%) had L-GPA. Their main clinical manifestations were rhinitis, lung nodules, sinusitis and otitis. L-GPA versus S-GPA patients at diagnosis, respectively, were younger, more frequently had saddle nose deformity or subglottic stenosis and were less often PR3-ANCA-positive. L-GPA versus S-GPA induction therapy less frequently included cyclophosphamide but more often a combination of methotrexate and glucocorticoids; 64% of methotrexate-treated patients experienced disease progression within 18 months post-diagnosis. L- and S-GPA patients' estimated relapse-free-survival probabilities, relapse rates and refractory disease rates at each time point were comparable, but L-GPA patients had more frequent ENT and lung relapses, and higher overall survival rates (P <0.02). Over a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 18 (22.8%) L-GPA progressed to S-GPA, either as a relapse after a period in remission or more frequently in the context of refractory disease. L-GPA patients experienced more ENT-related damage. CONCLUSIONS: The relapse risks of L-GPA and S-GPA were similar, but relapse patterns differed and L-GPA overall survival rate was higher. About one-quarter of L-GPA patients developed S-GPA over time, but without end-stage organ involvement.

6.
Nat Immunol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471264

RESUMO

Coordinated local mucosal and systemic immune responses following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection either protect against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathologies or fail, leading to severe clinical outcomes. To understand this process, we performed an integrated analysis of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies, cytokines, viral load and bacterial communities in paired nasopharyngeal swabs and plasma samples from a cohort of clinically distinct patients with COVID-19 during acute infection. Plasma viral load was associated with systemic inflammatory cytokines that were elevated in severe COVID-19, and also with spike-specific neutralizing antibodies. By contrast, nasopharyngeal viral load correlated with SARS-CoV-2 humoral responses but inversely with interferon responses, the latter associating with protective microbial communities. Potential pathogenic microorganisms, often implicated in secondary respiratory infections, were associated with mucosal inflammation and elevated in severe COVID-19. Our results demonstrate distinct tissue compartmentalization of SARS-CoV-2 immune responses and highlight a role for the nasopharyngeal microbiome in regulating local and systemic immunity that determines COVID-19 clinical outcomes.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Association of IgA vasculitis (IgAV) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is rarely described, mainly during anti-TNF-α therapy. We aimed to describe the association of IgAV and IBD. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the association of IgAV and IBD through the implication of the GETAID and FVSG networks. Characteristics of IBD and IgAV were collected using a standardized case report form. RESULTS: Forty-three cases were included. IBD (mainly Crohn's disease (CD) in 58%) preceded IgAV in 38 (88%), with median interval of 9.2 (IQR 5.4-15.4) years. In these 38 patients, at IgAV diagnosis, 5 (13%) had active IBD and 28 (74%) were treated with anti-TNF-α for a median duration of 31.5 (IQR 19-56) months. Main IgAV manifestations were purpura all patients (100%), joints in 20/35 (57%), renal in 15/35 (43%) and gastrointestinal in 11/35 (31%) involvement. IgAV was treated with glucocorticoids in 25 (66%), colchicine in 6 (16%), cyclophosphamide in 6 (16%), and anti-TNF-α were discontinued in 15/28 (54%). No IgAV relapse occurred when TNF-α blockers were stopped, vs 23% in patients pursuing it. Conversely, 5 (33%) had IBD flare or complication after anti-TNF-α cessation vs 1 (8%) in those continuing biologics. Anti-TNF-α were resumed in 6 (40%), with subsequent IgAV relapse in 4 (67%). CONCLUSIONS: This large cohort suggests that TNF-α blockers may promote the onset of IgAV in IBD. Discontinuation of anti-TNF-α was associated with vasculitis remission but increased risk of IBD relapses, whereas continuation of anti-TNF-α was associated with IBD remission but vasculitis relapse.

8.
Sci Adv ; 7(34)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407944

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide, yet the role of antiviral T cell immunity during infection and the contribution of immune checkpoints remain unclear. By prospectively following a cohort of 292 patients with melanoma, half of which treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), we identified 15 patients with acute or convalescent COVID-19 and investigated their transcriptomic, proteomic, and cellular profiles. We found that ICI treatment was not associated with severe COVID-19 and did not alter the induction of inflammatory and type I interferon responses. In-depth phenotyping demonstrated expansion of CD8 effector memory T cells, enhanced T cell activation, and impaired plasmablast induction in ICI-treated COVID-19 patients. The evaluation of specific adaptive immunity in convalescent patients showed higher spike (S), nucleoprotein (N), and membrane (M) antigen-specific T cell responses and similar induction of spike-specific antibody responses. Our findings provide evidence that ICI during COVID-19 enhanced T cell immunity without exacerbating inflammation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Memória Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Melanoma/complicações , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/virologia
10.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a complex antibody response that varies by orders of magnitude between individuals and over time. METHODS: We developed a multiplex serological test for measuring antibodies to five SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the Spike proteins of seasonal coronaviruses. We measured antibody responses in cohorts of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers followed for up to eleven months after symptoms. A mathematical model of antibody kinetics was used to quantify the duration of antibody responses. Antibody response data were used to train algorithms for estimating time since infection. RESULTS: One year after symptoms, we estimate that 36% (95% range: 11%, 94%) of anti-Spike IgG remains, 31% (9%, 89%) anti-RBD IgG remains, and 7% (1%, 31%) anti-Nucleocapsid IgG remains. The multiplex assay classified previous infections into time intervals of 0-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-12 months. This method was validated using data from a sero-prevalence survey in France, demonstrating that historical SARS-CoV-2 transmission can be reconstructed using samples from a single survey. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to diagnosing previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, multiplex serological assays can estimate the time since infection which can be used to reconstruct past epidemics.

11.
Chest ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subglottic stenosis (SGS) and tracheal stenosis (TS) are characterized by a narrowing of the airways. The goal of this study was to describe the characteristics and prognosis of nontraumatic and nontumoral SGS or TS. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the inflammatory etiologies of SGS and TS, and what are their characteristics and prognosis? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This multicenter, observational retrospective study was performed in patients with SGS or TS that was neither traumatic nor tumoral. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were included, 33 (41%) with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and 21 (26%) with relapsing polychondritis (RP). GPA-related stenoses exhibited circumferential subglottic narrowing in 85% of cases, without calcifications. In contrast, RP-related stenoses displayed anterior involvement in 76%, in a longer distance from vocal cords (4 cm), with calcifications in 62%, and extension to bronchi in 86%. Other diagnoses included bullous dermatoses (n = 3), amyloidosis (n = 3), sarcoidosis (n = 2), and Crohn's disease (n = 2); the remaining stenoses (n = 15) were idiopathic. SGS/TS was the initial manifestation of the disease in 66% of cases, with a median interval from stenosis to disease diagnosis of 12 months (interquartile range, 0-48 months). Despite the use of glucocorticoids in 80%, combined with methotrexate in 49%, endoscopic procedures were required in 68% of patients. Relapses of stenoses occurred in 76% without any difference between causes (82% in GPA, 67% in RP, and 75% in idiopathic SGS/TS). Three patients died due to the stenosis, two of RP and one of GPA. INTERPRETATION: These data show that GPA and RP are the two main inflammatory diseases presenting with SGS/TS. GPA-related stenoses are mostly subglottic and circumferential, whereas RP-related stenoses are mostly tracheal, anterior, and calcified with a frequent extension to bronchi. Relapses of stenoses are common, and relapse rates do not differ between causes. Diagnosis and management of SGS/TS require a multidisciplinary approach.

15.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 113, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microvascular, arterial and venous thrombotic events have been largely described during severe coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). However, mechanisms underlying hemostasis dysregulation remain unclear. METHODS: We explored two independent cross-sectional cohorts to identify soluble markers and gene-expression signatures that discriminated COVID-19 severity and outcomes. RESULTS: We found that elevated soluble (s)P-selectin at admission was associated with disease severity. Elevated sP-selectin was predictive of intubation and death (ROC AUC = 0.67, p = 0.028 and AUC = 0.74, p = 0.0047, respectively). An optimal cutoff value was predictive of intubation with 66% negative predictive value (NPV) and 61% positive predictive value (PPV), and of death with 90% NPV and 55% PPV. An unbiased gene set enrichment analysis revealed that critically ill patients had increased expression of genes related to platelet activation. Hierarchical clustering identified ITG2AB, GP1BB, PPBP and SELPLG to be upregulated in a grade-dependent manner. ROC curve analysis for the prediction of intubation was significant for SELPLG and PPBP (AUC = 0.8, p = 0.046 for both). An optimal cutoff value for PBPP was predictive of intubation with 100% NPV and 45% PPV, and for SELPLG with 100% NPV and 50% PPV. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence that platelets contribute to COVID-19 severity. Plasma sP-selectin level was associated with severity and in-hospital mortality. Transcriptional analysis identified PPBP/CXCL7 and SELPLG as biomarkers for intubation. These findings provide additional evidence for platelet activation in driving critical COVID-19. Specific studies evaluating the performance of these biomarkers are required.

16.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa is a form of medium-sized vessel vasculitis. Despite a disabling and prolonged course, data on treatment efficacy and safety remain scarce. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe treatment efficacy and safety in patients with cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective, observational study, recorded clinical and biologic data together with treatments received. The primary outcome was the rate of complete response at month 3. Secondary outcomes assessed drug survival and safety. RESULTS: We included 68 patients who received a median of 2 therapeutic lines (interquartile range, 1-3). Overall, complete response was achieved in 13 of 42 (31%) patients with colchicine, 4 of 17 (23%) with dapsone, 11 of 25 (44%) with glucocorticoids (GCs) alone, 1 of 9 (11%) with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 11 of 13 (84%) with GCs+azathioprine, and 7 of 15 (47%) with GCs+methotrexate. GCs+azathioprine had the best drug survival (median duration, 29.5 months; interquartile range, 19.5-36.0). Response at month 3 was decreased with peripheral neurologic involvement (odds ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.81; P = .04). Overall, the rate of treatment-related adverse events was 18%, which led to the discontinuation of treatment in 7% of patients. LIMITATION: Retrospective study. CONCLUSION: Colchicine seems to confer good benefit-risk balance in cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa without peripheral sensory neuropathy. GCs+azathioprine seem the best treatment in the event of relapse.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the prognostic performances of oxidative stress (OS), inflammatory and cell activation biomarkers measured at admission in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: retrospective monocentric study. SETTING: patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) admitted to the hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred and sixty documented and unselected COVID-19-patients. Disease severity (from mild to critical) was scored according to NIH's classification. INTERVENTIONS: none. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We measured OS biomarkers (thiol, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA)), inflammation biomarkers (interleukin-6 (IL-6), presepsin) and cellular activation biomarkers (calprotectin) in plasma at admission. Thiol concentrations decreased while IMA, IL-6, calprotectin and PSEP increased with disease severity in COVID-19 patients and were associated with increased O2 needs and ICU admission. The best area under the receiver-operating-characteristics curve (AUC) for the prediction of ICU admission was for thiol (AUC = 0.762). A thiol concentration <154 µmol/L was predictive for ICU admission (79.7% sensitivity, 64.6% specificity, 58.8% positive predictive value, 78.9% negative predictive value). In a stepwise logistic regression, we found that being overweight, having dyspnoea, and thiol and IL-6 plasmatic concentrations were independently associated with ICU admission. In contrast, calprotectin was the best biomarker to predict mortality (AUC = 0.792), with an optimal threshold at 24.1 mg/L (94.1% sensitivity, 64.9% specificity, 97.1% positive predictive value and 98.9% negative predictive value), and survival curves indicated that high IL-6 and calprotectin concentrations were associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Thiol measurement at admission is a promising tool to predict ICU admission in COVID-19-patients, whereas IL-6 and calprotectin measurements effectively predict mortality.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Estresse Oxidativo , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/virologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2362-2374, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal involvement in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) is associated with poor outcomes. The clinical significance of arteritis of the small kidney arteries has not been evaluated in detail. METHODS: In a multicenter cohort of patients with AAV and renal involvement, we sought to describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with AAV who had renal arteritis at diagnosis, and to retrospectively analyze their prognostic value. RESULTS: We included 251 patients diagnosed with AAV and renal involvement between 2000 and 2019, including 34 patients (13.5%) with arteritis. Patients with AAV-associated arteritis were older, and had a more pronounced inflammatory syndrome compared with patients without arteritis; they also had significantly lower renal survival (P=0.01). In multivariable analysis, the ANCA renal risk score, age at diagnosis, history of diabetes mellitus, and arteritis on index kidney biopsy were independently associated with ESKD. The addition of the arteritis status significantly improved the discrimination of the ANCA renal risk score, with a concordance index (C-index) of 0.77 for the ANCA renal risk score alone, versus a C-index of 0.80 for the ANCA renal risk score plus arteritis status (P=0.008); ESKD-free survival was significantly worse for patients with an arteritis involving small arteries who were classified as having low or moderate risk, according to the ANCA renal risk score. In two external validation cohorts, we confirmed the incidence and phenotype of this AAV subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest AAV with renal arteritis represents a different subtype of AAV with specific clinical and histologic characteristics. The prognostic contribution of the arteritis status remains to be prospectively confirmed.

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