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1.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(1): 23-35, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570513

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem because of its high prevalence, associated complications and high treatment costs. Several aspects of CKD differ significantly in the Eastern European nephrology community compared with Western Europe because of different geographic, socio-economic, infrastructure, cultural and educational features. The two most frequent aetiologies of CKD, DM and hypertension, and many other predisposing factors, are more frequent in the Eastern region, resulting in more prevalent CKD Stages 3-5. Interventions may minimize the potential drawbacks of the high prevalence of CKD in Eastern Europe, which include several options at various stages of the disease, such as raising public, medical personnel and healthcare authorities awareness; early detection by screening high-risk populations; preventing progression and CKD-related complications by training health professionals and patients; promoting transplantation or home dialysis as the preferred modality; disseminating and implementing guidelines and guided therapy and encouraging/supporting country-specific observational research as well as international collaborative projects. Specific ways to significantly impact CKD-related problems in every region of Europe through education, science and networking are collaboration with non-nephrology European societies who have a common interest in CKD and its associated complications, representation through an advisory role within nephrology via national nephrology societies, contributing to the training of local nephrologists and stimulating patient-oriented research. The latter is mandatory to identify country-specific kidney disease-related priorities. Active involvement of patients in this research via collaboration with the European Kidney Patient Federation or national patient federations is imperative to ensure that projects reflect specific patient needs.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in a large cohort of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) across the European Union, Turkey, Russia, UK, and North America. METHODS: Patients with a definite diagnosis of AAV who were followed for at least 3 months and had sufficient documentation were included. Data on VTE, including either deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, were collected retrospectively from tertiary vasculitis centers. Univariate and multivariate regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Over a median follow up of 63 (29; 101) months, VTE occurred in 278 (9.7%) of 2869 AAV patients with a similar frequency across different countries (from 6.3% to 13.7%), and AAV subtype (granulomatosis with polyangiitis: 9.8%; 95% CI 8.3-11.6, microscopic polyangiitis: 9.6%; 95% CI 7.9-11.4, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: 9.8%; 95% CI 7.0-13.3). Most VTE (65.6%) were reported in the first-year post diagnosis. Multiple factor logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex and age showed that skin (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.01-2.92), pulmonary (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.04-3.14) and kidney involvement (eGFR 15-60 mL/min/1.73 m2, OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.27-6.47; eGFR < 15 mL/min/1.73 m2, OR 6.71, 95% CI 2.94-15.33) were independent variables associated with a higher occurrence of VTE. CONCLUSION: Two thirds of VTE occurred during the initial phase of active disease. We confirmed previous findings from smaller studies that a decrease in kidney function, skin involvement and pulmonary disease are independently associated with VTE.

3.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 36(2): 227-231, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374018

RESUMO

Plasma exchange (PLEX) is capable of removing significant amounts of circulating antibodies. In anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, PLEX was reserved for patients with severe presentation forms such as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and pulmonary haemorrhage. The Plasma Exchange and Glucocorticoids in Severe ANCA-Associated Vasculitis (PEXIVAS) trial included all comers with a glomerular filtration rate <50 mL/min/1.73 m2 and thus aimed to answer the question of whether PLEX is an option for patients with no relevant kidney function impairment or not. PEXIVAS revealed that after a follow-up of almost 3 years, routine administration of PLEX does not provide an additional benefit to reduce the rate of a composite comprising end-stage kidney disease or death. In the absence of histological parameters, it is tempting to speculate whether PLEX is effective or not in those with a potential for renal recovery. A subset of patients presented with alveolar haemorrhage, and there was a trend towards a better outcome of such cases receiving PLEX. This would be in line with observational studies reporting a recovery of alveolar haemorrhage following extracorporeal treatment. In this PRO part of the debate, we highlight the shortcomings of the PEXIVAS trial and stimulate further research paths, which in our eyes are necessary before abandoning PLEX from the therapeutic armamentarium.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260613

RESUMO

IgA nephropathy is the most common primary glomerulonephritis with potentially serious outcome leading to end stage renal disease in 30 to 50% of patients within 20 to 30 years. Renal biopsy, which might be associated with risks of complications (bleeding and others), still remains the only reliable diagnostic tool for IgA nephropathy. Therefore, the search for non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic markers for detection of subclinical types of IgA nephropathy, evaluation of disease activity, and assessment of treatment effectiveness, is of utmost importance. In this review, we summarize treatment options for patients with IgA nephropathy including the drugs currently under evaluation in randomized control trials. An early initiation of immunosupressive regimens in patients with IgA nephropathy at risk of progression should result in the slowing down of the progression of renal function to end stage renal disease.

6.
J Proteomics ; : 104067, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307252

RESUMO

ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a rare, but potentially severe autoimmune disease, even nowadays displaying increased mortality and morbidity. Finding early biomarkers of activity and prognosis is thus very important. Small extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from urine can be considered as a non-invasive source of biomarkers. We evaluated several protocols for urinary EV isolation. To eliminate contaminating non-vesicular proteins due to AAV associated proteinuria we used proteinase K treatment. We investigated the differences in proteomes of small EVs of patients with AAV compared to healthy controls by label-free LC-MS/MS. In parallel, we performed an analogous proteomic analysis of urine samples from identical patients. The study results showed significant differences and similarities in both EV and urine proteome, the latter one being highly affected by proteinuria. Using bioinformatics tools we explored differentially changed proteins and their related pathways with a focus on the pathophysiology of AAV. Our findings indicate significant regulation of Golgi enzymes, such as MAN1A1, which can be involved in T cell activation by N-glycans glycosylation and may thus play a key role in pathogenesis and diagnosis of AAV. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study explores for the first time the changes in proteomes of small extracellular vesicles and urine of patients with renal ANCA-associated vasculitis compared to healthy controls by label-free LC-MS/MS. Isolation of vesicles from proteinuric urine samples has been modified to minimize contamination by plasma proteins and to reduce co-isolation of extraluminal proteins. Differentially changed proteins and their related pathways with a role in the pathophysiology of AAV were described and discussed. The results could be helpful for the research of potential biomarkers in renal vasculitis associated with ANCA.

7.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(1): 79-87, 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: People with kidney failure typically receive KRT in the form of dialysis or transplantation. However, studies have suggested that not all patients with kidney failure are best suited for KRT. Additionally, KRT is costly and not always accessible in resource-restricted settings. Conservative kidney management is an alternate kidney failure therapy that focuses on symptom management, psychologic health, spiritual care, and family and social support. Despite the importance of conservative kidney management in kidney failure care, several barriers exist that affect its uptake and quality. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The Global Kidney Health Atlas is an ongoing initiative of the International Society of Nephrology that aims to monitor and evaluate the status of global kidney care worldwide. This study reports on findings from the 2018 Global Kidney Health Atlas survey, specifically addressing the availability, accessibility, and quality of conservative kidney management. RESULTS: Respondents from 160 countries completed the survey, and 154 answered questions pertaining to conservative kidney management. Of these, 124 (81%) stated that conservative kidney management was available. Accessibility was low worldwide, particularly in low-income countries. Less than half of countries utilized multidisciplinary teams (46%); utilized shared decision making (32%); or provided psychologic, cultural, or spiritual support (36%). One-quarter provided relevant health care providers with training on conservative kidney management delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, conservative kidney management is available in most countries; however, it is not optimally accessible or of the highest quality.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health information systems (HIS) are fundamental tools for the surveillance of health services, estimation of disease burden and prioritization of health resources. Several gaps in the availability of HIS for kidney disease were highlighted by the first iteration of the Global Kidney Health Atlas. METHODS: As part of its second iteration, the International Society of Nephrology conducted a cross-sectional global survey between July and October 2018 to explore the coverage and scope of HIS for kidney disease, with a focus on kidney replacement therapy (KRT). RESULTS: Out of a total of 182 invited countries, 154 countries responded to questions on HIS (85% response rate). KRT registries were available in almost all high-income countries, but few low-income countries, while registries for non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) or acute kidney injury (AKI) were rare. Registries in high-income countries tended to be national, in contrast to registries in low-income countries, which often operated at local or regional levels. Although cause of end-stage kidney disease, modality of KRT and source of kidney transplant donors were frequently reported, few countries collected data on patient-reported outcome measures and only half of low-income countries recorded process-based measures. Almost no countries had programs to detect AKI and practices to identify CKD-targeted individuals with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, rather than members of high-risk ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm significant heterogeneity in the global availability of HIS for kidney disease and highlight important gaps in their coverage and scope, especially in low-income countries and across the domains of AKI, non-dialysis CKD, patient-reported outcomes, process-based measures and quality indicators for KRT service delivery.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk of kidney function decline in immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) is significant and may not be predicted by available clinical and histological tools. To serve this unmet need, we aimed at developing a urinary biomarker-based algorithm that predicts rapid disease progression in IgAN, thus enabling a personalized risk stratification. METHODS: In this multicentre study, urine samples were collected in 209 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN. Progression was defined by tertiles of the annual change of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during follow-up. Urine samples were analysed using capillary electrophoresis coupled mass spectrometry. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the risk prediction models. RESULTS: Of the 209 patients, 64% were male. Mean age was 42 years, mean eGFR was 63 mL/min/1.73 m2 and median proteinuria was 1.2 g/day. We identified 237 urine peptides showing significant difference in abundance according to the tertile of eGFR change. These included fragments of apolipoprotein C-III, alpha-1 antitrypsin, different collagens, fibrinogen alpha and beta, titin, haemoglobin subunits, sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma, uromodulin, mucin-2, fractalkine, polymeric Ig receptor and insulin. An algorithm based on these protein fragments (IgAN237) showed a significant added value for the prediction of IgAN progression [AUC 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.95], as compared with the clinical parameters (age, gender, proteinuria, eGFR and mean arterial pressure) alone (0.72; 95% CI 0.64-0.81). CONCLUSIONS: A urinary peptide classifier predicts progressive loss of kidney function in patients with IgAN significantly better than clinical parameters alone.

12.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889013

RESUMO

Recurrence of primary membranous nephropathy after transplantation occurs in up to 44% of patients and is driven by PLA2R antibody. Here, we asked whether genetic determinants could improve risk prediction. First, we sequenced PLA2R1 and HLA-D loci in 248 patients with primary membranous nephropathy and identified two independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at risk for primary membranous nephropathy at each locus. These were rs9271188 (intergenic between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1,) and rs9275086 (intergenic between HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DQA2) at the HLA-D locus along with rs6726925 and rs13018963 at the PLA2R1 locus. Then, we investigated whether primary membranous nephropathy at-risk variants were associated with recurrence in a retrospective cohort of 105 donor-recipient pairs and a replication cohort of 40 pairs. Seven SNPs located between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1 in linkage disequilibrium with rs9271188, and three SNPs in the PLA2R1 region predicted recurrence when presented by the donor, but not when presented by the recipient. The two SNPs in the HLA-D region most strongly associated with recurrence (rs9271705 and rs9271550) were confirmed in the replication cohort. A genetic risk score based on the two best predictors at each locus (rs9271705, rs9271550, rs17830558, and rs3828323) identified a group of patients with high risk of recurrence. Thus, our results suggest that the graft contributes to recurrence of primary membranous nephropathy through the disease susceptibility HLA-D and PLA2R1 SNPs in an autoimmune milieu. Further studies are needed before implementation of the genetic testing in donor selection.

13.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889014

RESUMO

We have developed an artificial neural network prediction model for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in patients with primary immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) using a retrospective cohort of 948 patients with IgAN. Our tool is based on a two-step procedure of a classifier model that predicts ESRD, and a regression model that predicts development of ESKD over time. The classifier model showed a performance value of 0.82 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) in patients with a follow-up of five years, which improved to 0.89 at the ten-year follow-up. Both models had a higher recall rate, which indicated the practicality of the tool. The regression model showed a mean absolute error of 1.78 years and a root mean square error of 2.15 years. Testing in an independent cohort of 167patients with IgAN found successful results for 91% of the patients. Comparison of our system with other mathematical models showed the highest discriminant Harrel C index at five- and ten-years follow-up (81% and 86%, respectively); paralleling the lowest Akaike information criterion values (355.01 and 269.56, respectively). Moreover, our system was the best calibrated model indicating that the predicted and observed outcome probabilities did not significantly differ. Finally, the dynamic discrimination indexes of our artificial neural network, expressed as the weighted average of time-dependent areas under the curve calculated at one and two years, were 0.80 and 0.79, respectively. Similar results were observed over a 25-year follow-up period. Thus, our tool identified individuals who were at a high risk of developing ESKD due to IgAN and predicted the time-to-event endpoint. Accurate prediction is an important step toward introduction of a therapeutic strategy for improving clinical outcomes.

14.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(11): 102671, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942039

RESUMO

Primary forms of minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis are rare podocytopathies and clinically characterized by nephrotic syndrome. Glucocorticoids are the cornerstone of the initial immunosuppressive treatment in these two entities. Especially among adults with minimal change disease or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, relapses, steroid dependence or resistance are common and necessitate re-initiation of steroids and other immunosuppressants. Effective steroid-sparing therapies and introduction of less toxic immunosuppressive agents are urgently needed to reduce undesirable side effects, in particular for patients whose disease course is complex. Rituximab, a B cell depleting monoclonal antibody, is increasingly used off-label in these circumstances, despite a low level of evidence for adult patients. Hence, critical questions concerning drug-safety, long-term efficacy and the optimal regimen for rituximab-treatment remain unanswered. Evidence in the form of large, multicenter studies and randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to overcome these limitations.

15.
Vnitr Lek ; 66(3): 87-89, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972172

RESUMO

A basal level of proteinuria is about 30-100 mg/day, the upper limit of basal proteinuria does not exceed 150 mg/day which is considered non-pathology. Albumin accounts approximately 15 % of basal protein in the urine, other plasma proteins (immunoglobulins, β-2 microglobulin, Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein) comprise the remaining 85 % of total quantity non-pathology proteinuria. Persistent proteinuria present for more than three months already meets the definition of chronic kidney disease independently of the stage of the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Patients are classified as A1-A3 based on the level of albuminuria. Examination of the albumin in the urine is one of the single sensitive indicators of chronic kidney disease. Proteinuria is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, overall mortality and end stage renal failure both in general population and in population with chronic kidney disease. Presence of the urinary protein is associated with a higher mortality rate in critically ill patients. The degree of proteinuria after kidney transplantation predicts graft and patient survival in this population. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments that attenuate proteinuria have been associated with better prognosis of kidney disease.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Albuminúria , Creatinina , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Proteinúria
16.
Vnitr Lek ; 66(3): 90-92, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972173

RESUMO

A basal level of proteinuria is about 30-100 mg/day, the upper limit of basal proteinuria does not exceed 150 mg/day which is considered non-pathology. Albumin accounts approximately 15 % of basal protein in the urine, other plasma proteins (immunoglobulins, β-2 microglobulin, Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein) comprise the remaining 85 % of total quantity non-pathology proteinuria. Persistent proteinuria present for more than three months already meets the definition of chronic kidney disease independently of the stage of the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Patients are classified as A1-A3 based on the level of albuminuria. Examination of the albumin in the urine is one of the single sensitive indicators of chronic kidney disease. Proteinuria is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, overall mortality and end stage renal failure both in general population and in population with chronic kidney disease. Presence of the urinary protein is associated with a higher mortality rate in critically ill patients. The degree of proteinuria after kidney transplantation predicts graft and patient survival in this population. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments that attenuate proteinuria have been associated with better prognosis of kidney disease.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Albuminúria , Creatinina , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Proteinúria
17.
Vnitr Lek ; 66(5): 56-61, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942871

RESUMO

Pulmonary syndrome is defined by occurrence of lung involvement (alveolar haemorrhage) in association with renal failure (with a typical crescentic necrotizing rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis). It is caused by an autoimmune disease, most frequently ANCA-associated vasculitides and anti-GBM (glomerular basement membrane) disease. Early establishment of the right diagnosis and immediate treatment are crucial for favourable prognosis of the patients. First choice therapy includes high-dose corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, usually with plasma exchange added. Newer therapeutic possibilities include especially rituximab even though there is limited experience with its use in the settings of the most severe cases of pulmonary syndrome.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos , Glomerulonefrite , Autoanticorpos , Glomerulonefrite/terapia , Hemorragia , Humanos , Troca Plasmática , Síndrome
18.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800843

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Hemodialysis (HD) is the most common form of kidney replacement therapy. This study aimed to examine the use, availability, accessibility, affordability, and quality of HD care worldwide. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Stakeholders (clinicians, policy makers, and consumer representatives) in 182 countries were convened by the International Society of Nephrology from July to September 2018. OUTCOMES: Use, availability, accessibility, affordability, and quality of HD care. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Overall, representatives from 160 (88%) countries participated. Median country-specific use of maintenance HD was 298.4 (IQR, 80.5-599.4) per million population (pmp). Global median HD use among incident patients with kidney failure was 98.0 (IQR, 81.5-140.8) pmp and median number of HD centers was 4.5 (IQR, 1.2-9.9) pmp. Adequate HD services (3-4 hours 3 times weekly) were generally available in 27% of low-income countries. Home HD was generally available in 36% of high-income countries. 32% of countries performed monitoring of patient-reported outcomes; 61%, monitoring of small-solute clearance; 60%, monitoring of bone mineral markers; 51%, monitoring of technique survival; and 60%, monitoring of patient survival. At initiation of maintenance dialysis, only 5% of countries used an arteriovenous access in almost all patients. Vascular access education was suboptimal, funding for vascular access procedures was not uniform, and copayments were greater in countries with lower levels of income. Patients in 23% of the low-income countries had to pay >75% of HD costs compared with patients in only 4% of high-income countries. LIMITATIONS: A cross-sectional survey with possibility of response bias, social desirability bias, and limited data collection preventing in-depth analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, findings reveal substantial variations in global HD use, availability, accessibility, quality, and affordability worldwide, with the lowest use evident in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

19.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800844

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Approximately 11% of people with kidney failure worldwide are treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This study examined PD use and practice patterns across the globe. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Stakeholders including clinicians, policy makers, and patient representatives in 182 countries convened by the International Society of Nephrology between July and September 2018. OUTCOMES: PD use, availability, accessibility, affordability, delivery, and reporting of quality outcome measures. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Responses were received from 88% (n=160) of countries and there were 313 participants (257 nephrologists [82%], 22 non-nephrologist physicians [7%], 6 other health professionals [2%], 17 administrators/policy makers/civil servants [5%], and 11 others [4%]). 85% (n=156) of countries responded to questions about PD. Median PD use was 38.1 per million population. PD was not available in 30 of the 156 (19%) countries responding to PD-related questions, particularly in countries in Africa (20/41) and low-income countries (15/22). In 69% of countries, PD was the initial dialysis modality for≤10% of patients with newly diagnosed kidney failure. Patients receiving PD were expected to pay 1% to 25% of treatment costs, and higher (>75%) copayments (out-of-pocket expenses incurred by patients) were more common in South Asia and low-income countries. Average exchange volumes were adequate (defined as 3-4 exchanges per day or the equivalent for automated PD) in 72% of countries. PD quality outcome monitoring and reporting were variable. Most countries did not measure patient-reported PD outcomes. LIMITATIONS: Low responses from policy makers; limited ability to provide more in-depth explanations underpinning outcomes from each country due to lack of granular data; lack of objective data. CONCLUSIONS: Large inter- and intraregional disparities exist in PD availability, accessibility, affordability, delivery, and reporting of quality outcome measures around the world, with the greatest gaps observed in Africa and South Asia.

20.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(8): 1103-1111, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The histopathologic classification for ANCA-associated GN distinguishes four classes on the basis of patterns of injury. In the original validation study, these classes were ordered by severity of kidney function loss as follows: focal, crescentic, mixed, and sclerotic. Subsequent validation studies disagreed on outcomes in the crescentic and mixed classes. This study, driven by the original investigators, provides several analyses in order to determine the current position of the histopathologic classification of ANCA-associated GN. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A validation study was performed with newly collected data from 145 patients from ten centers worldwide, including an analysis of interobserver agreement on the histopathologic evaluation of the kidney biopsies. This study also included a meta-analysis on previous validation studies and a validation of the recently proposed ANCA kidney risk score. RESULTS: The validation study showed that kidney failure at 10-year follow-up was significantly different between the histopathologic classes (P<0.001). Kidney failure at 10-year follow-up was 14% in the crescentic class versus 20% in the mixed class (P=0.98). In the meta-analysis, no significant difference in kidney failure was also observed when crescentic class was compared with mixed class (relative risk, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.94 to 1.41). When we applied the ANCA kidney risk score to our cohort, kidney survival at 3 years was 100%, 96%, and 77% in the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups, respectively (P<0.001). These survival percentages are higher compared with the percentages in the original study. CONCLUSIONS: The crescentic and mixed classes seem to have a similar prognosis, also after adjusting for differences in patient populations, treatment, and interobserver agreement. However, at this stage, we are not inclined to merge the crescentic and mixed classes because the reported confidence intervals do not exclude important differences in prognosis and because an important histopathologic distinction would be lost.

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