Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 184
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5120, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719529

RESUMO

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown cause. 30% of patients have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Here, we describe a genome-wide association study in 676 EGPA cases and 6809 controls, that identifies 4 EGPA-associated loci through conventional case-control analysis, and 4 additional associations through a conditional false discovery rate approach. Many variants are also associated with asthma and six are associated with eosinophil count in the general population. Through Mendelian randomisation, we show that a primary tendency to eosinophilia contributes to EGPA susceptibility. Stratification by ANCA reveals that EGPA comprises two genetically and clinically distinct syndromes. MPO+ ANCA EGPA is an eosinophilic autoimmune disease sharing certain clinical features and an HLA-DQ association with MPO+ ANCA-associated vasculitis, while ANCA-negative EGPA may instead have a mucosal/barrier dysfunction origin. Four candidate genes are targets of therapies in development, supporting their exploration in EGPA.

2.
BMJ ; 367: l5873, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the global capacity (availability, accessibility, quality, and affordability) to deliver kidney replacement therapy (dialysis and transplantation) and conservative kidney management. DESIGN: International cross sectional survey. SETTING: International Society of Nephrology (ISN) survey of 182 countries from July to September 2018. PARTICIPANTS: Key stakeholders identified by ISN's national and regional leaders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Markers of national capacity to deliver core components of kidney replacement therapy and conservative kidney management. RESULTS: Responses were received from 160 (87.9%) of 182 countries, comprising 97.8% (7338.5 million of 7501.3 million) of the world's population. A wide variation was found in capacity and structures for kidney replacement therapy and conservative kidney management-namely, funding mechanisms, health workforce, service delivery, and available technologies. Information on the prevalence of treated end stage kidney disease was available in 91 (42%) of 218 countries worldwide. Estimates varied more than 800-fold from 4 to 3392 per million population. Rwanda was the only low income country to report data on the prevalence of treated disease; 5 (<10%) of 53 African countries reported these data. Of 159 countries, 102 (64%) provided public funding for kidney replacement therapy. Sixty eight (43%) of 159 countries charged no fees at the point of care delivery and 34 (21%) made some charge. Haemodialysis was reported as available in 156 (100%) of 156 countries, peritoneal dialysis in 119 (76%) of 156 countries, and kidney transplantation in 114 (74%) of 155 countries. Dialysis and kidney transplantation were available to more than 50% of patients in only 108 (70%) and 45 (29%) of 154 countries that offered these services, respectively. Conservative kidney management was available in 124 (81%) of 154 countries. Worldwide, the median number of nephrologists was 9.96 per million population, which varied with income level. CONCLUSIONS: These comprehensive data show the capacity of countries (including low income countries) to provide optimal care for patients with end stage kidney disease. They demonstrate substantial variability in the burden of such disease and capacity for kidney replacement therapy and conservative kidney management, which have implications for policy.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Nefrologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
3.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; : 1-13, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770762

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies in Ren-2 transgenic hypertensive rats (TGR) after 5/6 renal ablation (5/6 NX) have shown that besides pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) also increasing kidney tissue epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EET) levels by blocking soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), an enzyme responsible for degradation of EETs, and endothelin type A (ETA) receptor blockade retards chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. This prompted us to evaluate if this progression will be alleviated by the addition of sEH inhibitor and ETA receptor antagonist to the standard complex blockade of RAS (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor plus angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker) in rats with established CKD. METHODS: The treatment regimens were initiated 6 weeks after 5/6 NX in TGR, and the follow-up period was 60 weeks. RESULTS: The addition of sEH inhibition to RAS blockade improved survival rate, further reduced albuminuria and renal glomerular and kidney tubulointerstitial injury, and attenuated the decline in creatinine clearance - all this as compared with 5/6 NX TGR treated with RAS blockade alone. Addition of ETA receptor antagonist to the combined RAS and sEH blockade not only offered no additional renoprotection but, surprisingly, also abolished the beneficial effects of adding sEH inhibitor to the RAS blockade. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that pharmacological strategies that combine the blockade of RAS and sEH could be a novel tool to combat the progression of CKD. Any attempts to further extend this therapeutic regimen should be made with extreme caution.

4.
J Nephrol ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489594

RESUMO

The onset of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), characterized by glomerular deposition of IgA-containing immune complexes, is often associated with synpharyngitic hematuria. Innate immune responses mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) may play a role in IgAN onset and/or progression. Here, we assessed the expression of TLR 4, 7, 8, and 9 in renal-biopsy specimens from patients with IgAN, with different degree of proteinuria and eGFR, compared with normal-kidney and disease-control tissues (ANCA-associated vasculitis). Renal-biopsy specimens from 34 patients with IgAN and 7 patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis were used. In addition, we used 15 healthy portions of renal-tissue specimens from kidneys after nephrectomy for cancer as control specimens. Expression of TLR 4, 7, 8, and 9 was assessed using immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded renal-biopsy tissue specimens with specific antibodies and evaluated semiquantitatively by light microscopy. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to test whether intrarenal staining of TLR 4, 7, 8, and 9 distinguished patients with IgAN from controls or correlated with eGFR and/or proteinuria. eGFR was calculated using the creatinine-based formula. Moreover, the biopsies from patients with IgAN were scored according to the Oxford Classification. LDA showed that staining for TLR 4, 7, 8, and 9 was more intense in specimens from IgAN patients compared to normal kidney tissues. The intensity of intrarenal staining of TLRs discriminated four groups of IgAN patients with different eGFR and proteinuria and MEST scoring.

5.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Age is a risk factor for organ damage, adverse events, and mortality in microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). However, the relationship between treatment and damage, hospitalizations, and causes of death in elderly patients is largely unknown. METHODS: Consecutive patients from Sweden, England, and the Czech Republic diagnosed between 1997 and 2013 were included. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of MPA or GPA and age 75 years or more at diagnosis. Treatment with cyclophosphamide, rituximab, and corticosteroids the first three months was registered. Outcomes up to two years from diagnosis included vasculitis damage index (VDI), hospitalization, and cause of death. RESULTS: Treatment data was available for 167 of 202 patients. At two years, 4% had no items of damage. There was a positive association between VDI score at two years and Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score at onset, and a negative association with treatment using cyclophosphamide or rituximab. Intravenous methylprednisolone dose was associated with treatment-related damage. During the first year, 69% of patients were readmitted to hospital. MPO-ANCA positivity and lower creatinine levels decreased the odds for readmission. The most common cause of death was infection, and this was associated with cumulative oral prednisolone dose. CONCLUSION: Immunosuppressive treatment with cyclophosphamide or rituximab in elderly patients with MPA and GPA was associated with development of less permanent organ damage and was not associated with hospitalization. However, higher doses of corticosteroids during the first three months was associated with treatment-related damage and fatal infections.

7.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 44(3): 298-330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185475

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases within the metzincin protein family that not only cleave extracellular matrix (ECM) components, but also process the non-ECM molecules, including various growth factors and their binding proteins. MMPs participate in cell to ECM interactions, and MMPs are known to be involved in cell proliferation mechanisms and most probably apoptosis. These proteinases are grouped into six classes: collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, matrilysins, membrane type MMPs, and other MMPs. Various mechanisms regulate the activity of MMPs, inhibition by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases being the most important. In the kidney, intrinsic glomerular cells and tubular epithelial cells synthesize several MMPs. The measurement of circulating MMPs can provide valuable information in patients with kidney diseases. They play an important role in many renal diseases, both acute and chronic. This review attempts to summarize the current knowledge of MMPs in the kidney and discusses recent data from patient and animal studies with reference to specific diseases. A better understanding of the MMPs' role in renal remodeling may open the way to new interventions favoring deleterious renal changes in a number of kidney diseases.

9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(6): 736-745, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926722

RESUMO

Our objective was to update the EULAR recommendations for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), based on emerging new evidence. We performed a systematic literature review (01/2007-12/2017), followed by modified Delphi method, to form questions, elicit expert opinions and reach consensus. Treatment in SLE aims at remission or low disease activity and prevention of flares. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended in all patients with lupus, at a dose not exceeding 5 mg/kg real body weight. During chronic maintenance treatment, glucocorticoids (GC) should be minimised to less than 7.5 mg/day (prednisone equivalent) and, when possible, withdrawn. Appropriate initiation of immunomodulatory agents (methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate) can expedite the tapering/discontinuation of GC. In persistently active or flaring extrarenal disease, add-on belimumab should be considered; rituximab (RTX) may be considered in organ-threatening, refractory disease. Updated specific recommendations are also provided for cutaneous, neuropsychiatric, haematological and renal disease. Patients with SLE should be assessed for their antiphospholipid antibody status, infectious and cardiovascular diseases risk profile and preventative strategies be tailored accordingly. The updated recommendations provide physicians and patients with updated consensus guidance on the management of SLE, combining evidence-base and expert-opinion.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212254, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, has serious outcomes with end-stage renal disease developing in 30-50% of patients. The diagnosis requires renal biopsy. Due to its inherent risks, non-invasive approaches are needed. METHODS: We evaluated 91 Czech patients with biopsy-proven IgAN who were assessed at time of diagnosis for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and hypertension, and then followed prospectively. Serum samples collected at diagnosis were analyzed for galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) using new native-IgA1 and established neuraminidase-treated-IgA1 tests, Gd-IgA1-specific IgG autoantibodies, discriminant analysis and logistic regression model assessed correlations with renal function and Oxford classification (MEST score). RESULTS: Serum levels of native (P <0.005) and neuraminidase-treated (P <0.005) Gd-IgA1 were associated with the rate of eGFR decline. A higher relative degree of galactose deficiency in native serum IgA1 predicted a faster eGFR decline and poor renal survival (P <0.005). However, Gd-IgA1 has not differentiated patients with low vs. high baseline eGFR. Furthermore, patients with high baseline eGFR that was maintained during follow-up were characterized by low serum levels of Gd-IgA1-specific IgG autoantibodies (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Including levels of native and neuraminidase-treated Gd-IgA1 and Gd-IgA1-specific autoantibodies at diagnosis may aid in the prognostication of disease progression in Czech patients with IgAN. Future tests will assess utility of these biomarkers in larger patients cohorts from geographically distinct areas.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Galactose/sangue , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Galactose/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/mortalidade , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(3): 399-405, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cyclophosphamide induction regimens are effective for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), but are associated with infections, malignancies and infertility. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has shown high remission rates in small studies of AAV. METHODS: We conducted a randomised controlled trial to investigate whether MMF was non-inferior to cyclophosphamide for remission induction in AAV. 140 newly diagnosed patients were randomly assigned to MMF or pulsed cyclophosphamide. All patients received the same oral glucocorticoid regimen and were switched to azathioprine following remission. The primary endpoint was remission by 6 months requiring compliance with the tapering glucocorticoid regimen. Patients with an eGFR <15 mL/min were excluded from the study. RESULTS: At baseline, ANCA subtype, disease activity and organ involvement were similar between groups. Non-inferiority was demonstrated for the primary remission endpoint, which occurred in 47 patients (67%) in the MMF group and 43 patients (61%) in the cyclophosphamide group (risk difference 5.7%, 90% CI -7.5% to 19%). Following remission, more relapses occurred in the MMF group (23 patients, 33%) compared with the cyclophosphamide group (13 patients, 19%) (incidence rate ratio 1.97, 95% CI 0.96 to 4.23, p=0.049). In MPO-ANCA patients, relapses occurred in 12% of the cyclophosphamide group and 15% of the MMF group. In PR3-ANCA patients, relapses occurred in 24% of the cyclophosphamide group and 48% of the MMF group. Serious infections were similar between groups (26% MMF group, 17% cyclophosphamide group) (OR 1.67, 95% CI 0.68 to 4.19, p=0.3). CONCLUSION: MMF was non-inferior to cyclophosphamide for remission induction in AAV, but resulted in higher relapse rate. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00414128.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418652

RESUMO

Background: It is unknown whether renal pathology lesions in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) correlate with renal outcomes over decades of follow-up. Methods: In 1130 patients of the original Validation Study of the Oxford Classification for IgA Nephropathy (VALIGA) cohort, we studied the relationship between the MEST score (mesangial hypercellularity, M; endocapillary hypercellularity, E; segmental glomerulosclerosis, S; tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis, T), crescents (C) and other histological lesions with both a combined renal endpoint [50% estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) loss or kidney failure] and the rate of eGFR decline over a follow-up period extending to 35 years [median 7 years (interquartile range 4.1-10.8)]. Results: In this extended analysis, M1, S1 and T1-T2 lesions as well as the whole MEST score were independently related with the combined endpoint (P < 0.01), and there was no effect modification by age for these associations, suggesting that they may be valid in children and in adults as well. Only T lesions were associated with the rate of eGFR loss in the whole cohort, whereas C showed this association only in patients not treated with immunosuppression. In separate prognostic analyses, the whole set of pathology lesions provided a gain in discrimination power over the clinical variables alone, which was similar at 5 years (+2.0%) and for the whole follow-up (+1.8%). A similar benefit was observed for risk reclassification analyses (+2.7% and +2.4%). Conclusion: Long-term follow-up analyses of the VALIGA cohort showed that the independent relationship between kidney biopsy findings and the risk of progression towards kidney failure in IgAN remains unchanged across all age groups and decades after the renal biopsy.

13.
Eur Radiol ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Information on renal function required before specified radiological examinations with contrast agents is usually obtained through prediction equations using serum creatinine and anthropometric data. The aim of our study was to demonstrate discrepancy between poor prediction and good diagnostic accuracy of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by prediction equations. METHODS: In 50 patients, reference GFR was measured as plasma clearance of 51-chromium labeled ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic-acid (51Cr-EDTA) and compared with GFR assayed by creatinine clearance (CC) and estimated by Cockcroft-Gault prediction equation (CG). For comparisons, CC and CG were considered as continuous, categorical, and binary variables. Accuracy of the reference GFR prediction was expressed in terms of prediction errors and diagnostic accuracy indices. RESULTS: As continuous variable, CG estimated individual values of GFR with large prediction error exceeding that of CC. As categorical variable, it classified the patient stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with medium diagnostic accuracy of 74% (CKD 3) and 62% (CKD 4). As binary variable, CG classified individual patient's GFR below 30 and 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 with good diagnostic accuracy of 80 and 94%, respectively. Performance of other prediction equations did not significantly differ from CG. CONCLUSIONS: Despite large variance and poor prediction accuracy of individual GFR estimates, most of them correctly classified individual patient's GFR below specified level. Results of prediction equations thus should be used and reported exclusively as binary variables, while numerical values of GFR, if required, should be measured by more accurate radionuclide or laboratory methods. KEY POINTS: • Radiological guidelines on contrast media require estimation of glomerular filtration rate to assess kidney function before specified contrast examinations. • Estimated glomerular filtration rate is obtained through prediction equations using serum creatinine and anthropometric data as predictors. • While numerical estimates of glomerular filtration rate are inaccurate (their prediction accuracy is poor), diagnostic accuracy of binary estimates (ability to classify patient's glomerular filtration rate below or above a specified level) is very good.

14.
Am J Nephrol ; 48(6): 465-471, 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated glomerulonephritis (GN) classification has been demonstrated in several cohorts with sclerotic class having the worst renal outcome. Relevant published data on factors predicting outcomes in sclerotic ANCA GN is limited. METHODS: Sclerotic ANCA GN patients were recruited from 5 centers worldwide for this retrospective cohort study. We describe the clinical characteristics of this cohort and evaluate predictors of 1-year glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney function at 12 months as measured by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease estimated GFR (eGFR) was modeled by simple and multiple linear regression analyses. We used Cox proportional hazards regression modeling to evaluate ESRD-free survival. RESULTS: Of the 50 patients, 92% were Caucasian and 60% male with a mean age of 61 years. While 72% had renal limited disease, 82% were MPO ANCA positive. Kidney biopsies contained a median of 20 (interquartile range [IQR] 15-34) glomeruli with 96% showing moderate to severe interstitial fibrosis. Overall, 96% of patients received immunosuppressive drug therapy and 16% received plasmapheresis. Treatment response was achieved in all but 1 patient. The median (IQR) eGFR at entry was 14.5 (9-19) mL/min/1.73 m2. Over a median (IQR) follow-up of 33.5 (17-82) months, 26 patients reached ESRD. Ten patients died with 6 of the deaths occurring within the first year of diagnosis. The hazard of progression to ESRD was significantly higher in those with lower GFR at study entry (p = 0.003) and with higher degree of tubular atrophy (p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Renal recovery is rare among sclerotic ANCA GN patients requiring dialysis at entry and 12% of patients died in the first year. Entry GFR and tubular atrophy were significant predictors of GFR at 12 months and renal survival in patients with sclerotic class ANCA GN.

15.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(11): 2745-2754, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated and compared the effects of sparsentan, a dual endothelin type A (ETA) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, with those of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with primary FSGS. METHODS: In this phase 2, randomized, double-blind, active-control Efficacy and Safety of Sparsentan (RE-021), a Dual Endothelin Receptor and Angiotensin Receptor Blocker, in Patients with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS): A Randomized, Double-blind, Active-Control, Dose-Escalation Study (DUET), patients aged 8-75 years with biopsy-proven FSGS, eGFR>30 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (UP/C) ≥1.0 g/g received sparsentan (200, 400, or 800 mg/d) or irbesartan (300 mg/d) for 8 weeks, followed by open-label sparsentan only. End points at week 8 were reduction from baseline in UP/C (primary) and proportion of patients achieving FSGS partial remission end point (FPRE) (UP/C: ≤1.5 g/g and >40% reduction [secondary]). RESULTS: Of 109 patients randomized, 96 received study drugs and had baseline and week 8 UP/C measurements. Sparsentan-treated patients had greater reductions in UP/C than irbesartan-treated patients did when all doses (45% versus 19%; P=0.006) or the 400 and 800 mg doses (47% versus 19%; P=0.01) were pooled for analysis. The FSGS partial remission end point was achieved in 28% of sparsentan-treated and 9% of irbesartan-treated patients (P=0.04). After 8 weeks of treatment, BP was reduced with sparsentan but not irbesartan, and eGFR was stable with both treatments. Overall, the incidence of adverse events was similar between groups. Hypotension and edema were more common among sparsentan-treated patients but did not result in study withdrawals. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with FSGS achieved significantly greater reductions in proteinuria after 8 weeks of sparsentan versus irbesartan. Sparsentan was safe and well tolerated.

16.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endpoints currently used in lupus nephritis (LN) clinical trials lack uniformity and questionably reflect long-term kidney survival. The objective of this investigation was to identify short-term endpoints that predict long-term kidney outcomes for use in clinical trials. METHODS: A database of 944 LN patients was assembled from 3 clinical trials and 12 longitudinal cohorts. Variables from the first 12 months of treatment after diagnosis of active LN (prediction period) were assessed as potential predictors of long-term outcomes in a 36 month follow-up period. The long-term outcomes examined were new or progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD), severe kidney injury (SKI), and the need for permanent renal replacement therapy (RRT). Hazard Index Tools (HITs) to predict risk for each outcome were derived using multivariable analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Among 550 eligible subjects 54 CKD, 55 SKI and 22 RRT events occurred. Variables in the final CKD HIT were prediction period CKD status, 12-month proteinuria and12-month serum creatinine (SCr). The SKI HIT included prediction period CKD status, ISN Class, 12-month proteinuria, 12-month SCr, race and an interaction between ISN Class and 12-month proteinuria. The RRT HIT included age at diagnosis, 12-month proteinuria and 12-month SCr. Each HIT validated well internally (c-indices 0.84-0.92) and in an independent LN cohort (c-indices 0.83-0.92). CONCLUSION: HITs, derived from short-term kidney responses to treatment correlate with long-term kidney outcomes, and now must be validated as surrogate endpoints for LN clinical trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

17.
Kidney Int Rep ; 3(5): 1039-1049, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197970

RESUMO

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis (AAV) is associated with high morbidity or mortality, especially if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Many inroads have been made in the understanding of the pathophysiology that leads to exploration of novel therapies. Randomized controlled trials over the last 2 decades have better delineated and expanded therapeutic options and set the stage for an evidence-based approach. Since 2014, 4 scientific societies have systematically reviewed the existing data and have formulated evidence-based recommendations for the management of AAV. These recommendations cover diagnosis, remission induction and maintenance treatment, and prevention of long-term complications. This review is a comparative analysis of the recently published recommendations of the European League Against Rheumatism/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association, the British Society of Rheumatology, the Canadian Vasculitis Research Network, and the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology, and aims to determine common ground among them and highlights the differences among the recommendations.

18.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122544

RESUMO

RATIONAL & OBJECTIVE: Data for outcomes of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) are limited. We examined the incidence and prevalence of ESRD due to scleroderma in Europe and the outcomes among these patients following initiation of RRT. STUDY DESIGN: Registry study of incidence and prevalence and a matched cohort study of clinical outcomes. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Patients represented in any of 19 renal registries that provided data to the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry between 2002 and 2013. PREDICTOR: Scleroderma as the identified cause of ESRD. OUTCOMES: Incidence and prevalence of ESRD from scleroderma. Recovery from RRT dependence, patient survival after ESRD, and graft survival after kidney transplantation. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Incidence and prevalence were calculated using population data from the European Union and standardized to population characteristics in 2005. Patient and graft survival were compared with 2 age- and sex-matched control groups without scleroderma: (1) diabetes mellitus as the cause of ESRD and (2) conditions other than diabetes mellitus as the cause of ESRD. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression. RESULTS: 342 patients with scleroderma (0.14% of all incident RRT patients) were included. Between 2002 and 2013, the range of adjusted annual incidence and prevalence rates of RRT for ESRD due to scleroderma were 0.11 to 0.26 and 0.73 to 0.95 per million population, respectively. Recovery of independent kidney function was greatest in the scleroderma group (7.6% vs 0.7% in diabetes mellitus and 2.0% in other primary kidney diseases control group patients, both P<0.001), though time required to achieve recovery was longer. The 5-year survival probability from day 91 of RRT among patients with scleroderma was 38.9% (95% CI, 32.0%-45.8%), whereas 5-year posttransplantation patient survival and 5-year allograft survival were 88.2% (95% CI, 75.3%-94.6%) and 72.4% (95% CI, 55.0%-84.0%), respectively. Adjusted mortality from day 91 on RRT was higher among patients with scleroderma than observed in both control groups (HRs of 1.25 [95% CI, 1.05-1.48] and 2.00 [95% CI, 1.69-2.39]). In contrast, patient and graft survival after kidney transplantation did not differ between patients with scleroderma and control groups. LIMITATIONS: No data for extrarenal manifestations, treatment, or recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Survival of patients with scleroderma who receive dialysis for more than 90 days was worse than for those with other causes of ESRD. Patient survival after transplantation was similar to that observed among patients with ESRD due to other conditions. Patients with scleroderma had a higher rate of recovery from RRT dependence than controls.

19.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 147, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in INF2 are frequently responsible for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), which is a common cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD); additionally, they are also connected with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. INF2 encodes for inverted formin 2. This protein participates in regulation of the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, involving not only the polymerisation, but also the depolymerisation of filaments. The present study is the first mutational analysis of INF2 done in the Czech Republic. METHODS: Mutational analysis of INF2 was performed on 109 patients (mean age at onset 41.44 ± 18.91 years) with FSGS or minimal change disease (MCD); and also in 6 patients without renal biopsy who had already developed chronic kidney disease (CKD)/ESRD at the time of diagnosis. We used high resolution melting method (HRM), with subsequent Sanger sequencing, in suspect samples from HRM analysis. The HRM method is an effective method for the screening of large cohorts of patients. RESULTS: Two pathogenic mutations (p.Arg214His and p.Arg218Gln) were detected in INF2. The first (p.Arg214His) was identified in the FSGS patient with a positive family history. The second mutation (p.Arg218Gln) was found in two brothers with ESRD of unknown etiology. The most frequent sequence change was the substitution p.P35P, the incidence of which corresponded with the frequencies available in the ExAC Browser and gnomAD Browser databases. This analysis also detected different exonic and intronic changes that probably did not influence the phenotype of the included patients. CONCLUSIONS: The INF2 mutational screening is useful in familial FSGS cases as well as in patients with an unknown cause for their ESRD, but with a positive family history. INF2 seems to be not only the cause of FSGS, but also of ESRD of unknown etiology. Our study has confirmed that the HRM analysis is a very useful method for the identification of single nucleotide substitutions.

20.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 18(9): 989-996, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30040494

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represents a challenge due to variable disease manifestations, clinical course, and outcome. Long-term outcome in SLE remain unsatisfactory and a search for new therapeutic options is definitely warranted. Despite expectations, most clinical trials performed in SLE and lupus nephritis in the last decade did not reach primary outcome, and the only drug that has been licensed is belimumab. Areas covered: Results of negative trials testing monoclonal antibodies and other biologic agents in SLE are briefly summarized. Reasons for the failure of the trials are listed and discussed. Expert opinion: Future studies should recruit patients with similar organ involvement, better defined disease manifestations, higher activity, and similar severity. In addition to testing higher efficacy if given as add-on treatment to standard-of-care, the trials should be aimed at reducing dosing, or completely eliminating some parts of the current standard treatment, especially corticosteroids. Median follow-up of the patients should be longer. Moreover, specific biomarkers are needed to help to identify eligible patients and to better define response to treatment. An urgent unmet need is testing these new drugs in patients with severe SLE (including those refractory to current treatment).

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA