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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether the dose planned for cardiac structures is associated with the risk of heart disease (HD) in patients with breast cancer treated with radiation therapy, and whether this association is modified by the presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Radiation therapy planning computed tomographic (CT) scans and corresponding dose distribution maps of 5561 patients were collected, 5300 patients remained after the exclusion of ineligible patients and duplicates; 1899 patients received their CT scan before 2011, allowing long follow-up. CAC was detected automatically. Using an artificial intelligence-based method, the cardiac structures (heart, cardiac chambers, large arteries, 3 main coronary arteries) were segmented. The planned radiation dose to each structure separately and to the whole heart were determined. Patients were assigned to a low-, medium-, or high-dose group based on the dose to the respective heart structure. Information on HD hospitalization and mortality was obtained for each patient. The association of planned radiation dose to cardiac structures with risk of HD was investigated in patients with and without CAC using Cox proportional hazard analysis in the long follow-up population. Tests for interaction were performed. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 96.0 months (interquartile range, 84.2-110.4 months) in the long follow-up group, 135 patients were hospitalized for HD or died of HD. If the dose to a structure increased 1 Gy, the relative HD risk increased by 3% to 11%. The absolute increase in HD risk was substantially higher in patients with CAC (event-ratelow-dose = 14-15 vs event-ratehigh-dose = 15-34 per 1000 person-years) than in patients without CAC (event-ratelow-dose = 6-8 vs event-ratehigh-dose = 5-17 per 1000 person-years). No interaction between CAC and radiation dose was found. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation exposure of cardiac structures is associated with increased risk of HD. Automatic segmentation of cardiac structures enables spatially localized dose estimation, which can aid in the prevention of radiation therapy-induced cardiac damage. This could be especially valuable in patients with breast cancer and CAC.

2.
Front Physiol ; 12: 738926, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658923

RESUMO

Introduction: Computational models of the cardiovascular system are widely used to simulate cardiac (dys)function. Personalization of such models for patient-specific simulation of cardiac function remains challenging. Measurement uncertainty affects accuracy of parameter estimations. In this study, we present a methodology for patient-specific estimation and uncertainty quantification of parameters in the closed-loop CircAdapt model of the human heart and circulation using echocardiographic deformation imaging. Based on patient-specific estimated parameters we aim to reveal the mechanical substrate underlying deformation abnormalities in patients with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC). Methods: We used adaptive multiple importance sampling to estimate the posterior distribution of regional myocardial tissue properties. This methodology is implemented in the CircAdapt cardiovascular modeling platform and applied to estimate active and passive tissue properties underlying regional deformation patterns, left ventricular volumes, and right ventricular diameter. First, we tested the accuracy of this method and its inter- and intraobserver variability using nine datasets obtained in AC patients. Second, we tested the trueness of the estimation using nine in silico generated virtual patient datasets representative for various stages of AC. Finally, we applied this method to two longitudinal series of echocardiograms of two pathogenic mutation carriers without established myocardial disease at baseline. Results: Tissue characteristics of virtual patients were accurately estimated with a highest density interval containing the true parameter value of 9% (95% CI [0-79]). Variances of estimated posterior distributions in patient data and virtual data were comparable, supporting the reliability of the patient estimations. Estimations were highly reproducible with an overlap in posterior distributions of 89.9% (95% CI [60.1-95.9]). Clinically measured deformation, ejection fraction, and end-diastolic volume were accurately simulated. In presence of worsening of deformation over time, estimated tissue properties also revealed functional deterioration. Conclusion: This method facilitates patient-specific simulation-based estimation of regional ventricular tissue properties from non-invasive imaging data, taking into account both measurement and model uncertainties. Two proof-of-principle case studies suggested that this cardiac digital twin technology enables quantitative monitoring of AC disease progression in early stages of disease.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(17): e021580, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472371

RESUMO

Background Physical exercise is an intervention that might protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. In this meta-analysis and systematic review, we aimed to estimate the effect of exercise on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and to evaluate mechanisms underlying exercise-mediated cardioprotection using (pre)clinical evidence. Methods and Results We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases. Cochrane's and Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) risk-of-bias tools were used to assess the validity of human and animal studies, respectively. Cardiotoxicity outcomes reported by ≥3 studies were pooled and structured around the type of exercise intervention. Forty articles were included, of which 3 were clinical studies. Overall, in humans (sample sizes ranging from 24 to 61), results were indicative of exercise-mediated cardioprotection, yet they were not sufficient to establish whether physical exercise protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. In animal studies (n=37), a pooled analysis demonstrated that forced exercise interventions significantly mitigated in vivo and ex vivo doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity compared with nonexercised controls. Similar yet slightly smaller effects were found for voluntary exercise interventions. We identified oxidative stress and related pathways, and less doxorubicin accumulation as mechanisms underlying exercise-induced cardioprotection, of which the latter could act as an overarching mechanism. Conclusions Animal studies indicate that various exercise interventions can protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rodents. Less doxorubicin accumulation in cardiac tissue could be a key underlying mechanism. Given the preclinical evidence and limited availability of clinical data, larger and methodologically rigorous clinical studies are needed to clarify the role of physical exercise in preventing cardiotoxicity in patients with cancer. Registration URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero; Unique identifier: CRD42019118218.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516619

RESUMO

AIMS : Phospholamban (PLN) p.Arg14del mutation carriers are at risk of developing malignant ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and/or heart failure. Currently, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) plays an important role in risk assessment for VA in these individuals. We aimed to study the incremental prognostic value of left ventricular mechanical dispersion (LVMD) by echocardiographic deformation imaging for prediction of sustained VA in PLN p.Arg14del mutation carriers. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 243 PLN p.Arg14del mutation carriers, which were classified into three groups according to the '45/45' rule: (i) normal left ventricular (LV) function, defined as preserved LVEF ≥45% with normal LVMD ≤45 ms (n = 139), (ii) mechanical LV dysfunction, defined as preserved LVEF ≥45% with abnormal LVMD >45 ms (n = 63), and (iii) overt LV dysfunction, defined as reduced LVEF <45% (n = 41). During a median follow-up of 3.3 (interquartile range 1.8-6.0) years, sustained VA occurred in 35 individuals. The negative predictive value of having normal LV function at baseline was 99% [95% confidence interval (CI): 92-100%] for developing sustained VA. The positive predictive value of mechanical LV dysfunction was 20% (95% CI: 15-27%). Mechanical LV dysfunction was an independent predictor of sustained VA in multivariable analysis [hazard ratio adjusted for VA history: 20.48 (95% CI: 2.57-162.84)]. CONCLUSION : LVMD has incremental prognostic value on top of LVEF in PLN p.Arg14del mutation carriers, particularly in those with preserved LVEF. The '45/45' rule is a practical approach to echocardiographic risk stratification in this challenging group of patients. This approach may also have added value in other diseases where LVEF deterioration is a relative late marker of myocardial dysfunction.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(10): 1577-1596, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482622

RESUMO

Circulating biomarkers and imaging techniques provide independent and complementary information to guide management of heart failure (HF). This consensus document by the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) presents current evidence-based indications relevant to integration of imaging techniques and biomarkers in HF. The document first focuses on application of circulating biomarkers together with imaging findings, in the broad domains of screening, diagnosis, risk stratification, guidance of treatment and monitoring, and then discusses specific challenging settings. In each section we crystallize clinically relevant recommendations and identify directions for future research. The target readership of this document includes cardiologists, internal medicine specialists and other clinicians dealing with HF patients.

7.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(7): 1024-1032, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956083

RESUMO

Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is common in patients treated for breast cancer, especially in patients treated with systemic treatment and radiotherapy and in those with preexisting CVD risk factors. Coronary artery calcium (CAC), a strong independent CVD risk factor, can be automatically quantified on radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT) scans and may help identify patients at increased CVD risk. Objective: To evaluate the association of CAC with CVD and coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter cohort study of 15 915 patients with breast cancer receiving radiotherapy between 2005 and 2016 who were followed until December 31, 2018, age, calendar year, and treatment-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association of CAC with CVD and CAD. Exposures: Overall CAC scores were automatically extracted from planning CT scans using a deep learning algorithm. Patients were classified into Agatston risk categories (0, 1-10, 11-100, 101-399, >400 units). Main Outcomes and Measures: Occurrence of fatal and nonfatal CVD and CAD were obtained from national registries. Results: Of the 15 915 participants included in this study, the mean (SD) age at CT scan was 59.0 (11.2; range, 22-95) years, and 15 879 (99.8%) were women. Seventy percent (n = 11 179) had no CAC. Coronary artery calcium scores of 1 to 10, 11 to 100, 101 to 400, and greater than 400 were present in 10.0% (n = 1584), 11.5% (n = 1825), 5.2% (n = 830), and 3.1% (n = 497) respectively. After a median follow-up of 51.2 months, CVD risks increased from 5.2% in patients with no CAC to 28.2% in patients with CAC scores higher than 400. After adjustment, CVD risk increased with higher CAC score (hazard ratio [HR]CAC = 1-10 = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9-1.4; HRCAC = 11-100 = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.1; HRCAC = 101-400 = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.7-2.6; and HRCAC>400 = 3.4; 95% CI, 2.8-4.2). Coronary artery calcium was particularly strongly associated with CAD (HRCAC>400 = 7.8; 95% CI, 5.5-11.2). The association between CAC and CVD was strongest in patients treated with anthracyclines (HRCAC>400 = 5.8; 95% CI, 3.0-11.4) and patients who received a radiation boost (HRCAC>400 = 6.1; 95% CI, 3.8-9.7). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that coronary artery calcium on breast cancer radiotherapy planning CT scan results was associated with CVD, especially CAD. Automated CAC scoring on radiotherapy planning CT scans may be used as a fast and low-cost tool to identify patients with breast cancer at increased risk of CVD, allowing implementing CVD risk-mitigating strategies with the aim to reduce the risk of CVD burden after breast cancer. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03206333.

8.
Echocardiography ; 38(6): 951-963, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiotoxicity is a well-known side effect after anthracyclines and chest radiotherapy in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). The DCCSS LATER 2 CARD (cardiology) study includes evaluation of echocardiographic measurements for early identification of CCS at highest risk of developing heart failure. This paper describes the design, feasibility, and reproducibility of the echocardiography protocol. METHODS: Echocardiograms from CCS and sibling controls were prospectively obtained at the participating centers and centrally analyzed. We describe the image acquisition, measurement protocol, and software-specific considerations for myocardial strain analyses. We report the feasibility of the primary outcomes of systolic and diastolic function, as well as reproducibility analyses in 30 subjects. RESULTS: We obtained 1,679 echocardiograms. Biplane ejection fraction (LVEF) measurement was feasible in 91% and 96% of CCS and siblings, respectively, global longitudinal strain (GLS) in 80% and 91%, global circumferential strain (GCS) in 86% and 89%, and ≥2 diastolic function parameters in 99% and 100%, right ventricle free wall strain (RVFWS) in 57% and 65%, and left atrial reservoir strain (LASr) in 72% and 79%. Intra-class correlation coefficients for inter-observer variability were 0.85 for LVEF, 0.76 for GLS, 0.70 for GCS, 0.89 for RVFWS and 0.89 for LASr. Intra-class correlation coefficients for intra-observer variability were 0.87 for LVEF, 0.82 for GLS, 0.82 for GCS, 0.85 for RVFWS and 0.79 for LASr. CONCLUSION: The DCCSS LATER 2 CARD study includes a protocolized echocardiogram, with feasible and reproducible primary outcome measurements. This ensures high-quality outcome data for prevalence estimates and for reliable comparison of cardiac function parameters.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Cardiologia , Neoplasias , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Cardiotoxicidade , Criança , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Ecocardiografia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda
9.
Heart Rhythm ; 18(10): 1666-1672, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) is diagnosed in patients with sudden onset of ventricular fibrillation of unidentified origin. New diagnostic tools that can detect subtle abnormalities are needed to diagnose and treat patients with an underlying substrate. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore echocardiographic deformation characteristics in IVF patients. METHODS: Echocardiograms were analyzed with deformation imaging by 2-dimensional speckle tracking. Global and regional measurements of the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) were performed. Regional LV deformation patterns were evaluated for the presence of postsystolic shortening. Regional RV deformation patterns were classified as type I (normal) or type II/III (abnormal). RESULTS: In total, 47 IVF patients (mean age 45 years; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] 56%) and 47 healthy controls (mean age 41 years; LVEF 60%) were included. IVF patients showed more global deformation abnormalities as indicated by lower LV global longitudinal strain (18.5% ± 2.6% vs 21.6% ± 1.8%; P <.001) and higher LV mechanical dispersion (41 ± 12 ms vs 26 ± 6 ms; P <.001). In addition, IVF patients showed more regional LV postsystolic shortening compared to healthy controls (50% vs 11%; P <.001). Abnormal RV deformation patterns were observed in 16% of IVF patients and in none of the control subjects (P <.001). CONCLUSION: We were able to show both regional and global echocardiographic deformation abnormalities in IVF patients. This study provides evidence that localized myocardial disease is present in a subset of IVF patients.

10.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863836

RESUMO

Over the past decades, prognosis of patients with cancer has strongly improved and the number of cancer survivors is rapidly growing. Despite this success, cancer treatment is associated with development of serious cardiovascular diseases including left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, heart failure, valvular disease, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias or pericardial diseases. Serial non-invasive cardiac imaging is an important tool to detect early signs of cardiotoxicity, to allow for timely intervention and provide optimal circumstances for long-term prognosis. Currently, echocardiographic imaging is the method of choice for the evaluation of myocardial function during and after cancer therapy. However, 2D echocardiography may fail to detect subtle changes in myocardial function, potentially resulting in a significant delay of therapeutic intervention to impede advanced cardiac disease states with more overt systolic dysfunction. Strain imaging is a promising method for early detection of myocardial dysfunction and may predict future changes in LV ejection fraction. The use of three-dimensional echocardiography may overcome the limitations of 2D echocardiography with more precise and reproducible measurements of LV performance. Cardiac MRI is the gold standard for volumetric assessment and can also be used to perform myocardial tissue characterisation. Visualisation of oedema and fibrosis may provide insights into the degree and disease course of cardiotoxicity and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. There is growing body of literature regarding the promising role of these advanced imaging modalities in early detection of cardiotoxicity. With this overview paper, new insights and recent results in literature regarding echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction in post-cancer therapy adults will be highlighted.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/métodos , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiotoxicidade , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Humanos
11.
Europace ; 23(23 Suppl 1): i153-i160, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751081

RESUMO

AIMS: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is an inherited cardiac disease, characterized by life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and progressive cardiac dysfunction. The aim of this study is to use computer simulations to non-invasively estimate the individual patient's myocardial tissue substrates underlying regional right ventricular (RV) deformation abnormalities in a cohort of AC mutation carriers. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 68 AC mutation carriers and 20 control subjects, regional longitudinal deformation patterns of the RV free wall (RVfw), interventricular septum (IVS), and left ventricular free wall (LVfw) were obtained using speckle-tracking echocardiography. We developed and used a patient-specific parameter estimation protocol based on the multi-scale CircAdapt cardiovascular system model to create virtual AC subjects. Using the individual's deformation data as model input, this protocol automatically estimated regional RVfw and global IVS and LVfw tissue properties. The computational model was able to reproduce clinically measured regional deformation patterns for all subjects, with highly reproducible parameter estimations. Simulations revealed that regional RVfw heterogeneity of both contractile function and compliance were increased in subjects with clinically advanced disease compared to mutation carriers without clinically established disease (17 ± 13% vs. 8 ± 4%, P = 0.01 and 18 ± 11% vs. 10 ± 7%, P < 0.01, respectively). No significant difference in activation delay was found. CONCLUSION: Regional RV deformation abnormalities in AC mutation carriers were related to reduced regional contractile function and tissue compliance. In clinically advanced disease stages, a characteristic apex-to-base heterogeneity of tissue abnormalities was present in the majority of the subjects, with most pronounced disease in the basal region of the RVfw.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Simulação por Computador , Ecocardiografia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Modelos Cardiovasculares
12.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(5): 900-910, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582062

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to perform an external validation of the value of right ventricular (RV) deformation patterns and RV mechanical dispersion in patients with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC). Secondly, this study assessed the association of these parameters with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia (VA). BACKGROUND: Subtle RV dysfunction assessed by echocardiographic deformation imaging is valuable in AC diagnosis and risk prediction. Two different methods have emerged, the RV deformation pattern recognition and RV mechanical dispersion, but these have neither been externally validated nor compared. METHODS: We analyzed AC probands and mutation-positive family members, matched from 2 large European referral centers. We performed speckle tracking echocardiography, whereby we classified the subtricuspid deformation patterns from normal to abnormal and assessed RV mechanical dispersion from 6 segments. We defined VA as sustained ventricular tachycardia, appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, or aborted cardiac arrest. RESULTS: We included 160 subjects, 80 from each center (43% proband, 55% women, age 41 ± 17 years). VA had occurred in 47 (29%) subjects. In both cohorts, patients with a history of VA showed abnormal deformation patterns (96% and 100%) and had greater RV mechanical dispersion (53 ± 30 ms vs. 30 ± 21 ms; p < 0.001 for the total cohort). Both parameters were independently associated to VA (adjusted odds ratio: 2.71 [95% confidence interval: 1.47 to 5.00] per class step-up, and 1.26 [95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 1.49]/10 ms, respectively). The association with VA significantly improved when adding RV mechanical dispersion to pattern recognition (net reclassification improvement 0.42; p = 0.02 and integrated diagnostic improvement 0.06; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We externally validated 2 RV dysfunction parameters in AC. Adding RV mechanical dispersion to RV deformation patterns significantly improved the association with life-threatening VA, indicating incremental value.


Assuntos
Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita , Taquicardia Ventricular , Adulto , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/genética , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(5): 885-896, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore echocardiographic characteristics of phospholamban (PLN) p.Arg14del mutation carriers to investigate whether structural and/or functional abnormalities could be identified before onset of symptoms. BACKGROUND: Carriers of the genetic PLN p.Arg14del mutation may develop arrhythmogenic and/or dilated cardiomyopathy. Overt disease is preceded by a pre-symptomatic phase of variable length in which disease expression seems to be absent. METHODS: PLN p.Arg14del mutation carriers with an available echocardiogram were included. Mutation carriers were classified as pre-symptomatic if they had no history of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs), a premature ventricular complex count of <500/24 h, and a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction of ≥45%. In addition, we included 70 control subjects with similar age and sex distribution as the pre-symptomatic mutation carriers. Comprehensive echocardiographic analysis (including deformation imaging) was performed. RESULTS: The final study population consisted of 281 PLN p.Arg14del mutation carriers, 139 of whom were classified as pre-symptomatic. In comparison to control subjects, pre-symptomatic mutation carriers had lower global longitudinal strain and higher LV mechanical dispersion (both p < 0.001). In addition, post-systolic shortening (PSS) in the LV apex was observed in 43 pre-symptomatic mutation carriers (31%) and in none of the control subjects. During a median follow-up of 3.2 years (interquartile range: 2.1 to 5.6 years) in 104 pre-symptomatic mutation carriers, nonsustained VA occurred in 13 (13%). Presence of apical PSS was the strongest echocardiographic predictor of VA (multivariable hazards ratio: 5.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37 to 19.08; p = 0.015), which resulted in a negative predictive value of 96% (95% CI: 89% to 98%) and a positive predictive value of 29% (95% CI: 21% to 40%). CONCLUSIONS: Global and regional LV mechanical alterations in PLN p.Arg14del mutation carriers precede arrhythmic symptoms and overt structural disease. Pre-symptomatic mutation carriers with normal deformation patterns in the apex are at low risk of developing VA within 3 years, whereas mutation carriers with apical PSS appear to be at higher risk.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
14.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 22(8): 950-958, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462176

RESUMO

AIMS: Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and feature tracking cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (FT-CMR) are advanced imaging techniques which are both used for quantification of global and regional myocardial strain. Direct comparisons of STE and FT-CMR regarding right ventricular (RV) strain analysis are limited. We aimed to study clinical performance, correlation and agreement of RV strain by these techniques, using arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) as a model for RV disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 110 subjects, including 34 patients with definite ARVC, 30 preclinical relatives of ARVC patients, and 46 healthy control subjects. Global and regional RV longitudinal peak strain (PS) were measured by STE and FT-CMR. Both modalities showed reduced strain values in ARVC patients compared to ARVC relatives (STE global PS: P < 0.001; FT-CMR global PS: P < 0.001) and reduced strain values in ARVC relatives compared to healthy control subjects (STE global PS: P = 0.042; FT-CMR global PS: P = 0.084). There was a moderate, albeit significant correlation between RV strain values obtained by STE and FT-CMR [global PS r = 0.578 (95% confidence interval 0.427-0.697), P < 0.001]. Agreement between the techniques was weak (limits of agreement for global PS: ±11.8%). Correlation and agreement both deteriorated when regional strain was studied. CONCLUSION: RV STE and FT-CMR show a similar trend within the spectrum of ARVC and have significant correlation, but inter-modality agreement is weak. STE and FT-CMR may therefore both individually have added value for assessment of RV function, but RV PS values obtained by these techniques currently cannot be used interchangeably in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Função Ventricular Direita
15.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(7): 1790-1801, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520995

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a commonly occurring arrhythmia after cardiac surgery (postoperative AF, poAF) and is associated with poorer outcomes. Considering that reduced atrial contractile function is a predictor of poAF and that Ca2+ plays an important role in both excitation-contraction coupling and atrial arrhythmogenesis, this study aims to test whether alterations of intracellular Ca2+ handling contribute to impaired atrial contractility and to the arrhythmogenic substrate predisposing patients to poAF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Right atrial appendages were obtained from patients in sinus rhythm undergoing open-heart surgery. Cardiomyocytes were investigated by simultaneous measurement of [Ca2+]i and action potentials (APs, patch-clamp). Patients were followed-up for 6 days to identify those with and without poAF. Speckle-tracking analysis of preoperative echocardiography revealed reduced left atrial contraction strain in poAF patients. At the time of surgery, cellular Ca2+ transients (CaTs) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content were smaller in the poAF group. CaT decay was slower in poAF, but the decay of caffeine-induced Ca2+ transients was unaltered, suggesting preserved sodium-calcium exchanger function. In agreement, western blots revealed reduced SERCA2a expression in poAF patients but unaltered phospholamban expression/phosphorylation. Computational modelling indicated that reduced SERCA activity promotes occurrence of CaT and AP alternans. Indeed, alternans of CaT and AP occurred more often and at lower stimulation frequencies in atrial myocytes from poAF patients. Resting membrane potential and AP duration were comparable between both groups at various pacing frequencies (0.25-8 Hz). CONCLUSIONS: Biochemical, functional, and modelling data implicate reduced SERCA-mediated Ca2+ reuptake into the SR as a major contributor to impaired preoperative atrial contractile function and to the pre-existing arrhythmogenic substrate in patients developing poAF.

16.
Cardiooncology ; 6: 23, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072403

RESUMO

Background: Anthracycline-induced cardiac dysfunction (ACD) is a notorious side effect of anticancer treatment. It has been described as a phenomenon of a continuous progressive decline of cardiac function, eventually leading to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This progressive nature suggests that patients with a delayed ACD diagnosis have greater compromise of cardiac function and more adverse remodeling, with a poor response to heart failure (HF) treatment. This study aimed to delineate the impact of a delayed ACD diagnosis on echocardiographic characteristics and response to HF treatment. Methods and results: From the population of our cardio-oncology outpatient clinic, 92 ACD patients were included in this study (age 51.6 ± 16.2 years, median cumulative anthracycline dose 329 [200-329] mg/m2), and a median follow-up of 25.0 [9.6-37.2] months after ACD diagnosis. Median time to ACD diagnosis for patients diagnosed early (< 1 year) and late (> 1 year) was 4.0 vs. 47.7 months respectively. There were no echocardiographic differences between patients diagnosed early vs. late (LVEF 43.6 ± 4.9% vs. 43.0 ± 6.2% and iEDV 63.6 vs. 62.9 mL/m2). Eighty-three percent of patients presented with mild LV dysfunction and in 79% the LV was not dilated. Patients diagnosed early were more likely to have (partial) recovery of cardiac function upon HF treatment initiation (p = 0.015). Conclusions: In the setting of a cardio-oncology outpatient clinic, patients with ACD presented with a hypokinetic non-dilated cardiomyopathy, rather than typical DCM. Timing of ACD diagnosis did not impact HF disease severity. However, in patients receiving an early diagnosis, cardiac function was more likely to recover upon HF treatment.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13945, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811874

RESUMO

Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are microcirculation defects following diabetes mellitus (DM). Unrecognized HFpEF is more prevalent in women with diabetes compared to men with diabetes and therefore sex-specific diagnostic strategies are needed. Previously, we demonstrated altered plasma miRs in DM patients with microvascular injury [defined by elevated plasma Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) levels]. This study hypothesized the presence of sex-differences in plasma miRs and Ang-2 in diabetic (female) patients with LVDD or HFpEF. After a pilot study, we assessed 16 plasma miRs in patients with LVDD (n = 122), controls (n = 244) and female diabetic patients (n = 10). Subsequently, among these miRs we selected and measured plasma miR-34a, -224 and -452 in diabetic HFpEF patients (n = 53) and controls (n = 52). In LVDD patients, miR-34a associated with Ang-2 levels (R2 0.04, R = 0.21, p = 0.001, 95% CI 0.103-0.312), with plasma levels being diminished in patients with DM, while women with an eGFR < 60 ml/min and LVDD had lower levels of miR-34a, -224 and -452 compared to women without an eGFR < 60 ml/min without LVDD. In diabetic HFpEF women (n = 28), plasma Ang-2 levels and the X-chromosome located miR-224/452 cluster increased compared to men. We conclude that plasma miR-34a, -224 and -452 display an association with the microvascular injury marker Ang-2 and are particularly targeted to women with LVDD or HFpEF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Angiopoietina-2/análise , Angiopoietina-2/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Caracteres Sexuais , Volume Sistólico/genética , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
18.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 378(2173): 20190347, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448061

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is an inherited cardiac disease, clinically characterized by life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and progressive cardiac dysfunction. Patient-specific computational models could help understand the disease progression and may help in clinical decision-making. We propose an inverse modelling approach using the CircAdapt model to estimate patient-specific regional abnormalities in tissue properties in AC subjects. However, the number of parameters (n = 110) and their complex interactions make personalized parameter estimation challenging. The goal of this study is to develop a framework for parameter reduction and estimation combining Morris screening, quasi-Monte Carlo (qMC) simulations and particle swarm optimization (PSO). This framework identifies the best subset of tissue properties based on clinical measurements allowing patient-specific identification of right ventricular tissue abnormalities. We applied this framework on 15 AC genotype-positive subjects with varying degrees of myocardial disease. Cohort studies have shown that atypical regional right ventricular (RV) deformation patterns reveal an early-stage AC disease. The CircAdapt model of cardiovascular mechanics and haemodynamics has already demonstrated its ability to capture typical deformation patterns of AC subjects. We, therefore, use clinically measured cardiac deformation patterns to estimate model parameters describing myocardial disease substrates underlying these AC-related RV deformation abnormalities. Morris screening reduced the subset to 48 parameters. qMC and PSO further reduced the subset to a final selection of 16 parameters, including regional tissue contractility, passive stiffness, activation delay and wall reference area. This article is part of the theme issue 'Uncertainty quantification in cardiac and cardiovascular modelling and simulation'.


Assuntos
Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/genética , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Mutação , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/complicações , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/patologia , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Método de Monte Carlo , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/complicações , Adulto Jovem
19.
Echocardiography ; 37(5): 698-705, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different disease stages of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) can be identified by right ventricle (RV) longitudinal deformation (strain) patterns. This requires assessment of the onset of shortening, (systolic) peak strain, and postsystolic index, which is time-consuming and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability. The aim of this study was to design and validate an algorithm to automatically classify RV deformation patterns. METHODS: We developed an algorithm based on specific local characteristics from the strain curves to detect the parameters required for classification. Determination of the onset of shortening by the algorithm was compared to manual determination by an experienced operator in a dataset containing 186 RV strain curves from 26 subjects carrying a pathogenic plakophilin-2 (PKP2) mutation and 36 healthy subjects. Classification agreement between operator and algorithm was solely based on differences in onset shortening, as the remaining parameters required for classification of RV deformation patterns could be directly obtained from the strain curves. RESULTS: The median difference between the onset of shortening determined by the experienced operator and by the automatic detector was 5.3 ms [inter-quartile range (IQR) 2.7-8.6 ms]. 96% of the differences were within 1 time frame. Both methods correlated significantly with ρ = 0.97 (P < .001). For 26 PKP2 mutation carriers, there was 100% agreement in classification between the algorithm and experienced operator. CONCLUSION: The determination of the onset of shortening by the experienced operator was comparable to the algorithm. Our computer algorithm seems a promising method for the automatic classification of RV deformation patterns. The algorithm is publicly available at the MathWorks File Exchange.


Assuntos
Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita , Algoritmos , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/genética , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Mutação
20.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(4): e295-e308, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients treated for non-Hodgkin lymphoma are at risk of cardiovascular adverse events, with the risk of heart failure being particularly high. A regimen of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, with (R-CHOP) or without (CHOP) rituximab is the standard first-line treatment for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide are both associated with left ventricular dysfunction. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the cardiovascular toxicity of this regimen. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from database inception to June 3, 2019, for clinical trials and observational studies in adult patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma not otherwise specified) that received first-line treatment with R-CHOP or CHOP. Studies reporting on cardiovascular adverse events and treatment-related cardiovascular mortality were included. Abstracts and articles not written in English were excluded. The main outcomes were the proportion of patients with grade 3-4 cardiovascular adverse events and heart failure. Meta-analyses of one-sample proportions were done in all patients receiving CHOP or R-CHOP. Subgroup analyses on summary estimates were done to determine the effect of number of CHOP or R-CHOP cycles, cycle interval, age, and sex. FINDINGS: Of 2314 identified entries, 137 studies (21 211 patients) published between April, 1984, and June, 2019 were eligible (9541 patients treated with CHOP, 11 293 patients treated with R-CHOP, 377 both regimens used in the study; median follow-up 39·0 months [IQR 25·5-52·8]). From the included studies, 85 subgroups were treated with CHOP, 76 with R-CHOP, and in four studies both CHOP and R-CHOP were used without a subdivision in separate groups. The pooled proportion for grade 3-4 cardiovascular adverse events, based on 77 studies (n=14 351 patients), was 2·35% (95% CI 1·81-2·93; heterogeneity test Q=326·21; τ2=0·0042; I2=71·40%; p<0·0001). For heart failure, the pooled proportion, based on 38 studies (n=5936 patients), was 4·62% (2·25-7·65; heterogeneity test Q=527·33; τ2=0·0384; I2=95·05%; p<0·0001), with a significant increase in reported heart failure from 1·64% (95% CI 0·82-2·65) to 11·72% (3·00-24·53) when cardiac function was evaluated post-chemotherapy (p=0·017). 53 (39%) of 137 studies were rated as having high risk of bias for incomplete outcome data and 54 (39%) for selective reporting. INTERPRETATION: The considerable increase of reported heart failures with cardiac monitoring, indicates that this complication often remains undiagnosed in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who received first-line R-CHOP or CHOP. Our findings are of importance to raise awareness of this complication among clinicians treating patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and stresses the need for cardiac monitoring during and after chemotherapy. Prompt initiation of treatment for heart failure in the presymptomatic phase can mitigate the progression to more advanced heart failure stages. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/efeitos adversos , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
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