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1.
ASAIO J ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764005

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival to hospital discharge for patients on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) when stratified by age. We performed a retrospective study at single, academic, tertiary care center intensive care unit for VV ECMO. All patients, older than 17 years of age, on VV ECMO admitted to a specialized intensive care unit for the management of VV ECMO between August 2014 and May 2018 were included in the study. Trauma and bridge-to-lung transplant patients were excluded for this analysis. Demographics, pre-ECMO and ECMO data were collected. Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge when stratified by age. Secondary outcomes included time on VV ECMO and hospital length of stay (HLOS). One hundred eighty-two patients were included. Median P/F ratio at time of cannulation was 69 [56-85], and respiratory ECMO survival prediction (RESP) score was 3 [1-5]. Median time on ECMO was 319 [180-567] hours. Overall survival to hospital discharge was 75.8%. Lowess and cubic spline curves demonstrated an inflection point associated with increased mortality at age >45 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated significantly greater survival in patients <45 years of age (p = 0.0001). Survival to hospital discharge for those

2.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 1028-1032, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638519

RESUMO

Hospitalizations for peptic ulcer disease (PUD) have decreased since the advent of specific medical therapy in the 1980s. The authors' clinical experience at a tertiary center, however, has been that procedures to treat PUD complications have not declined. This study tested the hypothesis that despite decreases in PUD hospitalizations, the volume of procedures for PUD complications has remained consistent. The study population included all inpatient encounters in the state of Maryland from 2009 to 2014 with a primary ICD-9 diagnosis code for PUD. Data on annual patient volume, demographics, anatomic location, procedures, complications, and outcomes were collected, and PUD prevalence rates were calculated. The study population consisted of the state's entire population, not a sample; statistical analysis was not applied. Hospitalizations for PUD declined from 2,502 in 2009 to 2,101 in 2014, whereas the percentage of hospitalizations with procedures increased from 27.1 to 31.5 per cent. Endoscopy was performed in 19.8 per cent of hospitalizations, operation in 9.4 per cent, and angiography in 1.3 per cent. Of 13,974 inpatient encounters, 30 per cent had at least one inhospital complication. Overall inpatient mortality was 2.2 per cent. PUD hospitalizations are declining in Maryland, mirroring national trends. A subset of patients continue to need urgent procedures for PUD complications, including nearly 10 per cent needing operation. Inpatient mortality among patients admitted for PUD was 2.2 per cent, congruent with other studies. Despite the efficacy of modern medical therapy, these data underscore the importance of teaching surgical residents the cognitive and operative skills necessary to manage PUD complications.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Úlcera Péptica/complicações , Úlcera Péptica/cirurgia , Angiografia/efeitos adversos , Angiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Maryland/epidemiologia , Úlcera Péptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Úlcera Péptica/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia
3.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 747-751, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405421

RESUMO

The ACGME work hour restrictions facilitated increased utilization of service-based advanced practice providers (APPs) to offset reduced general surgery resident work hours. Information regarding attending surgeon perceptions of APP impact is limited. The aim of this survey was to gauge these perceptions with respect to workload, length of stay (LOS), safety, best practice, level of function, and clinical judgment. Attending surgeons on surgical teams that employ service-based APPs at an urban tertiary referral center responded to a survey at the completion of academic year 2016. Perceptions regarding APP impact on workload, LOS, safety, best practice, level of function, and clinical judgment were examined. Twenty-two attending surgeons (40%) responded. Respondents agreed that APPs always/usually decrease their workload (77%), decrease LOS (64%), improve safety (68%), contribute to best practice (82%), and decrease near misses (71%). They also agreed that APPs decrease resident workload (87%), but fewer agreed that APPs contribute to resident education (68%). The majority perceived APPs function at the PGY1/2 (43%) or PGY3 (39%) level and always/usually trust their clinical judgment (72%), and felt there was variability in level of function among APPs (56%). This single-center study illustrates that attending surgeons perceive a positive impact on patient care by service-based APPs.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Internato e Residência , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Adulto , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Carga de Trabalho
4.
Am Surg ; 85(6): 595-600, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267899

RESUMO

Interhospital transfer of emergency general surgery (EGS) patients is a common occurrence. Modern individual hospital practices for interhospital transfers have unknown variability. A retrospective review of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database was undertaken from 2013 to 2015. EGS encounters were divided into three groups: encounters not transferred, encounters transferred from a hospital, and encounters transferred to a hospital. In total, 380,405 EGS encounters were identified, including 12,153 (3.2%) encounters transferred to a hospital, 10,163 (2.7%) encounters transferred from a hospital, and 358,089 (94.1%) encounters not transferred. For individual hospitals, percentage of encounters transferred to a hospital ranged from 0 to 30.05 per cent, encounters transferred from a hospital from 0.02 to 14.62 per cent, and encounters not transferred from 69.25 to 99.95 per cent of total encounters at individual hospitals. Percentage of encounters transferred from individual hospitals was inversely correlated with annual EGS hospital volume (P < 0.001, r = -0.59), whereas percentage of encounters transferred to individual hospitals was directly correlated with annual EGS hospital volume (P < 0.001, r = 0.51). Individual hospital practices for interhospital transfer of EGS patients have substantial variability. This is the first study to describe individual hospital interhospital transfer practices for EGS.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Emergências , Feminino , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos , Humanos , Relações Interinstitucionais , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Maryland , Estudos Retrospectivos , Contrato de Transferência de Pacientes
5.
J Surg Res ; 243: 391-398, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the frequent occurrence of interhospital transfers in emergency general surgery (EGS), rates of transfer of complications are undescribed. Improved understanding of hospital transfer patterns has a multitude of implications, including quality measurement. The objective of this study was to describe individual hospital transfer rates of mortal encounters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken from 2013 to 2015 of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database. Two groups of EGS encounters were identified: encounters with death following transfer and encounters with death without transfer. The percentage of mortal encounters transferred was defined as the percentage of EGS hospital encounters with mortality initially presenting to a hospital transferred to another hospital before death at the receiving hospital. RESULTS: Overall, 370,242 total EGS encounters were included, with 17,003 (4.6%) of the total EGS encounters with mortality. Encounters with death without transfer encompassed 15,604 (91.8%) of mortal EGS encounters and encounters with death following transfer 1399 (8.2%). EGS disease categories of esophageal varices or perforation, necrotizing fasciitis, enterocutaneous fistula, and pancreatitis had over 10% of these total mortal encounters with death following transfer. For individual hospitals, percentage of mortal encounters transferred ranged from 0.8% to 35.2%. The percentage of mortal encounters transferred was inversely correlated with annual EGS hospital volume for all state hospitals (P < 0.001, r = -0.57). CONCLUSIONS: Broad variability in individual hospital practices exists for mortality transferred to other institutions. Application of this knowledge of percentage of mortal encounters transferred includes consideration in hospital quality metrics.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doente Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
ASAIO J ; 65(2): 192-196, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608490

RESUMO

The use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) in adults with respiratory failure has steadily increased during the past decade. Recent literature has demonstrated variable outcomes with the use of extended ECMO. The purpose of this study is to evaluate survival to hospital discharge in patients with extended ECMO runs compared with patients with short ECMO runs at a tertiary care ECMO referral center. We retrospectively reviewed all patients on VV ECMO for respiratory failure between August 2014 and February 2017. Bridge to lung transplant, post-lung transplant, and post-cardiac surgery patients were excluded. Patients were stratified by duration of ECMO: extended ECMO, defined as >504 hours; short ECMO as ≤504 hours. Demographics, pre-ECMO data, ECMO-specific data, and outcomes were analyzed. One hundred and thirty-nine patients with respiratory failure were treated with VV ECMO. Overall survival to discharge was 76%. Thirty-one (22%) patients had extended ECMO runs with an 87% survival to discharge. When compared with patients with short ECMO runs, there was no difference in median age, body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/ fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (P/F), and survival to discharge. However, time from intubation to cannulation for ECMO was significantly longer in patients with extended ECMO runs. (p = 0.008). Our data demonstrate that patients with extended ECMO runs have equivalent outcomes to those with short ECMO runs. Although the decision to continue ECMO support in this patient population is multifactorial, we suggest that time on ECMO should not be the sole factor in this challenging decision.

7.
Injury ; 50(1): 131-136, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) grading grossly differentiates injury characteristics such as luminal stenosis (LS) and aneurysmal disease. The effect of increasing degree of LS beyond the current BCVI grading scale on stroke formation is unknown. STUDY DESIGN: BCVI over a 3-year period were retrospectively reviewed. To investigate influence of LS beyond the BCVI grading scale within aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal BCVI, grade 2 BCVI were subdivided into BCVI with ≥ 25% and ≤ 50% LS and BCVI with > 50% and ≤ 99% LS. Grade 3 BCVI were subdivided into BCVI with pseudoaneurysm (PSA) without LS and BCVI with PSA and LS. We hypothesized increased LS beyond the current BCVI grade distinctions would be associated with higher rates of stroke formation. RESULTS: 312 BCVI were included, of which 140 were carotid BCVI and 172 vertebral BCVI. Sixteen carotid BCVI underwent endovascular intervention (EI) and 19 suffered a stroke. In carotid BCVI stroke rates increased sequentially with BCVI grade except in grade 3. There was a stroke rate of 12% in grade 1 carotid BCVI, 18% in grade 2, 6% in grade 3, and 31% in grade 4. In subgroup analysis for grade 2 carotid BCVI, BCVI with > 50% and ≤ 99% LS had higher rates of stroke (22% vs. 15%, p = 0.44) than BCVI with ≥ 25% and ≤ 50% LS. In subgroup analysis of grade 3 carotid BCVI, BCVI with PSA and LS had higher rates of stroke (9% vs. 4%, p = 0.48) than BCVI with PSA without LS. Higher rates of EI in grade 2 carotid BCVI with > 50% and ≤ 99% LS (22% vs. 5%, p = 0.14) and grade 3 carotid BCVI with PSA and LS (35% vs. 4%, p = 0.01) were noted in subgroup analysis. CONCLUSION: Higher percentage LS beyond the currently used BCVI grading scale has a non-significantly increased rate of stroke in both aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal BCVI. Grade 3 BCVI with PSA and LS seems to be a high-risk subgroup. Use of EI confounds modern measurement of stroke risk in higher LS BCVI.


Assuntos
Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/complicações , Constrição Patológica/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Adulto , Angiografia Cerebral , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/terapia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am Surg ; 84(1): 86-92, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29428033

RESUMO

Necrotizing soft tissue infection of the perineum, or Fournier's gangrene (FG), is a morbid and mortal diagnosis. Despite the severity of FG, the optimal definitive wound closure strategy is unknown, as are long-term wound outcomes. A retrospective review was performed over a 3-year period at a single trauma center. Patients were managed according to our institutional approach focusing on primary wound closure and secondary intention healing in residual wounds. Overall 168 patients were included. Complete primary wound closure was accomplished in 39.9 per cent of patients. Patients undergoing primary wound closure were primarily male (89.6 vs 64.4%, P < 0.001), had lower mean sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores (1.70 ± 2.30 vs 2.98 ± 3.36, P = 0.004), more often had perineum-limited FG (67.2 vs 42.6%, P = 0.003), and required fewer debridements (2.40 vs 2.79, P = 0.02). On logistic regression, predictors of primary closure included gender (odds ratio 4.643, 95% confidence interval 1.885-11.437, P = 0.001) and SOFA score (odds ratio 0.834, 95% confidence interval 0.727-0.957, P = 0.01). Wound healing rates increased over time, to an 82.1 per cent wound healing rate without further intervention at greater than six months of follow-up. Wounds healed with secondary intention ranged from 70 to 9520 cm3 and primary closure ranged from 126 to 6912 cm3, whereas wounds requiring skin grafts ranged from 405 to 16,170 cm3. Complete primary wound closure is often achievable in FG patients. Using this standardized approach to FG wound management, even large wounds and wounds undergoing secondary intention healing will often close with long-term wound care and do not require flap creation or early skin grafting.


Assuntos
Gangrena de Fournier/cirurgia , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Desbridamento/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gangrena de Fournier/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orquiectomia/métodos , Orquidopexia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cicatrização
9.
World J Surg ; 42(8): 2398-2403, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340723

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) has increased over the past decade. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes in adult trauma patients requiring VV ECMO. METHODS: Data were collected on adult trauma patients admitted between January 1, 2015, and November 1, 2016. Demographics, injury-specific data, ECMO data, and survival to discharge were recorded. Medians [interquartile range (IQR)] were reported. A p value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Eighteen patients required VV ECMO during the study period. Median age was 28.5 years (IQR 24-43). Median injury severity score (ISS) was 27 (IQR 21-41); median PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) prior to ECMO cannulation was 61 (IQR 50-70). Median time from injury to cannulation was 3 (IQR 0-6) days. Median duration of ECMO was 266 (IQR 177-379) hours. Survival to discharge was 78%. Survivors had a significantly higher ISS (p = 0.03), longer intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS) (p < 0.0004), hospital LOS (p < 0.000004), and time on the ventilator (p < 0.0003). Median time of injury to cannulation was significantly longer in patients who survived to discharge (p = 0.01). There was no difference in P/F ratio prior to cannulation (p = ns). CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated improved outcome of patients requiring VV ECMO following injury compared to historical data. Although shorter time from injury to cannulation for VV ECMO was associated with death, select patients who meet criteria for VV ECMO early following injury should be referred/transferred to a tertiary care facility that specializes in trauma and ECMO care.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Adulto , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Centros de Traumatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ventiladores Mecânicos
10.
Resuscitation ; 122: 121-125, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097198

RESUMO

AIM: Cardiac arrest in peripartum patients is a rare but devastating event; reported rates in the literature range from 0.019% to 0.0085%. In the general population, a well-described complication of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), liver laceration and injury, is reported at a rate of between 0.5-2.9% after CPR. Liver laceration rate among peripartum patients receiving CPR has not been well-studied. We sought to find the rate of liver lacerations in the peripartum population associated with CPR, with the hypothesis that the rate would be higher than in the general population. METHODS: We identified pregnancies complicated by cardiac arrest by performing a retrospective medical record review from 2011 to 2016 at a single tertiary referral hospital. We then compared the rate of liver lacerations in this group to the rate in the general population as found in the literature. RESULTS: Eleven of 9408 women in the peripartum period suffered cardiac arrest. Return of spontaneous circulation occurred in seven of eleven (64%) women. Three of these seven women suffered clinically significant liver laceration (43%). Overall mortality rate among women suffering cardiac arrest was 82% (9/11).Even after return of spontaneous circulation, the mortality rate was 72%(5/7) including two of three women suffering liver laceration. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a small retrospective study, liver lacerations requiring intervention occurred in 43% of gravidas patients that survived CPR, and is significantly higher than published rates (0.6-2.1%) for the general patient population. Further studies are indicated to determine the incidence of liver injury after peripartum CPR.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Lacerações/complicações , Fígado/lesões , Adulto , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Parada Cardíaca/complicações , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Artéria Hepática/lesões , Humanos , Incidência , Lacerações/etiologia , Lacerações/mortalidade , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 82(1): 18-26, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27602911

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Major pelvic disruption with hemorrhage has a high rate of lethality. Angiographic embolization remains the mainstay of treatment. Delays to angiography have been shown to worsen outcomes in part because time spent awaiting mobilization of resources needed to perform angiography allows ongoing hemorrhage. Alternative techniques like pelvic preperitoneal packing and aortic balloon occlusion now exist. We hypothesized that time to angiographic embolization at our Level 1 trauma center would be longer than 90 minutes. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of patients with pelvic fracture who underwent pelvic angiography at our trauma center over a 10-year period. The trauma registry was queried for age, sex, injury severity score, hemodynamic instability (HI) on presentation, and transfusion requirements within 24 hours. Charts were reviewed for time to angiography, embolization, and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 4712 patients were admitted with pelvic fractures during the study period, 344 (7.3%) underwent pelvic angiography. Median injury severity score was 29. Median 24-hour transfusion requirements were five units of red blood cells and six units of fresh frozen plasma. One hundred fifty-one patients (43.9%) presented with HI and 104 (30%) received massive transfusion (MT). Median time to angiography was 286 minutes (interquartile range, 210-378). Times were significantly shorter when stratified for HI (HI, 264 vs stable 309 minutes; p = 0.003), and MT (MT, 230 vs non-MT, 317 minutes; p < 0.001), but still took nearly 4 hours. Overall mortality was 18%. Hemorrhage (35.5%) and sepsis/multiple-organ failure (43.5%) accounted for most deaths. CONCLUSION: Pelvic fracture hemorrhage remains a management challenge. In this series, the median time to embolization was more than 5 hours. Nearly 80% of deaths could be attributed to early uncontrolled hemorrhage and linked to delays in hemostasis. Earlier intervention by Acute Care Surgeons with techniques like preperitoneal packing, aortic balloon occlusion, and use of hybrid operative suites may improve outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level V.


Assuntos
Angiografia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia/terapia , Ossos Pélvicos/lesões , Adulto , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/mortalidade , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 81(6): 1063-1069, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27537517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The short-term natural history of blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs) has been previously described in the literature, but the purpose of this study was to analyze long-term serial follow-up and lesion progression of BCVI. METHODS: This is a single institution's retrospective review of a prospectively collected database over four years (2009-2013). All patients with a diagnosis of BCVI by computed tomographic (CT) scan were identified, and injuries were graded based on modified Denver scale. Management followed institutional algorithm: initial whole-body contrast-enhanced CT scan, followed by CT angiography at 24 to 72 hours, 5 to 7 days, 4 to 6 weeks, and 3 months after injury. All follow-up imaging, medication management, and clinical outcomes through 6 months following injury were recorded. RESULTS: There were 379 patients with 509 injuries identified. Three hundred eighty-one injuries were diagnosed as BCVI on first CT (Grade 1 injuries, 126; Grade 2 injuries, 116; Grade 3 injuries, 69; and Grade 4 injuries, 70); 100 "indeterminate" on whole-body CT; 28 injuries were found in patients reimaged only for lesions detected in other vessels. Sixty percent were male, mean (SD) age was 46.5 (19.9) years, 65% were white, and 62% were victims of a motor vehicle crash. Most frequently, Grade 1 injuries were resolved at all subsequent time points. Up to 30% of Grade 2 injuries worsened, but nearly 50% improved or resolved. Forty-six percent of injuries originally not detected were subsequently diagnosed as Grade 3 injuries. Greater than 70% of all imaged Grade 3 and Grade 4 injuries remained unchanged at all subsequent time points. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that there are many changes in grade throughout the six-month time period, especially the lesions that start out undetectable or indeterminate, which become various grade injuries. Low-grade injuries (Grades 1 and 2) are likely to remain stable and eventually resolve. Higher-grade injuries (Grades 3 and 4) persist, many up to six months. Inpatient treatment with antiplatelet or anticoagulation did not affect BCVI progression. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III; therapeutic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/patologia , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/patologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Cicatrização , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia
13.
Front Surg ; 3: 22, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27148538

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute mesenteric ischemia is a surgical emergency that entails complex, multi-modal management, but its epidemiology and outcomes remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to perform a population analysis of the contemporary incidence and outcomes of mesenteric ischemia. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of acute mesenteric ischemia in the state of Maryland during 2009-2013 using a comprehensive statewide hospital admission database. Demographics, illness severity, comorbidities, and outcomes were studied. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Survivors and non-survivors were compared using univariate analyses, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: During the 5-year study period, there were 3,157,499 adult hospital admissions in Maryland. A total of 2,255 patients (0.07%) had acute mesenteric ischemia, yielding an annual admission rate of 10/100,000. Increasing age, hypercoagulability, cardiac dysrhythmia, renal insufficiency, increasing illness severity, and tertiary hospital admission were associated with development of mesenteric ischemia. Inpatient mortality was high (24%). After multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for death were age >65 years, critical illness severity, mechanical ventilation, tertiary hospital admission, hypercoagulability, renal insufficiency, and dysrhythmia. CONCLUSION: Acute mesenteric ischemia occurs in approximately 1/1,000 admissions in Maryland. Patients with mesenteric ischemia have significant illness severity, substantial rates of organ dysfunction, and high mortality. Patients with chronic comorbidities and acute organ dysfunction are at increased risk of death, and recognition of these risk factors may enable prevention or earlier control of mesenteric ischemia in high-risk patients.

14.
J Am Coll Surg ; 222(4): 691-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27016997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma centers (TCs) have been shown to provide lifesaving, but more expensive, care when compared with non-TCs (NTC). Limited data exist about the economic impact of emergency general surgery (EGS) patients on health care systems. We hypothesized that the economic burden would be higher for EGS patients managed at TCs vs NTCs. METHODS: The Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database was queried from 2009 to 2013. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma EGS ICD-9 codes were used to define the top 10 EGS diagnoses. Demographic characteristics, TC designation, severity of illness, and hospital charge data were collected. Differences in total charges between TCs and NTCs were analyzed by Wilcoxon test using SAS 9.3 software (SAS Institute). RESULTS: A total of 435,623 patients were included. Median age was 61 years (interquartile range 47 to 76 years) and 55.9% were female. Median length of stay was 4 days; 90.3% were admitted via emergency department; and overall mortality was 5.1%. Overall median charges were $11,081 for TC vs $8,264 for NTC (p < 0.0001). Minor, moderate, major, and extreme severities of illness all had higher charges at TC vs NTC with no ICU admissions, respectfully ($5,908 vs $5,243; $7,051 vs $6,003; $10,501 vs $8,777; and $23, 997 vs $18,381; p < 0.001). Care at TCs was nearly twice as expensive if patients were admitted to the ICU, even when stratifying by severity of illness. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency general surgery patients treated at TCs incurred increased costs compared with NTCs, independent of patient severity. These costs nearly doubled for those admitted to the ICU. As acute care surgery grows as a specialty, additional investigation is required to better understand the reasons for this cost differential.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Emergências/economia , Cirurgia Geral , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Centros de Traumatologia , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos/economia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 81(1): 131-6, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26891159

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The formation of Acute Care Surgery services leads to decreased time to treatment and improved outcomes for emergency general surgery (EGS) patients. However, minimal work has focused on the ideal care delivery system and team structure. We hypothesize that the implementation of a dedicated EGS team (separate from trauma and surgical critical care), with EGS-specific protocols and dedicated operating room (OR) time, will increase productivity and improve mortality. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of financial and EGS registry data from fiscal year (FY) 12 to FY15. Data are from an academic, university-based EGS team composed of two acute care surgery attending surgeons, advanced practitioners (APs), residents, and a fellow. In FY12, processes were implemented to standardize paging of consults, patient sign-out with attending surgeons' and APs' participation, clinical/billing protocols, OR availability, and quality improvement. Outcomes included relative value units (RVUs), surgical case volume, charges/payments, and number of patient encounters. The secondary outcome was mortality. The χ test was used to compare mortality, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Total patient encounters increased from 6,723 in FY 12 to 9,238 in FY 15 (+37%). Relative value units increased from 18,422 in FY 12 to 25,314 in FY 15 (+37%). Charges increased by 76% and payments increased by 60% from FY 12 to FY 15. Charges per encounter increased from $461 in FY 12 to $591 in FY 15 (+28%) Additionally, both inpatient and surgical case loads increased. Mortality remained stable throughout the study period (FY 12, 4.5%; FY 13, 5.2%; FY 14, 5.3%; FY 15, 3.2%: p = 0.177). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of dedicated OR time, defined EGS team structure, practice protocols, and active attending surgeons'/APs' participation was temporally related to increased case volume, patients seen, and revenue, while mortality remained unchanged. Further study is necessary to establish the translatability of these data to other systems. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Economic/decision, level III.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/organização & administração , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Baltimore , Emergências , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 80(4): 631-6, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26808023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Damage-control surgery with open abdomen (OA) is described for trauma, but little exists regarding use in the emergency general surgery. This study aimed to better define the following: demographics, indications for surgery and OA, fascial and surgical site complications, and in-hospital/long-term mortality. We hypothesize that older patients will have increased mortality, patients will have protracted stays, they will require specialized postdischarge care, and the indications for OA will be varied. METHODS: A prospective observational study of emergency general surgery OA patients from June 2013 to June 2014 was performed. Demographics, clinical/operative variables, comorbidities, indications for procedure and OA, wound/fascial complications, and disposition were collected. Patients were stratified into age groups (≤ 60, 61-79, and ≥ 80 years). Six-month and 1-year mortality was determined by query of the Social Security Death Index. RESULTS: A total of 338 laparotomies were performed, of which 96 (28%) were managed with an OA. Median age was 61 years (interquartile range [IQR], 0-68 years), and 51% were male. The median Charlson Comorbidity Index was 2 (IQR, 1.5-5.1), and the median hospital stay was 25 days (IQR, 15-50 days). The most common indications for operation were perforated viscus/free air (20%), mesenteric ischemia (17%), peritonitis (16%), and gastrointestinal hemorrhage (12%). The most common indication for OA was damage control (37%). In the 63 patients with fascial closure, there were 9 (14%) wound infections and 6 (10%) fascial dehiscences. A total of 30% of the patients died in the hospital, and an additional six patients died 6 months after discharge. Patients in the oldest age stratum were more likely to die at 6 months than those in the lower strata. CONCLUSION: Older patients were more likely to die by 6 months, the median hospital stay was 3 weeks, and there were multiple indications for OA management. With a 6-month mortality of 36% and 70% of survivors requiring postdischarge care, this population represents a critically ill population meriting additional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiologic study, level III.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Traumatismos Abdominais/mortalidade , Idoso , Comorbidade , Emergências , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Laparotomia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Am Surg ; 81(8): 829-34, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26215249

RESUMO

Acute care surgery services continue expanding to provide emergency general surgery (EGS) care. The aim of this study is to define the characteristics of the EGS population in Maryland. Retrospective review of the Health Services Cost Review Commission database from 2009 to 2013 was performed. American Association for the Surgery of Trauma-defined EGS ICD-9 codes were used to define the EGS population. Data collected included patient demographics, admission origin [emergency department (ED) versus non-ED], length of stay (LOS), mortality, and disposition. There were 3,157,646 encounters. In all, 817,942 (26%) were EGS encounters, with 76 per cent admitted via an ED. The median age of ED patients that died was 74 years versus 61 years for those that lived (P < 0.001). Twenty one per cent of ED admitted patients had a LOS > 7 days. Of 78,065 non-ED admitted patients, the median age of those that died was 68 years versus 59 years for those that lived (P < 0.001). Twenty eight per cent of non-ED admits had LOS > 7 days. In both ED and non-ED patients, there was a bimodal distribution of death, with most patients dying at LOS ≤ 2 or LOS > 7 days. In this study, EGS diagnoses are present in 26 per cent of inpatient encounters in Maryland. The EGS population is elderly with prolonged LOS and a bimodal distribution of death.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/economia , Cirurgia Geral/economia , Custos Hospitalares , Tempo de Internação/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Maryland , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/economia , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 78(6): 1071-4; discussion 1074-5, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26151505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grade 4 blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI4) has a known, significant rate of stroke. However, little is known about the natural history of BCVI4 and the pathophysiology of subsequent stroke formation. METHODS: A 4-year review of patients with BCVI4 at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center was performed. Rates of BCVI4-related stroke, stroke-related mortality, and overall mortality were calculated. The relationship of change in vessel characteristics and BCVI4-related stroke was examined, as was the mechanism of stroke formation. RESULTS: There were 82 BCVI4s identified, with 13 carotid artery (ICA) and 69 vertebral artery BCVI4s. BCVI4-related stroke rate was 2.9% in vertebral artery BCVI4 and 70% in ICA BCVI4 patients surviving to reimaging. Stroke mechanisms included embolic strokes, thrombotic strokes, and combined embolic and thrombotic strokes. Peristroke vessel recanalization and an embolic stroke mechanism were seen in 100% of ICA BCVI4-related strokes developing after admission. BCVI4-related stroke occurred within 10 hours of hospital admission in 67% of the patients with strokes. Contraindications to anticoagulation were present in most patients with BCVI4-related stroke developing after admission. CONCLUSION: Multiple etiologies of stroke formation exist in BCVI4. Early risk-benefit analysis for initiation of anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents should be performed in all patients with BCVI4, and the use of endovascular vessel occlusion should be considered in those with true contraindications to anticoagulation. However, more aggressive medical therapy may be needed to lessen BCVI4-related stroke development. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level IV; therapeutic study, level V.


Assuntos
Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/complicações , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/patologia , Contraindicações , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/patologia
19.
Surgery ; 158(3): 627-35, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26067461

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our whole-body computed tomography protocol (WBCT), used to image patients with polytrauma, consists of a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) followed by a multidetector computed tomography (40- or 64- slice) that includes an intravenous, contrast-enhanced scan from the face through the pelvis. WBCT is used to screen for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) during initial CT imaging of the patient with polytrauma and allows for early initiation of therapy with the goal of avoiding stroke. WBCT has not been directly compared with CT angiography (CTA) of the neck as a screening tool for BCVI. We hypothesize that WBCT is a valid modality to diagnose BCVI compared with neck CTA, thus screening patients with polytrauma for BCVI and limiting the need for subsequent CTA. METHODS: A retrospective review of the trauma registry was conducted for all patients diagnosed with BCVI from June 2009 to June 2013 at our institution. All injuries, identified and graded on initial WBCT, were compared with neck CTA imaging performed within the first 72 hours. Sensitivity was calculated for WBCT by the use of CTA as the reference standard. Proportions of agreement also were calculated between the grades of injury for both imaging modalities. RESULTS: A total of 319 injured vessels were identified in 227 patients. On initial WBCT 80 (25%) of the injuries were grade I, 75 (24%) grade II, 45 (14%) grade III, 41 (13%) grade IV, and 58 (18%) were classified as indeterminate: 27 vertebral and 31 carotid lesions. Twenty (6%) of the 319 injuries were not detected on WBCT but identified on subsequent CTA (9 grade I, 7 grade II, 4 grade III); 6 vertebral and 14 carotid. For each vessel type and for all vessels combined, WBCT demonstrated sensitivity rates of over 90% to detect BCVI among the population of patients with at least one vessel injured. There was concordant grading of injuries between WBCT and initial diagnostic CTA in 154 (48% of all injuries). Lower grade injures were more discordant than higher grades (55% vs 13%, respectively; P < .001). Grading was upgraded 8% of the time and downgraded 25%. CONCLUSION: WBCT holds promise as a rapid screening test for BCVI in the patient with polytrauma to identify injuries in the early stage of the trauma evaluation, thus allowing more rapid initiation of treatment. In addition, in those patients with high risk for BCVI but whose WBCT results are negative for BCVI, neck CTA should be considered to more confidently exclude low-grade injuries.


Assuntos
Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Traumatismo Múltiplo/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo Múltiplo/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações
20.
J Am Coll Surg ; 220(4): 762-70, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25797764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency general surgery (EGS) is a major component of acute care surgery, however, limited data exist on mortality with respect to trauma center (TC) designation. We hypothesized that mortality would be lower for EGS patients treated at a TC vs non-TC (NTC). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database from 2009 to 2013 was performed. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma EGS ICD-9 codes were used to identify EGS patients. Data collected included demographics, TC designation, emergency department admissions, and All Patients Refined Severity of Illness (APR_SOI). Trauma center designation was used as a marker of a formal acute care surgery program. Primary outcomes included in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed controlling for age. RESULTS: There were 817,942 EGS encounters. Mean ± SD age of patients was 60.1 ± 18.7 years, 46.5% were males; 71.1% of encounters were at NTCs; and 75.8% were emergency department admissions. Overall mortality was 4.05%. Mortality was calculated based on TC designation controlling for age across APR_SOI strata. Multivariable logistic regression analysis did not show statistically significant differences in mortality between hospital levels for minor APR_SOI. For moderate APR_SOI, mortality was significantly lower for TCs compared with NTCs (p < 0.001). Among TCs, the effect was strongest for Level I TC (odds ratio = 0.34). For extreme APR_SOI, mortality was higher at TCs vs NTCs (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Emergency general surgery patients treated at TCs had lower mortality for moderate APR_SOI, but increased mortality for extreme APR_SOI when compared with NTCs. Additional investigation is required to better evaluate this unexpected finding.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Idoso , Emergências , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
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