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3.
Oncologist ; 26(11): 941-949, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sunitinib (SUN)-induced hypoxia within the tumor could promote the activation of the prodrug evofosfamide (EVO), locally releasing the cytotoxic DNA alkylator bromo-isophosphoramide mustard. SUNEVO, a phase II, open-label, single-arm trial, investigated the potential synergy of SUN plus EVO in advanced progressive pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNETs). METHODS: Systemic treatment-naïve patients with advanced or metastatic, unresectable, grade 1/2 panNETs with a Ki67 ≤20%, received EVO 340 mg/m2 on days 8, 15, and 22 every 4 weeks and sunitinib 37.5 mg/day continuously. The primary endpoint was objective response rate, measured every 8 weeks by RECIST version 1.1. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2018, 17 patients were enrolled. The median age was 62.4 years, 47% had a Ki67 >10%, and 70.6% had liver metastasis. Patients received a median of five and four cycles of SUN and EVO, respectively. After a median follow-up of 15.7 months, 17.6% of patients achieved a complete (n = 1) or partial response (n = 2), and 11 patients had stable disease (64.7%). The median progression-free survival was 10.4 months (95% confidence interval, 2.6-18.0). Treatment-related adverse events (grade ≥3) were observed in 64.7% of the patients, the most frequent being neutropenia (35.3%), fatigue (17.6%), and thrombopenia (11.8%). Treatment discontinuation due to toxicity was reported in 88.2% of the patients. No correlation was found between treatment response and DAXX, ATRX, MEN1, SETD2, and PTEN gene mutations. CONCLUSION: SUN plus EVO had a negative toxicity profile that should be taken into account for further clinical research in advanced panNETs. The combination showed moderate activity in terms of treatment response that did not correlate with somatic mutations. (Clinical trial identification number: NCT02402062) IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Addition of hypoxia-activated prodrugs has been proposed as a potential mechanism to overcome tumor resistance to antiangiogenic agents. Sunitinib and evofosfamide, which were widely proposed as a potential synergistic option, showed modest efficacy in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNETs), reaching a median objective response rate of 17.6% and median progression-free survival of 10.4 months. Treatment response does not correlate with the biomarkers analyzed. The high systemic toxicity, with 88.2% of patients discontinuing the treatment, makes this therapeutic approach unfeasible and encourages future research to overcome panNETs' resistance to antiangiogenic agents with other therapies with a safer profile.


Assuntos
Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitroimidazóis , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Mostardas de Fosforamida , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico
4.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 22(4): 1041-1056, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961211

RESUMO

Knowledge of ectopic Cushing's syndrome (CS) due to thymic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) comes from short series or single cases. Our aim is to perform a systematic review using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Ovid Medline and Biosis Previews of all cases with ectopic CS due to thymic NETs reported in the last 40 years and describe one illustrative patient attended in our institution. Search of literature: From 162 patients, 58.6% were male and mean age was 34.6 ± 13.9 years-old. Median of symptoms until diagnosis was 6 [2-24] months and 62% had aggressive CS. Imaging was positive in 93.7% (chest X-ray), 97.8% (computed tomography), 80.7% (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy) and median tumour size was 47 [25-68.5] mm. At presentation, 18% had localized disease, 26.2% locally invasive and 55.7% advanced. Eighty-eight present underwent surgery and histological subtypes were atypical (46.7%), typical (30.4%) and carcinoma (21.7%). Tumour persisted or recurred in 70.1%, 63% received radiotherapy and 45.2% chemotherapy. Follow-up median was 26.6 [14.5-57.5] months and mortality was reported in 35.8% with median survival of 38 [19-60] months. MEN-1 mutation was referred in 3.1%. Comparatively, carcinomas had aggressive CS more frequently while atypical showed advanced disease more often. In conclusion, thymic NETs causing ectopic CS are presented as aggressive hypercortisolism in the middle aged population. The disease is commonly extended at diagnosis and persists or recurs after surgery in most patients with a short term high mortality.


Assuntos
Síndrome de ACTH Ectópico , Síndrome de Cushing , Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Timoma , Neoplasias do Timo , Síndrome de ACTH Ectópico/complicações , Síndrome de ACTH Ectópico/diagnóstico , Síndrome de ACTH Ectópico/cirurgia , Adulto , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/complicações , Timoma/complicações , Neoplasias do Timo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Timo/patologia , Neoplasias do Timo/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498765

RESUMO

Only a small fraction of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) cases are caused by germline variants in the high-penetrance breast cancer 1 and 2 genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2). BRCA1-associated ring domain 1 (BARD1), nuclear partner of BRCA1, has been suggested as a potential HBOC risk gene, although its prevalence and penetrance are variable according to populations and type of tumor. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of BARD1 truncating variants in a cohort of patients with clinical suspicion of HBOC. A comprehensive BARD1 screening by multigene panel analysis was performed in 4015 unrelated patients according to our regional guidelines for genetic testing in hereditary cancer. In addition, 51,202 Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) non-Finnish, non-cancer European individuals were used as a control population. In our patient cohort, we identified 19 patients with heterozygous BARD1 truncating variants (0.47%), whereas the frequency observed in the gnomAD controls was 0.12%. We found a statistically significant association of truncating BARD1 variants with overall risk (odds ratio (OR) = 3.78; CI = 2.10-6.48; p = 1.16 × 10-5). This association remained significant in the hereditary breast cancer (HBC) group (OR = 4.18; CI = 2.10-7.70; p = 5.45 × 10-5). Furthermore, deleterious BARD1 variants were enriched among triple-negative BC patients (OR = 5.40; CI = 1.77-18.15; p = 0.001) compared to other BC subtypes. Our results support the role of BARD1 as a moderate penetrance BC predisposing gene and highlight a stronger association with triple-negative tumors.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fenótipo , Vigilância da População , Espanha/epidemiologia
6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) are the most common types of cancer in Lynch syndrome (LS). Risk reducing surgeries (RRS) might impact cancer incidence and mortality. Our objectives were to evaluate cumulative incidences of CRC, gynecological cancer and all-cause mortality after RRS in LS individuals. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 976 LS carriers from a single-institution registry. Primary endpoints were cumulative incidence at 75 years of cancer (metachronous CRC in 425 individuals; EC and ovarian cancer (OC) in 531 individuals) and all-cause mortality cumulative incidence, comparing extended (ES) vs. segmental surgery (SS) in the CRC cohort and risk reducing gynecological surgery (RRGS) vs. surveillance in the gynecological cohort. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence at 75 years of metachronous CRC was 12.5% vs. 44.7% (p = 0.04) and all-cause mortality cumulative incidence was 38.6% vs. 55.3% (p = 0.31), for ES and SS, respectively. Cumulative, incidence at 75 years was 11.2% vs. 46.3% for EC (p = 0.001) and 0% vs. 12.7% for OC (p N/A) and all-cause mortality cumulative incidence was 0% vs. 52.7% (p N/A), for RRGS vs. surveillance, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: RRS in LS reduces the incidence of metachronous CRC and gynecological neoplasms, also indicating a reduction in all-cause mortality cumulative incidence in females undergoing RRGS.

7.
Eur J Cancer ; 141: 1-8, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is an inherited disorder with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancers (OC). Mutations in BRCA1-BRCA2 explains less than a half of cases. In the last decade several genes with different penetrance have been associated with an increased risk of BC or OC. A recurrent heterozygous ERCC3 truncating mutation increases the risk for breast cancer in patients with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. Our study aimed to investigate the role of ERCC3 truncating variants in a cohort of patients with suspicion of HBOC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ERCC3 screening by multigene-panel analysis in 1311 unrelated patients after our regional consensus for genetic testing in hereditary cancer was done. In addition, 453 Spanish cancer-free individuals and 51,343 GnomAD non-Finnish, non-cancer European individuals were used as control populations. RESULTS: We identified 13 patients with heterozygous ERCC3 truncating variants (0.99%). Five of them also carried a mutation in a high- /moderate-penetrance HBOC gene (BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and TP53) being Multilocus Inherited Neoplasia Alleles syndrome (MINAS) patients. The frequency in 453 Spanish controls was of 0.22%; similar to that observed in 51,343 non-Finnish European GnomAD population (0.24%). We found an almost statistically significant association of truncating ERCC3 variants with BC (odds ratio [OR] = 2.25, confidence interval [CI] = 0.6-5.93, P = 0.11), and we observed for the first time a significant association with OC (OR = 4.74, CI = 1-14.34, P = 0.028), that holds even after removing MINAS cases. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest HBOC series comprehensively analysed for ERCC3 mutations, and the first study identifying ERCC3 as a cancer risk for OC.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem
8.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(12): 1453-1468, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011440

RESUMO

RNA analyses are a potent tool to identify spliceogenic effects of DNA variants, although they are time-consuming and cannot always be performed. We present splicing assays of 20 variants that represent a variety of mutation types in 10 hereditary cancer genes and attempt to incorporate these results into American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) classification guidelines. Sixteen single-nucleotide variants, 3 exon duplications, and 1 single-exon deletion were selected and prioritized by in silico algorithms. RNA was extracted from short-term lymphocyte cultures to perform RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing, and allele-specific expression was assessed whenever possible. Aberrant transcripts were detected in 14 variants (70%). Variant interpretation was difficult, especially comparing old classification standards to generic ACMG guidelines and a proposal was devised to weigh functional analyses at RNA level. According to the ACMG guidelines, only 12 variants were reclassified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic because the other two variants did not gather enough evidence. This study highlights the importance of RNA studies to improve variant classification. However, it also indicates the challenge of incorporating these results into generic ACMG guidelines and the need to refine these criteria gene specifically. Nevertheless, 60% of variants were reclassified, thus improving genetic counseling and surveillance for carriers of these variants.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Splicing de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Éxons , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genoma Humano , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Íntrons , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
9.
Hum Mutat ; 41(12): 2128-2142, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906215

RESUMO

CHEK2 variants are associated with intermediate breast cancer risk, among other cancers. We aimed to comprehensively describe CHEK2 variants in a Spanish hereditary cancer (HC) cohort and adjust the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines for their classification. First, three CHEK2 frequent variants were screened in a retrospective Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer cohort of 516 patients. After, the whole CHEK2 coding region was analyzed by next-generation sequencing in 1848 prospective patients with HC suspicion. We refined ACMG-AMP criteria and applied different combined rules to classify CHEK2 variants and define risk alleles. We identified 10 CHEK2 null variants, 6 missense variants with discordant interpretation in ClinVar database, and 35 additional variants of unknown significance. Twelve variants were classified as (likely)-pathogenic; two can also be considered "established risk-alleles" and one as "likely risk-allele." The prevalence of (likely)-pathogenic variants in the HC cohort was 0.8% (1.3% in breast cancer patients and 1.0% in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients). Here, we provide ACMG adjustment guidelines to classify CHEK2 variants. We hope that this study would be useful for variant classification of other genes with low effect variants.


Assuntos
Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Variação Genética , Neoplasias/genética , Sociedades Científicas , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Família , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Linhagem , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235514

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is caused by biallelic mutations in FA genes. Monoallelic mutations in five of these genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, BRIP1 and RAD51C) increase the susceptibility to breast/ovarian cancer and are used in clinical diagnostics as bona-fide hereditary cancer genes. Increasing evidence suggests that monoallelic mutations in other FA genes could predispose to tumor development, especially breast cancer. The objective of this study is to assess the mutational spectrum of 14 additional FA genes (FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCL, FANCM, FANCP, FANCQ, FANCR and FANCU) in a cohort of hereditary cancer patients, to compare with local cancer-free controls as well as GnomAD. A total of 1021 hereditary cancer patients and 194 controls were analyzed using our next generation custom sequencing panel. We identified 35 pathogenic variants in eight genes. A significant association with the risk of breast cancer/breast and ovarian cancer was found for carriers of FANCA mutations (odds ratio (OR) = 3.14 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-6.17, p = 0.003). Two patients with early-onset cancer showed a pathogenic FA variant in addition to another germline mutation, suggesting a modifier role for FA variants. Our results encourage a comprehensive analysis of FA genes in larger studies to better assess their role in cancer risk.

11.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(7): 1232-1239, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179180

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Actionable somatic molecular alterations are found in 15% to 20% of NSCLC in Europe. NSCLC is a tumor observed in patients with germline TP53 variants causing Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), but its somatic molecular profile is unknown. METHODS: Retrospective study of clinical and molecular profiles of patients with NSCLC and germline TP53 variants. RESULTS: Among 22 patients with NSCLC and LFS (n = 23 lung tumors), 64% were women, median age was 51 years, 84% were nonsmokers, 73% had adenocarcinoma histological subtype, and 84% were diagnosed with advanced-stage disease. These patients harbored 16 distinct germline TP53 variants; the most common was p.R158H (5/22; three in the same family). Personal and family histories of cancer were reported in 71% and 90% of patients, respectively. In most cases (87%, 13/15), lung cancer was diagnosed with a late onset. Of the 21 tumors analyzed, somatic oncogenic driver mutations were found in 19 of 21 (90%), EGFR mutations in 18 (exon 19 deletion in 12 cases, L858R in three cases, and G719A, exon 20 insertion, and missing mutation subtype, each with one case), and ROS1 fusion in one case. A PI3KCA mutation was concurrently detected at diagnosis in three EGFR exon 19-deleted tumors (3/12). The median overall survival was 37.3 months in 14 patients treated with EGFR inhibitors; seven developed resistance, five (71%) acquired EGFR-T790M mutation, and one had SCLC transformation. CONCLUSIONS: Driver oncogenic alterations were observed in 90% of the LFS tumors, mainly EGFR mutations; one ROS1 fusion was also observed. The germline TP53 variants and lung cancer carcinogenesis driven by oncogenic processes need further evaluation.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinogênese , Receptores ErbB , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prevalência , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
12.
Oncologist ; 25(9): 745-e1265, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045050

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: Palbociclib demonstrated no detectable activity in molecularly unselected and heavily pretreated patients with advanced grade 1/2 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Predictive biomarkers that improve patient selection should be investigated in future studies of palbociclib. BACKGROUND: Palbociclib, a CDK4/6 inhibitor, has shown in vitro activity in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET) cell lines. Here we prospectively assessed the activity and safety of palbociclib in monotherapy in metastatic refractory pNETs. METHODS: This was a nonrandomized, open-label, phase II study of patients with metastatic grade (G)1/2 pNETs recruited from 10 centers in Spain. Palbociclib 125 mg was orally administered once daily for 21 of 28 days until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were included; 52.4% were men, and median age was 57.4 years (range, 37.4-73.4). Patients had previously received a median of three prior lines of systemic therapy (range, 1-10) for advanced disease (somatostatin analogues, 71.4%; sunitinib, 81.0%; everolimus, 47.6%; chemotherapy, 47.6%). Nineteen patients were evaluated for objective response rate (ORR), with a median follow-up of 12.4 months (range, 7.53-19.33). No objective and confirmed responses were observed (0%); 11 (57.9%) patients had stable disease, and 6 of them lasted more than 6 months; 8 (42.1%) patients had disease progression as best response. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 2.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 0-14.4) and median overall survival (OS) was 18.7 months (95% CI, 7.4-29.9; Fig. 1). Most frequent toxicities of any grade were asthenia (76.2%), neutropenia (42.9%), diarrhea (33.3%), and nausea (33.3%). Five (23.8%) patients developed G3-4 neutropenia and two (9.5%) patients developed G3-4 thrombocytopenia. CONCLUSION: Lack of activity was observed with palbociclib as a single agent in molecularly unselected and heavily pretreated patients with advanced G1/2 pNETs.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas , Espanha
13.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(1): 83-88, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780568

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The clinical impact on fertility in carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess ovarian reserve as measured by anti-mullerian hormone levels in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, as well as to investigate the impact of anti-mullerian hormone levels on reproductive outcomes. METHODS: The study involved a cohort of women who tested positive for BRCA1 and BRCA2 screening or were tested for a BRCA1 or BRCA2 family mutation. Blood samples were collected for anti-mullerian hormone analysis and the reproductive outcomes were analyzed after a mean follow-up of 9 years. Participants were classified into BRCA mutation-positive versus BRCA mutation-negative. Controls were healthy relatives who tested negative for the family mutation. All patients were contacted by telephone to collect data on reproductive outcomes. Linear regression was used to predict anti-mullerian hormone levels by BRCA status adjusted for a polynomial form of age. RESULTS: Results of anti-mullerian hormone analysis and reproductive outcomes were available for 135 women (BRCA mutation-negative, n=66; BRCA1 mutation-positive, n=32; BRCA2 mutation-positive, n=37). Anti-mullerian hormone curves according to BRCA status and adjusted by age showed that BRCA2 mutation-positive patients have lower levels of anti-mullerian hormone as compared with BRCA-negative and BRCA1 mutation-positive. Among the women who tried to conceive, infertility was observed in 18.7% of BRCA mutation-negative women, in 22.2% of BRCA1 mutation-positive women, and in 30.8% of BRCA2 mutation-positive women (p=0.499). In the multivariable analysis, there were no factors independently associated with infertility. DISCUSSION: BRCA2 mutation-positive carriers showed more diminished anti-mullerian hormone levels than BRCA1 mutation-positive and BRCA mutation-negative women. However, these differences do not appear to have a negative impact on reproductive outcome. This is important to consider at the time of reproductive counseling in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Reserva Ovariana/genética , Reprodução/genética , Adulto , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(18): e012875, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510873

RESUMO

Background Mutations in the POT1 gene explain abnormally long telomeres and multiple tumors including cardiac angiosarcomas (CAS). However, the link between long telomeres and tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Methods and Results Here, we have studied the somatic landscape of 3 different angiosarcoma patients with mutations in the POT1 gene to further investigate this tumorigenesis process. In addition, the genetic landscape of 7 CAS patients without mutations in the POT1 gene has been studied. Patients with CAS and nonfunctional POT1 did not repress ATR (ataxia telangiectasia RAD3-related)-dependent DNA damage signaling and showed a constitutive increase of cell cycle arrest and somatic activating mutations in the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)/angiogenesis pathway (KDR gene). The same observation was made in POT1 mutation carriers with tumors different from CAS and also in CAS patients without mutations in the POT1 gene but with mutations in other genes involved in DNA damage signaling. Conclusions Inhibition of POT1 function and damage-response malfunction activated DNA damage signaling and increased cell cycle arrest as well as interfered with apoptosis, which would permit acquisition of somatic mutations in the VEGF/angiogenesis pathway that drives tumor formation. Therapies based on the inhibition of damage signaling in asymptomatic carriers may diminish defects on cell cycle arrest and thus prevent the apoptosis deregulation that leads to the acquisition of driver mutations.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Dano ao DNA/genética , Neoplasias Cardíacas/genética , Hemangiossarcoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética , Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Carcinogênese , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Hemangiossarcoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mutação , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
Int J Cancer ; 145(10): 2682-2691, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927264

RESUMO

Multigene panels provide a powerful tool for analyzing several genes simultaneously. We evaluated the frequency of pathogenic variants (PV) in customized predefined panels according to clinical suspicion by phenotype and compared it to the yield obtained in the analysis of our clinical research gene panel. We also investigated mutational yield of opportunistic testing of BRCA1/2 and mismatch repair (MMR) genes in all patients. A total of 1,205 unrelated probands with clinical suspicion of hereditary cancer were screened for germline mutations using panel testing. Overall, 1,048 females and 157 males were analyzed, mean age at cancer diagnosis was 48; 883 had hereditary breast/ovarian cancer-suspicion, 205 hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)-suspicion, 73 adenomatous-polyposis-suspicion and 44 with other/multiple clinical criteria. At least one PV was found in 150 probands (12%) analyzed by our customized phenotype-driven panel. Tumoral MMR deficiency predicted for the presence of germline MMR gene mutations in patients with HNPCC-suspicion (46/136 vs. 0/56 in patients with and without MMR deficiency, respectively). Opportunistic testing additionally identified five MSH6, one BRCA1 and one BRCA2 carriers (0.6%). The analysis of the extended 24-gene panel provided 25 additional PVs (2%), including in 4 out of 51 individuals harboring MMR-proficient colorectal tumors (2 CHEK2 and 2 ATM). Phenotype-based panels provide a notable rate of PVs with clinical actionability. Opportunistic testing of MMR and BRCA genes leads to a significant straightforward identification of MSH6, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, and endorses the model of opportunistic testing of genes with clinical utility within a standard genetic counseling framework.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Feminino , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo
16.
Hum Mutat ; 39(8): 1112-1125, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774626

RESUMO

Plexiform neurofibromas (PNFs) are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors involving large nerves present in 30%-50% Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients. Atypical neurofibromas (ANF) are distinct nodular lesions with atypical features on histology that arise from PNFs. The risk and timeline of malignant transformation in ANF is difficult to assess. A recent NIH workshop has stratified ANFs and separated a subgroup with multiple atypical features and higher risk of malignant transformation termed atypical neurofibromatous neoplasms with uncertain biological potential (ANNUBP). We performed an analysis of intratumor heterogeneity on eight PNFs to link histological and genomic findings. Tumors were homogeneous although histological and molecular heterogeneity was identified. All tumors were 2n, almost mutation-free and had a clonal NF1(-/-) origin. Two ANFs from the same patient showed atypical features on histology and deletions of CDKN2A/B. One of the ANFs exhibited different areas in which the degree of histological atypia correlated with the heterozygous or homozygous loss of the CDKN2A/B loci. CDKN2A/B deletions in different areas originated independently. Results may indicate that loss of a single CDKN2A/B copy in NF1(-/-) cells is sufficient to start ANF development and that total inactivation of both copies of CDKN2A/B is necessary to form an ANNUBP.


Assuntos
Neurofibroma Plexiforme/genética , Neurofibroma/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 967, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511213

RESUMO

BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor that regulates DNA repair by homologous recombination. Germline mutations in BRCA1 are associated with increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer and BRCA1 deficient tumors are exquisitely sensitive to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Therefore, uncovering additional components of this DNA repair pathway is of extreme importance for further understanding cancer development and therapeutic vulnerabilities. Here, we identify EDC4, a known component of processing-bodies and regulator of mRNA decapping, as a member of the BRCA1-BRIP1-TOPBP1 complex. EDC4 plays a key role in homologous recombination by stimulating end resection at double-strand breaks. EDC4 deficiency leads to genome instability and hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-linking drugs and PARP inhibitors. Lack-of-function mutations in EDC4 were detected in BRCA1/2-mutation-negative breast cancer cases, suggesting a role in breast cancer susceptibility. Collectively, this study recognizes EDC4 with a dual role in decapping and DNA repair whose inactivation phenocopies BRCA1 deficiency.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas/genética , Capuzes de RNA/genética , Capuzes de RNA/metabolismo
18.
Oncologist ; 23(4): 422-432, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are a complex family of tumors of widely variable clinical behavior. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 classification provided a valuable tool to stratify neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) in three prognostic subgroups based on the proliferation index. However, substantial heterogeneity remains within these subgroups, and simplicity sometimes entails an ambiguous and imprecise prognostic stratification. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of histological differentiation within the WHO 2010 grade (G) 1/G2/G3 categories, and explore additional Ki-67 cutoff values in GEP-NENs. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: A total of 2,813 patients from the Spanish National Tumor Registry (RGETNE) were analyzed. Cases were classified by histological differentiation as NETs (neuroendocrine tumors [well differentiated]) or NECs (neuroendocrine carcinomas [poorly differentiated]), and by Ki-67 index as G1 (Ki-67 <2%), G2 (Ki-67 3%-20%), or G3 (Ki-67 >20%). Patients were stratified into five cohorts: NET-G1, NET-G2, NET-G3, NEC-G2, and NEC-G3. RESULTS: Five-year survival was 72%. Age, gender, tumor site, grade, differentiation, and stage were all independent prognostic factors for survival. Further subdivision of the WHO 2010 grading improved prognostic stratification, both within G2 (5-year survival: 81% [Ki-67 3%-5%], 72% [Ki-67 6%-10%], 52% [Ki-67 11%-20%]) and G3 NENs (5-year survival: 35% [Ki-67 21%-50%], 22% [Ki-67 51%-100%]). Five-year survival was significantly greater for NET-G2 versus NEC-G2 (75.5% vs. 58.2%) and NET-G3 versus NEC-G3 (43.7% vs. 25.4%). CONCLUSION: Substantial clinical heterogeneity is observed within G2 and G3 GEP-NENs. The WHO 2010 classification can be improved by including the additive effect of histological differentiation and the proliferation index. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are tumors of widely variable clinical behavior, roughly stratified by the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 classification into three subgroups based on proliferation index. Real-world data from 2,813 patients of the Spanish Registry RGETNE demonstrated substantial clinical heterogeneity within grade (G) 2 and G3 neuroendocrine neoplasms. Tumor morphology and further subdivision of grading substantially improves prognostic stratification of these patients and may help individualize therapy. This combined, additive effect shall be considered in future classifications of neuroendocrine tumors and incorporated for stratification purposes in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/classificação , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/classificação , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/classificação , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/classificação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Gástricas/classificação , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/metabolismo , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/mortalidade , Diferenciação Celular , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Intestinais/mortalidade , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/metabolismo , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Espanha , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
19.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 19(11): 72, 2017 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28920153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Somatostatin analogues, aiming to control tumor secretion or growth, constitute the most attractive therapeutic option for patients with well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-art knowledge gaps and potential opportunities for future development and optimization of this therapeutic modality. METHOD: A contextualized systematic review with a narrative component was conducted using PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. Titles were screened, and non-English, duplicate, or irrelevant entries were excluded. Selection criteria for articles included the following: publication in English between 1995 and 2016, patients with GEP-NETs, analysis of efficacy, safety, practical management considerations, predictive factors, and/or strategies for overcoming resistance, concerning somatostatin analogs. RESULTS: Ninety-seven studies out of 2771 screened publications met the inclusion criteria (16 randomized clinical trials, 27 phase II trials, 3 phase I trials, 3 subgroup analyses of clinical trials, 1 open-label extension of a randomized trial, 1 phase IV trial, 32 observational studies, and 14 basic research articles). The nature and scope of literature was diverse with most articles dedicated to drug efficacy or indications of use (n = 49), pharmacological issues (n = 8), assessment or predictors of response (n = 4), practical management (n = 11), combination therapy or other means to overcome resistance (n = 19), receptors and signaling pathways (n = 3), and subgroup analyses (n = 3). CONCLUSION: In this appraisal, we have found some practical aspects that can help to the optimization of somatostatin analog (SSA) therapy in patients with well-differentiated GEP-NETs. We have also identified areas of uncertainty in an effort to guide clinical research in the coming years.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Somatostatina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(11): 1278-1281, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28853721

RESUMO

The POT1 protein binds and protects telomeres. Germline variants in the POT1 gene have recently been shown to be associated with risk of developing tumors in different tissues such as familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia, colorectal, glioma and melanoma tumors. Recently, we uncovered a variant in the POT1 gene (p.R117C) as causative of familial cardiac angiosarcomas (CAS) in Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) syndrome families. Our in silico studies predicted that this protein had lost the ability to interact with TPP1 and single-stranded DNA. In vitro studies corroborated this prediction and showed that this lack of function leads to abnormally long telomeres. To better understand the POT1 gene and its role with tumorigenesis, we extended the study to LFL (with and without members affected with angiosarcomas (AS)) and sporadic AS and cardiac sarcomas. We found POT1 variants in the 20% of the families with members affected with AS and 10% of sporadic AS and sarcomas. In silico studies predicted that these new variants were damaging in the same manner as previously described for the POT1 p.R117C variants. The wide spectrum of variants in the POT1 gene leading to tumorigenesis in different tissues demonstrates its general importance. Study of the POT1 gene should be considered as routine diagnostic in these cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cardíacas/genética , Hemangiossarcoma/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética , Frequência do Gene , Humanos
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