Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 167
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
JCI Insight ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of an early repolarization pattern (ERP) on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is associated with risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Family studies have shown that ERP is a highly heritable trait but molecular genetic determinants are unknown. METHODS: To identify genetic susceptibility loci for ERP, we performed a GWAS and meta-analysis in 2,181 cases and 23,641 controls of European ancestry. RESULTS: We identified a genome-wide significant (p<5E-8) locus in the KCND3 (potassium voltage gated channel subfamily D member 3) gene that was successfully replicated in additional 1,124 cases and 12,510 controls. A subsequent joint meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts identified rs1545300 as the lead SNP at the KCND3 locus (OR 0.82 per minor T allele, p=7.7E-12), but did not reveal additional loci. Co-localization analyses indicate causal effects of KCND3 gene expression levels on ERP in both cardiac left ventricle and tibial artery. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we identified for the first time a genome-wide significant association of a genetic variant with ERP. Our findings of a locus in the KCND3 gene not only provide insights into the genetic determinants but also into the pathophysiological mechanism of ERP, discovering a promising candidate for functional studies. FUNDING: For detailed information per study, see Acknowledgments.

2.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636452

RESUMO

Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

4.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494793

RESUMO

Inferring a person's smoking habit and history from blood is relevant for complementing or replacing self-reports in epidemiological and public health research, and for forensic applications. However, a finite DNA methylation marker set and a validated statistical model based on a large dataset are not yet available. Employing 14 epigenome-wide association studies for marker discovery, and using data from six population-based cohorts (N = 3764) for model building, we identified 13 CpGs most suitable for inferring smoking versus non-smoking status from blood with a cumulative Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.901. Internal fivefold cross-validation yielded an average AUC of 0.897 ± 0.137, while external model validation in an independent population-based cohort (N = 1608) achieved an AUC of 0.911. These 13 CpGs also provided accurate inference of current (average AUCcrossvalidation 0.925 ± 0.021, AUCexternalvalidation0.914), former (0.766 ± 0.023, 0.699) and never smoking (0.830 ± 0.019, 0.781) status, allowed inferring pack-years in current smokers (10 pack-years 0.800 ± 0.068, 0.796; 15 pack-years 0.767 ± 0.102, 0.752) and inferring smoking cessation time in former smokers (5 years 0.774 ± 0.024, 0.760; 10 years 0.766 ± 0.033, 0.764; 15 years 0.767 ± 0.020, 0.754). Model application to children revealed highly accurate inference of the true non-smoking status (6 years of age: accuracy 0.994, N = 355; 10 years: 0.994, N = 309), suggesting prenatal and passive smoking exposure having no impact on model applications in adults. The finite set of DNA methylation markers allow accurate inference of smoking habit, with comparable accuracy as plasma cotinine use, and smoking history from blood, which we envision becoming useful in epidemiology and public health research, and in medical and forensic applications.

5.
Cereb Cortex ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402375

RESUMO

Brain aging is highly variable and represents a challenge to delimit aging from disease processes. Moreover, genetic factors may influence both aging and disease. Here we focused on this issue and investigated effects of multiple genetic loci previously identified to be associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) on brain structure of older adults from a population sample. We calculated a genetic risk score (GRS) using genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms from genome-wide association studies of AD and tested its effect on cortical thickness (CT). We observed a common pattern of cortical thinning (right inferior frontal, left posterior temporal, medial occipital cortex). To identify CT changes by specific biological processes, we subdivided the GRS effect according to AD-associated pathways and performed follow-up analyses. The common pattern from the main analysis was further differentiated by pathway-specific effects yielding a more bilateral pattern. Further findings were located in the superior parietal and mid/anterior cingulate regions representing 2 unique pathway-specific patterns. All patterns, except the superior parietal pattern, were influenced by apolipoprotein E. Our step-wise approach revealed atrophy patterns that partially resembled imaging findings in early stages of AD. Our study provides evidence that genetic burden for AD contributes to structural brain variability in normal aging.

6.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(9): 950-961, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358974

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol consumption is a heritable complex trait. Here we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of alcohol consumption (g d-1) from the UK Biobank, the Alcohol Genome-Wide Consortium and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Plus consortia, collecting data from 480,842 people of European descent to decipher the genetic architecture of alcohol intake. We identified 46 new common loci and investigated their potential functional importance using magnetic resonance imaging data and gene expression studies. We identify genetic pathways associated with alcohol consumption and suggest genetic mechanisms that are shared with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.

7.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(7): e002384, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipids are increasingly involved in cardiovascular risk prediction as potential proarrhythmic influencers. However, knowledge is limited about the specific mechanisms connecting lipid alterations with atrial conduction. METHODS: To shed light on this issue, we conducted a broad assessment of 151 sphingo- and phospholipids, measured using mass spectrometry, for association with atrial conduction, measured by P wave duration (PWD) from standard electrocardiograms, in the MICROS study (Microisolates in South Tyrol) (n=839). Causal pathways involving lipidomics, body mass index (BMI), and PWD were assessed using 2-sample Mendelian randomization analyses based on published genome-wide association studies of lipidomics (n=4034) and BMI (n=734 481), and genetic association analysis of PWD in 5 population-based studies (n=24 236). RESULTS: We identified an association with relative phosphatidylcholine 38:3 (%PC 38:3) concentration, which was replicated in the ORCADES (Orkney Complex Disease Study; n=951), with a pooled association across studies of 2.59 (95% CI, 1.3-3.9; P=1.1×10-4) ms PWD per mol% increase. While being independent of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels, the %PC 38:3-PWD association was mediated by BMI. Results supported a causal effect of BMI on both PWD ( P=8.3×10-5) and %PC 38:3 ( P=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Increased %PC 38:3 levels are consistently associated with longer PWD, partly because of the confounding effect of BMI. The causal effect of BMI on PWD reinforces evidence of BMI's involvement into atrial electrical activity.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2773, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235808

RESUMO

Dental caries and periodontitis account for a vast burden of morbidity and healthcare spending, yet their genetic basis remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identify self-reported dental disease proxies which have similar underlying genetic contributions to clinical disease measures and then combine these in a genome-wide association study meta-analysis, identifying 47 novel and conditionally-independent risk loci for dental caries. We show that the heritability of dental caries is enriched for conserved genomic regions and partially overlapping with a range of complex traits including smoking, education, personality traits and metabolic measures. Using cardio-metabolic traits as an example in Mendelian randomization analysis, we estimate causal relationships and provide evidence suggesting that the processes contributing to dental caries may have undesirable downstream effects on health.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Periodontite/genética , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Genômica , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(5): 1168-1176, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784161

RESUMO

AIMS: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone that augments insulin secretion in pancreatic ß-cells via its glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR). Recent genome-wide association studies identified a single nucleotide variant (SNV) in the GIPR encoding gene (GIPR), rs1800437, that is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. In the present study, we tested whether GIPR variants contribute to obesity and disturb glucose homeostasis or diabetes in specific patient populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Exon sequencing of GIPR was performed in 164 children with obesity and insulin resistance and in 80 children with paediatric-onset diabetes of unknown origin. The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) cohort, comprising 8320 adults, was screened for the GIPR variant Arg217Leu. GIPR variants were expressed in COS-7 cells and cAMP production was measured upon stimulation with GIP. Cell surface expression was determined by ELISA. Protein homology modelling of the GIPR variants was performed to extract three-dimensional information of the receptor. RESULTS: A heterozygous missense GIPR variant Arg217Leu (rs200485112) was identified in a patient of Asian ancestry. Functional characterization of Arg217Leu revealed reduced surface expression and signalling after GIP challenge. The homology model of the GIPR structure supports the observed functional relevance of Arg217Leu. CONCLUSION: In vitro functional studies and protein homology modelling indicate a potential relevance of the GIPR variant Arg217Leu in receptor function. The heterozygous variant displayed partial co-segregation with diabetes. Based on these findings, we suggest that GIPR variants may play a role in disturbed glucose homeostasis and may be of clinical relevance in homozygous patients.

14.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 44(5): 930-938, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700816

RESUMO

DNA methylation of the FKBP5 gene is assumed to alter FKBP5 expression and hence the synthesis of the FK506 binding protein 51, a central element of a genomic negative feedback loop for glucocorticoid receptor signaling. The present study aimed to replicate and extend previously reported influences of FKBP5 genotypes, childhood maltreatment and depression on methylation levels of five CpG sites in intron 7 of the FKBP5 gene in a large population-based sample. Besides the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780, associations of the FKBP5 methylation with 22 other, unlinked FKBP5 SNPs as well as associations between FKBP5 methylation levels and transcription levels were investigated. Using whole-blood methylation of 3965 subjects of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) reduced methylation levels in TT allele carriers of rs1360780 (OR = 0.975, p = .005) and currently depressed subjects (OR = 0.995, p = 0.005) were found. Further, an impact of two yet undescribed SNPs (rs6910300, rs7771727) on methylation levels was observed. However, main and interactive effects for childhood maltreatment and lifetime major depressive disorder observed in previous studies could not be replicated. Finally, FKBP5 methylation levels were not related to FKBP5 transcription levels in whole blood. Thus, the present study verified the associations of FKBP5 genotypes and state depression on the FKBP5 methylation levels of five CpG sites in intron 7. However, FKBP5 methylation of these five CpG sites could not be validated as a valuable clinical biomarker for biological long-term effects of childhood maltreatment or lifetime depression.

15.
Neurology ; 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore genetic and lifestyle risk factors of MRI-defined brain infarcts (BI) in large population-based cohorts. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and examined associations of vascular risk factors and their genetic risk scores (GRS) with MRI-defined BI and a subset of BI, namely, small subcortical BI (SSBI), in 18 population-based cohorts (n = 20,949) from 5 ethnicities (3,726 with BI, 2,021 with SSBI). Top loci were followed up in 7 population-based cohorts (n = 6,862; 1,483 with BI, 630 with SBBI), and we tested associations with related phenotypes including ischemic stroke and pathologically defined BI. RESULTS: The mean prevalence was 17.7% for BI and 10.5% for SSBI, steeply rising after age 65. Two loci showed genome-wide significant association with BI: FBN2, p = 1.77 × 10-8; and LINC00539/ZDHHC20, p = 5.82 × 10-9. Both have been associated with blood pressure (BP)-related phenotypes, but did not replicate in the smaller follow-up sample or show associations with related phenotypes. Age- and sex-adjusted associations with BI and SSBI were observed for BP traits (p value for BI, p [BI] = 9.38 × 10-25; p [SSBI] = 5.23 × 10-14 for hypertension), smoking (p [BI] = 4.4 × 10-10; p [SSBI] = 1.2 × 10-4), diabetes (p [BI] = 1.7 × 10-8; p [SSBI] = 2.8 × 10-3), previous cardiovascular disease (p [BI] = 1.0 × 10-18; p [SSBI] = 2.3 × 10-7), stroke (p [BI] = 3.9 × 10-69; p [SSBI] = 3.2 × 10-24), and MRI-defined white matter hyperintensity burden (p [BI] = 1.43 × 10-157; p [SSBI] = 3.16 × 10-106), but not with body mass index or cholesterol. GRS of BP traits were associated with BI and SSBI (p ≤ 0.0022), without indication of directional pleiotropy. CONCLUSION: In this multiethnic GWAS meta-analysis, including over 20,000 population-based participants, we identified genetic risk loci for BI requiring validation once additional large datasets become available. High BP, including genetically determined, was the most significant modifiable, causal risk factor for BI.

16.
Curr Biol ; 29(1): 120-127.e5, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554901

RESUMO

One of the features that distinguishes modern humans from our extinct relatives and ancestors is a globular shape of the braincase [1-4]. As the endocranium closely mirrors the outer shape of the brain, these differences might reflect altered neural architecture [4, 5]. However, in the absence of fossil brain tissue, the underlying neuroanatomical changes as well as their genetic bases remain elusive. To better understand the biological foundations of modern human endocranial shape, we turn to our closest extinct relatives: the Neandertals. Interbreeding between modern humans and Neandertals has resulted in introgressed fragments of Neandertal DNA in the genomes of present-day non-Africans [6, 7]. Based on shape analyses of fossil skull endocasts, we derive a measure of endocranial globularity from structural MRI scans of thousands of modern humans and study the effects of introgressed fragments of Neandertal DNA on this phenotype. We find that Neandertal alleles on chromosomes 1 and 18 are associated with reduced endocranial globularity. These alleles influence expression of two nearby genes, UBR4 and PHLPP1, which are involved in neurogenesis and myelination, respectively. Our findings show how integration of fossil skull data with archaic genomics and neuroimaging can suggest developmental mechanisms that may contribute to the unique modern human endocranial shape.

17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5141, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510157

RESUMO

Carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we undertake meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 71,128 individuals for cIMT, and 48,434 individuals for carotid plaque traits. We identify eight novel susceptibility loci for cIMT, one independent association at the previously-identified PINX1 locus, and one novel locus for carotid plaque. Colocalization analysis with nearby vascular expression quantitative loci (cis-eQTLs) derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues obtained from patients with CHD identifies candidate genes at two potentially additional loci, ADAMTS9 and LOXL4. LD score regression reveals significant genetic correlations between cIMT and plaque traits, and both cIMT and plaque with CHD, any stroke subtype and ischemic stroke. Our study provides insights into genes and tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms linking atherosclerosis both to its functional genomic origins and its clinical consequences in humans.

18.
Pain ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431558

RESUMO

Painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is the leading cause of chronic orofacial pain, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. While many environmental factors have been associated with higher risk of developing painful TMD, family and twin studies support a heritable genetic component as well. We performed a GWAS assuming an additive genetic model of TMD in a discovery cohort of 999 cases and 2031 TMD-free controls from the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) study. Using logistic models adjusted for sex, age, enrollment site, and race, we identified three distinct loci that were significant in combined or sex-segregated analyses. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on chromosome 3 (rs13078961) was significantly associated with TMD in males only (odds ratio [OR]=2.9, 95% CI: 2.02-4.27, P=2.2x10). This association was nominally replicated in a meta-analysis of seven independent orofacial pain cohorts including 160,194 participants (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.0-1.35, P = 2.3x10). Functional analysis in human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and blood indicated this variant is an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL), with the minor allele associated with decreased expression of the nearby muscle RAS oncogene homolog (MRAS) gene (beta = -0.51, P = 2.43x10). Male mice, but not female mice, with a null mutation of Mras displayed persistent mechanical allodynia in a model of inflammatory pain. Genetic and behavioral evidence support a novel mechanism by which genetically-determined MRAS expression moderates the resiliency to chronic pain. This effect is male-specific and may contribute to the lower rates of painful TMD in men.Written work prepared by employees of the Federal Government as part of their official duties is, under the U.S. Copyright Act, a "work of the United States Government" for which copyright protection under Title 17 of the United States Code is not available. As such, copyright does not extend to the contributions of employees of the Federal Government.

19.
EBioMedicine ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus has been repeatedly associated with exposure to smoking from the foetal period onwards. We explored whether DNA methylation may be a mechanism that links exposure to maternal prenatal smoking with offspring's adult cardio-metabolic health. METHODS: We meta-analysed the association between DNA methylation at GFI1-locus with maternal prenatal smoking, adult own smoking, and cardio-metabolic phenotypes in 22 population-based studies from Europe, Australia, and USA (n = 18,212). DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus was measured in whole-blood. Multivariable regression models were fitted to examine its association with exposure to prenatal and own adult smoking. DNA methylation levels were analysed in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose (FG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), diastolic, and systolic blood pressure (BP). FINDINGS: Lower DNA methylation at three out of eight GFI1-CpGs was associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking, whereas, all eight CpGs were associated with adult own smoking. Lower DNA methylation at cg14179389, the strongest maternal prenatal smoking locus, was associated with increased WC and BP when adjusted for sex, age, and adult smoking with Bonferroni-corrected P < 0·012. In contrast, lower DNA methylation at cg09935388, the strongest adult own smoking locus, was associated with decreased BMI, WC, and BP (adjusted 1 × 10-7 < P < 0.01). Similarly, lower DNA methylation at cg12876356, cg18316974, cg09662411, and cg18146737 was associated with decreased BMI and WC (5 × 10-8 < P < 0.001). Lower DNA methylation at all the CpGs was consistently associated with higher TG levels. INTERPRETATION: Epigenetic changes at the GFI1 were linked to smoking exposure in-utero/in-adulthood and robustly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. FUND: European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 633595 DynaHEALTH.

20.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4455, 2018 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367059

RESUMO

Thyroid dysfunction is an important public health problem, which affects 10% of the general population and increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many aspects of thyroid hormone regulation have only partly been elucidated, including its transport, metabolism, and genetic determinants. Here we report a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for thyroid function and dysfunction, testing 8 million genetic variants in up to 72,167 individuals. One-hundred-and-nine independent genetic variants are associated with these traits. A genetic risk score, calculated to assess their combined effects on clinical end points, shows significant associations with increased risk of both overt (Graves' disease) and subclinical thyroid disease, as well as clinical complications. By functional follow-up on selected signals, we identify a novel thyroid hormone transporter (SLC17A4) and a metabolizing enzyme (AADAT). Together, these results provide new knowledge about thyroid hormone physiology and disease, opening new possibilities for therapeutic targets.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA