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1.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 38, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of total tau (T-tau) and phosphorylated tau at Thr181 (P-tau181) protein are typical of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the T-tau assay measures only the mid-region of the protein, while tau in CSF is instead composed of a series of fragments. One fragment species in particular, N-224, shows increased levels in AD compared to controls. In this multicentre study, we performed a clinical validation of the N-224 assay in cohorts including patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, non-AD dementias and controls. METHODS: Cohorts consisted of 30 SCD and 30 probable AD from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (cohort 1) and 539 controls, 195 SCD, 232 MCI, 137 AD and 253 non-AD from the Swedish BioFINDER study (cohort 2). All samples had AD core biomarkers (Aß42, T-tau, P-tau181) measurements. N-224 was measured with an in-house ultrasensitive Simoa assay. RESULTS: N-224 levels were significantly higher in AD compared to SCD (cohort 1: p = 0.003) and in AD compared to all other diagnostic groups in cohort 2 (control, SCD, MCI and non-AD, p < 0.0001). Within the non-AD group, N-224 showed significantly lower concentrations compared to AD in Parkinson's disease (PD, p < 0.0001), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD, p = 0.004), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, < 0.0001), multiple system atrophy (MSA, p = 0.002) and parkinsonisms not otherwise specified (NOS, p = 0.007). In cohort 1, higher concentrations of N-224 were associated to lower Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores (R2 = 0.318, ß = 0.564, p ≤ 0.0001) and could accurately identify a pathological (< 24) MMSE score (p < 0.0001, AUC = 0.824). CONCLUSIONS: N-224 tau can distinguish AD subjects from SCD and can discriminate subgroups of non-AD dementias from AD. Therefore, N-224 may be a useful addition to the tau biomarker toolbox for the study of tau species in CSF and for better understanding disease pathogenesis.

2.
Rev Neurosci ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594840

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with inflammatory demyelination and astroglial activation, with neuronal and axonal damage as the leading factors of disability. We aimed to perform a meta-analysis to determine changes in CSF levels of neuronal and glial biomarkers, including neurofilament light chain (NFL), total tau (t-tau), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and S100B in various groups of MS (MS versus controls, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) versus controls, CIS versus MS, relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) versus progressive MS (PMS), and MS in relapse versus remission. According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, we included 64 articles in the meta-analysis, including 4071 subjects. For investigation of sources of heterogeneity, subgroup analysis, meta-regression, and sensitivity analysis were conducted. Meta-analyses were performed for comparisons including at least three individual datasets. NFL, GFAP, t-tau, CHI3L1, and S100B were higher in MS and NFL, t-tau, and CHI3L1 were also elevated in CIS patients than controls. CHI3L1 was the only marker with higher levels in MS than CIS. GFAP levels were higher in PMS versus RRMS, and NFL, t-tau, and CHI3L1 did not differ between different subtypes. Only levels of NFL were higher in patients in relapse than remission. Meta-regression showed influence of sex and disease severity on NFL and t-tau levels, respectively and disease duration on both. Added to the role of these biomarkers in determining prognosis and treatment response, to conclude, they may serve in diagnosis of MS and distinguishing different subtypes.

3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 87, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several fMRI studies found hyperactivity in the hippocampus during pattern separation tasks in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI; a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease). This was associated with memory deficits, subsequent cognitive decline, and faster clinical progression. A reduction of hippocampal hyperactivity with an antiepileptic drug improved memory performance. Pharmacological interventions, however, entail the risk of side effects. An alternative approach may be real-time fMRI neurofeedback, during which individuals learn to control region-specific brain activity. In the current project we aim to test the potential of neurofeedback to reduce hippocampal hyperactivity and thereby improve memory performance. METHODS: In a single-blind parallel-group study, we will randomize n = 84 individuals (n = 42 patients with MCI, n = 42 healthy elderly volunteers) to one of two groups receiving feedback from either the hippocampus or a functionally independent region. Percent signal change of the hemodynamic response within the respective target region will be displayed to the participant with a thermometer icon. We hypothesize that only feedback from the hippocampus will decrease hippocampal hyperactivity during pattern separation and thereby improve memory performance. DISCUSSION: Results of this study will reveal whether real-time fMRI neurofeedback is able to reduce hippocampal hyperactivity and thereby improve memory performance. In addition, the results of this study may identify predictors of successful neurofeedback as well as the most successful regulation strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been registered with clinicaltrials.gov on the 16th of July 2019 (trial identifier: NCT04020744 ).

4.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 50: 102840, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurofilament heavy (NfH) is a promising biomarker for neuro-axonal damage in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We compared the performance of high-sensitivity serum-NfH immunoassays, with as aim to investigate the value of serum-NfH as biomarker for MS. METHODS: We measured serum-NfH in 76 MS patients with Simoa (one commercial, one in-house) or Luminex assays. Serum-NfH measured by the immunoassay with greatest sensitivity was related to clinical and radiological outcomes with age and sex-adjusted linear regression analysis, and to biological outcomes cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-NfH, serum neurofilament light (NfL) and CSF-NfL with Spearman's correlation analysis. RESULTS: With the commercial Simoa assay, we obtained 100% serum-NfH detectability (in-house Simoa: 70%, Luminex: 61%), with lowest coefficient of variation (CV) between duplicates of 11%CV (in-house Simoa: 22%CV, Luminex: 30%CV). Serum-NfH quantified with the commercial Simoa assay was associated with disease duration (standardized beta (sß) = 0.28, p = 0.034), T2 lesion volume (sß = 0.23, p = 0.041), and tended to associate with black hole count (sß = 0.21, p = 0.084) but not with Expanded Disease Disability Score (EDSS) or normalized brain volume (all: p>0.10). Furthermore, serum-NfH showed correlations with CSF-NfH (rho = 0.27, p = 0.018) and serum-NfL (rho=0.44, p < 0.001), but not with CSF-NfL. CONCLUSIONS: Serum-NfH can be quantified with high-sensitivity technology. Cross-sectionally, we observed some weak correlations of serum-NfH with MS disease burden parameters, suggesting there might be some utility for serum-NfH as biomarker for MS disease burden.

5.
Ann Neurol ; 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the genetic contribution to the start of Alzheimer's disease with amyloid and tau biomarkers in cognitively intact older identical twins. METHODS: We studied in 96 monozygotic twin-pairs relationships between Aß aggregation as measured by the ratio Aß1-42/1-40 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, n=126) and positron emission tomography (PET, n=194), and CSF markers for Aß production (BACE1, Aß1-40 and 1-38) and CSF tau. Associations amongst markers were tested with Generalized Estimating Equations including a random effect for twin status, adjusted for age, gender, and APOE ε4 genotype. We used twin analyses to determine relative contributions of genetic and/or environmental factors to AD pathophysiological processes. RESULTS: Twenty-seven individuals (14%) had an abnormal amyloid-PET, and 14 twin-pairs (15%) showed discordant amyloid-PET scans. Within twin-pairs, Aß production markers and total-tau (t-tau) levels strongly correlated (r range 0.73, 0.86; all p<0.0001), and Aß aggregation markers and 181-phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) levels correlated moderately strong (r range 0.50, 0.64; all p<0.0001). Cross-twin cross-trait analysis showed that Aß1-38 in one twin correlated with Aß1-42/1-40 ratios, t-tau and p-tau levels in their co-twins (r range -0.28, 0.58; all p<.007). Within-pair differences in Aß production markers related to differences in tau levels (r range 0.49, 0.61; all p<0.0001). Twin discordance analyses suggest that Aß production and tau levels show coordinated increases in very early AD. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest a substantial genetic/shared environmental background contributes to both Aß and tau increases, suggesting that modulation of environmental risk factors may aid in delaying the onset of AD pathophysiological processes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Brain ; 144(1): 14-17, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578422
8.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 2, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology presents decades before dementia manifests, unbiased biomarker cut-points may more closely reflect presence of pathology than clinically defined cut-points. Currently, unbiased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau cut-points are lacking. METHODS: We investigated CSF t-tau and p-tau cut-points across the clinical spectrum using Gaussian mixture modelling, in two independent cohorts (Amsterdam Dementia Cohort and ADNI). RESULTS: Individuals with normal cognition (NC) (total n = 1111), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (total n = 1213) and Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) (total n = 1524) were included. In both cohorts, four CSF t- and p-tau distributions and three corresponding cut-points were identified. Increasingly high tau subgroups were characterized by steeper MMSE decline and higher progression risk to AD (cohort/platform-dependent HR, t-tau 1.9-21.3; p-tau 2.2-9.5). LIMITATIONS: The number of subjects in some subgroups and subanalyses was small, especially in the highest tau subgroup and in tau PET analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In two independent cohorts, t-tau and p-tau levels showed four subgroups. Increasingly high tau subgroups were associated with faster clinical decline, suggesting our approach may aid in more precise prognoses.

9.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 14, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to derive an algorithm to define the optimal proportion of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in whom cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing is of added prognostic value. METHODS: MCI patients were selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (n = 402). Three-year progression probabilities to dementia were predicted using previously published models with and without CSF data (amyloid-beta1-42 (Abeta), phosphorylated tau (p-tau)). We incrementally augmented the proportion of patients undergoing CSF, starting with the 10% patients with prognostic probabilities based on clinical data around the median (percentile 45-55), until all patients received CSF. The optimal proportion was defined as the proportion where the stepwise algorithm showed similar prognostic discrimination (Harrell's C) and accuracy (three-year Brier scores) compared to CSF testing of all patients. We used the BioFINDER study (n = 221) for validation. RESULTS: The optimal proportion of MCI patients to receive CSF testing selected by the stepwise approach was 50%. CSF testing in only this proportion improved the performance of the model with clinical data only from Harrell's C = 0.60, Brier = 0.198 (Harrell's C = 0.61, Brier = 0.197 if the information on magnetic resonance imaging was available) to Harrell's C = 0.67 and Brier = 0.190, and performed similarly to a model in which all patients received CSF testing. Applying the stepwise approach in the BioFINDER study would again select half of the MCI patients and yielded robust results with respect to prognostic performance. INTERPRETATION: CSF biomarker testing adds prognostic value in half of the MCI patients. As such, we achieve a CSF saving recommendation while simultaneously retaining optimal prognostic accuracy.

10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 27, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431793

RESUMO

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an astrocytic cytoskeletal protein, can be measured in blood samples, and has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, plasma GFAP has not been investigated in cognitively normal older adults at risk of AD, based on brain amyloid-ß (Aß) load. Cross-sectional analyses were carried out for plasma GFAP and plasma Aß1-42/Aß1-40 ratio, a blood-based marker associated with brain Aß load, in participants (65-90 years) categorised into low (Aß-, n = 63) and high (Aß+, n = 33) brain Aß load groups via Aß positron emission tomography. Plasma GFAP, Aß1-42, and Aß1-40 were measured using the Single molecule array (Simoa) platform. Plasma GFAP levels were significantly higher (p < 0.00001), and plasma Aß1-42/Aß1-40 ratios were significantly lower (p < 0.005), in Aß+ participants compared to Aß- participants, adjusted for covariates age, sex, and apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriage. A receiver operating characteristic curve based on a logistic regression of the same covariates, the base model, distinguished Aß+ from Aß- (area under the curve, AUC = 0.78), but was outperformed when plasma GFAP was added to the base model (AUC = 0.91) and further improved with plasma Aß1-42/Aß1-40 ratio (AUC = 0.92). The current findings demonstrate that plasma GFAP levels are elevated in cognitively normal older adults at risk of AD. These observations suggest that astrocytic damage or activation begins from the pre-symptomatic stage of AD and is associated with brain Aß load. Observations from the present study highlight the potential of plasma GFAP to contribute to a diagnostic blood biomarker panel (along with plasma Aß1-42/Aß1-40 ratios) for cognitively normal older adults at risk of AD.

11.
Glia ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506583

RESUMO

Synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD) are hallmarked by α-synuclein (α-syn) pathology and neuroinflammation. This neuroinflammation involves activated microglia with increased secretion of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). The main driver of IL-1ß secretion from microglia is the NLRP3 inflammasome. A critical link between microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the progression of both α-syn pathology and dopaminergic neurodegeneration has been identified in various PD models in vivo. α-Syn is known to activate the microglial NLRP3 inflammasome in murine models, but its relationship to this inflammasome in human microglia has not been established. In this study, IL-1ß secretion from primary mouse microglia induced by α-syn fibrils was dependent on NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and caspase-1 activity, as previously reported. We show that exposure of primary human microglia to α-syn fibrils also resulted in significant IL-1ß secretion that was dependent on inflammasome assembly and involved the recruitment of caspase-1 protein to inflammasome scaffolds as visualized with superresolution microscopy. While canonical IL-1ß secretion was clearly dependent on caspase-1 enzymatic activity, this activity was less clearly involved for α-syn-induced IL-1ß secretion from human microglia. This work presents similarities between primary human and mouse microglia in the mechanisms of activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by α-syn, but also highlights evidence to suggest that there may be a difference in the requirement for caspase-1 activity in IL-1ß output. The data represent a novel characterization of PD-related NLRP3 inflammasome activation in primary human microglia and further implicate this mechanism in the pathology underlying PD.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the disease course of carryover progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after switching from natalizumab to ocrelizumab in 2 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. METHODS: Two case reports with 1 year of follow-up and retrospective longitudinal measurements of serum neurofilament light (NfL) levels and B-cells. RESULTS: PML was diagnosed 78 days (case 1) and 97 days (case 2) after discontinuation of natalizumab. Both patients developed mild immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) despite B-cell depletion caused by ocrelizumab. NfL levels increased in both patients during PML-IRIS. PML-IRIS lesions stabilized after treatment with mefloquine and mirtazapine, followed by methylprednisolone, and both patients continued therapy with ocrelizumab when B-cells started to repopulate. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical course of carryover PML was mild in both patients, suggesting that B-cell depletion possibly did not aggravate PML-IRIS in these 2 patients.

14.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 12(1): 162, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood-based amyloid biomarkers may provide a non-invasive, cost-effective and scalable manner for detecting cerebral amyloidosis in early disease stages. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we quantified plasma Aß1-42/Aß1-40 ratios with both routinely available ELISAs and novel SIMOA Amyblood assays, and provided a head-to-head comparison of their performances to detect cerebral amyloidosis in a nondemented elderly cohort (n = 199). Participants were stratified according to amyloid-PET status, and the performance of plasma Aß1-42/Aß1-40 to detect cerebral amyloidosis was assessed using receiver operating characteristic analysis. We additionally investigated the correlations of plasma Aß ratios with amyloid-PET and CSF Alzheimer's disease biomarkers, as well as platform agreement using Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman analysis for both Aß isoforms. RESULTS: ELISA and SIMOA plasma Aß1-42/Aß1-40 detected cerebral amyloidosis with identical accuracy (ELISA: area under curve (AUC) 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84; SIMOA: AUC 0.79, 95% CI 0.73-0.85), and both increased the performance of a basic demographic model including only age and APOE-ε4 genotype (p ≤ 0.02). ELISA and SIMOA had positive predictive values of respectively 41% and 36% in cognitively normal elderly and negative predictive values all exceeding 88%. Plasma Aß1-42/Aß1-40 correlated similarly with amyloid-PET for both platforms (Spearman ρ = - 0.32, p <  0.0001), yet correlations with CSF Aß1-42/t-tau were stronger for ELISA (ρ = 0.41, p = 0.002) than for SIMOA (ρ = 0.29, p = 0.03). Plasma Aß levels demonstrated poor agreement between ELISA and SIMOA with concentrations of both Aß1-42 and Aß1-40 measured by SIMOA consistently underestimating those measured by ELISA. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA and SIMOA demonstrated equivalent performances in detecting cerebral amyloidosis through plasma Aß1-42/Aß1-40, both with high negative predictive values, making them equally suitable non-invasive prescreening tools for clinical trials by reducing the number of necessary PET scans for clinical trial recruitment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2009-014475-45 (registered on 23 Sept 2009) and EudraCT 2013-004671-12 (registered on 20 May 2014, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2013-004671-12/BE ).

15.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 12(1): 169, 2020 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated Aß misfolding in combination with Aß42/40 ratio as a prognostic tool for future clinical progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). METHODS: Baseline plasma samples (n = 203) from SCD subjects in the SCIENCe project and Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (age 61 ± 9 years; 57% male, mean follow-up time 2.7 years) were analyzed using immuno-infrared-sensor technology. Within 6 years of follow-up, 22 (11%) individuals progressed to MCI or dementia due to AD. Sensor readout values > 1646 cm- 1 reflected normal Aß folding; readouts at ≤ 1646 cm- 1 reflected low and at < 1644 cm- 1 high misfolding. We used Cox proportional hazard models to quantify Aß misfolding as a prognostic biomarker for progression to MCI and dementia due to AD. The accuracy of the predicted development of MCI/AD was determined by time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (t-ROC) curve analyses that take individual follow-up and conversion times into account. Statistical models were adjusted for age, sex, and APOEε4 status. Additionally, plasma Aß42/40 data measured by SIMOA were statistically analyzed and compared. RESULTS: All 22 patients who converted to MCI or AD-dementia within 6 years exhibited Aß misfolding at baseline. Cox analyses revealed a hazard ratio (HR) of 19 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-157.8) for future conversion of SCD subjects with high misfolding and of 11 (95% CI 1.0-110.1) for those with low misfolding. T-ROC curve analyses yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.94 (95% CI 0.86-1.00; 6-year follow-up) for Aß misfolding in an age, sex, and APOEε4 model. A similar model with plasma Aß42/40 ratio yielded an AUC of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.82-1.00). The AUC increased to 0.99 (95% CI, 0.99-1.00) after inclusion of both Aß misfolding and the Aß42/40 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: A panel of structure- and concentration-based plasma amyloid biomarkers may predict conversion to clinical MCI and dementia due to AD in cognitively unimpaired subjects. These plasma biomarkers provide a noninvasive and cost-effective alternative for screening early AD pathological changes. Follow-up studies and external validation in larger cohorts are in progress for further validation of our findings.

16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 403, 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223526

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Susceptibility to AD is considerably determined by genetic factors which hitherto were primarily identified using case-control designs. Elucidating the genetic architecture of additional AD-related phenotypic traits, ideally those linked to the underlying disease process, holds great promise in gaining deeper insights into the genetic basis of AD and in developing better clinical prediction models. To this end, we generated genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping data in 931 participants of the European Medical Information Framework Alzheimer's Disease Multimodal Biomarker Discovery (EMIF-AD MBD) sample to search for novel genetic determinants of AD biomarker variability. Specifically, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses on 16 traits, including 14 measures derived from quantifications of five separate amyloid-beta (Aß) and tau-protein species in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In addition to confirming the well-established effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) on diagnostic outcome and phenotypes related to Aß42, we detected novel potential signals in the zinc finger homeobox 3 (ZFHX3) for CSF-Aß38 and CSF-Aß40 levels, and confirmed the previously described sex-specific association between SNPs in geminin coiled-coil domain containing (GMNC) and CSF-tau. Utilizing the results from independent case-control AD GWAS to construct polygenic risk scores (PRS) revealed that AD risk variants only explain a small fraction of CSF biomarker variability. In conclusion, our study represents a detailed first account of GWAS analyses on CSF-Aß and -tau-related traits in the EMIF-AD MBD dataset. In subsequent work, we will utilize the genomics data generated here in GWAS of other AD-relevant clinical outcomes ascertained in this unique dataset.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198266

RESUMO

In early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD), cognitive impairment is common, and a variety of cognitive domains including memory, attention, and executive functioning may be affected. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are potential markers of cognitive functioning. We aimed to explore whether CSF α-synuclein species, neurofilament light chain, amyloid-ß42, and tau are associated with cognitive performance in early-stage PD patients. CSF levels of total-α-synuclein and phosphorylated-α-synuclein, neurofilament light chain, amyloid-ß42, and total-tau and phosphorylated-tau were measured in 26 PD patients (disease duration ≤5 years and Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-2.5). Multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for age, gender, and educational level, were used to assess the relationship between CSF biomarker levels and memory, attention, executive and visuospatial function, and language performance scores. In 26 early-stage PD patients, attention and memory were the most commonly affected domains. A higher CSF phosphorylated-α-synuclein/total-α-synuclein ratio was associated with better executive functioning (sß = 0.40). Higher CSF neurofilament light was associated with worse memory (sß = -0.59), attentional (sß = -0.32), and executive functioning (sß = -0.35). Reduced CSF amyloid-ß42 levels were associated with poorer attentional functioning (sß = 0.35). Higher CSF phosphorylated-tau was associated with worse language functioning (sß = -0.33). Thus, CSF biomarker levels, in particular neurofilament light, were related to the most commonly affected cognitive domains in early-stage PD. This indicates that CSF biomarker levels may identify early-stage PD patients who are at an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment.

18.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173883

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised by abnormal amyloid beta and tau processing. Previous studies reported that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total tau (t-tau) levels vary between patients. Here we show that CSF t-tau variability is associated with distinct impairments in neuronal plasticity mediated by gene repression factors SUZ12 and REST. AD individuals with abnormal t-tau levels have increased CSF concentrations of plasticity proteins regulated by SUZ12 and REST. AD individuals with normal t-tau, on the contrary, have decreased concentrations of these plasticity proteins and increased concentrations in proteins associated with blood-brain and blood CSF-barrier dysfunction. Genomic analyses suggested that t-tau levels in part depend on genes involved in gene expression. The distinct plasticity abnormalities in AD as signaled by t-tau urge the need for personalised treatment.

19.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In cognitively normal adults, nutritional parameters are related to cognitive decline and incidence of dementia. Studies on the role of nutrition in predementia stages subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment, and mild stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia in a clinical setting are lacking. In the absence of a curative treatment, this evidence is important for targeting nutritional factors to potentially prevent or delay further cognitive decline. Our aim is to investigate associations of nutritional parameters with clinical progression in patients ranging from those who are cognitively normal to those who have AD dementia. DESIGN: Longitudinal. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Memory clinic, 551 patients (219 with subjective cognitive decline, 135 with mild cognitive impairment, and 197 with AD dementia), mean age 64 ± 8 years. MEASUREMENTS: We assessed body mass index, fat-free mass, Mini-Nutritional Assessment, and dietary intake with the Dutch Healthy Diet food frequency questionnaire and the 238-item healthy life in an urban setting (HELIUS) food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate associations of nutritional parameters with clinical progression. Additional analyses were restricted to patients who were amyloid positive. RESULTS: We observed clinical progression in 170 patients (31%) over 2.2 ± 0.9 years. Poorer Mini-Nutritional Assessment score [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.39 (1.18-1.64)], lower body mass index [1.15 (0.96-1.38)], lower fat-free mass [1.40 (0.93-2.10)], and a less healthy dietary pattern [1.22 (1.01-1.48)] were associated with a higher risk of clinical progression. Similar effect sizes were found in patients who were amyloid positive. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Poorer nutritional status and a less healthy dietary pattern are associated with a higher risk of clinical progression. This study provides support for investigating whether improving nutritional status can alter the clinical trajectory of AD.

20.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 12(1): 138, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impairment in daily functioning is a clinical hallmark of dementia. Difficulties with "instrumental activities of daily living" (IADL) seem to increase gradually over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), before dementia onset. However, it is currently not well established how difficulties develop along the preclinical and prodromal stages of AD. We aimed to investigate the trajectories of decline in IADL performance, as reported by a study partner, along the early stages of AD. METHODS: In a longitudinal multicenter study, combining data from community-based and memory clinic cohorts, we included 1555 individuals (mean age 72.5 ± 7.8 years; 50% female) based on availability of amyloid biomarkers, longitudinal IADL data, and clinical information at baseline. Median follow-up duration was 2.1 years. All amyloid-positive participants (n = 982) were classified into the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) clinical stages ranging from preclinical AD (1) to overt dementia (4+). Cognitively normal amyloid-negative individuals (n = 573) served as a comparison group. The total scores of three study-partner reported IADL questionnaires were standardized. RESULTS: The rate of decline in cognitively normal (stage 1) individuals with and without abnormal amyloid did not differ (p = .453). However, from stage 2 onwards, decline was significantly faster in individuals on the AD continuum (B [95%CI] = - 0.32 [- 0.55, - 0.09], p = .007). The rate of decline increased with each successive stage: one standard deviation (SD) unit per year in stage 3 (- 1.06 [- 1.27, - 0.85], p < .001) and nearly two SD units per year in stage 4+ (1.93 [- 2.19, - 1.67], p < .001). Overall, results were similar between community-based and memory clinic study cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the rate of functional decline accelerates along the AD continuum, as shown by steeper rates of decline in each successive NIA-AA clinical stage. These results imply that incremental changes in function are a meaningful measure for early disease monitoring. Combined with the low-cost assessment, this advocates the use of these functional questionnaires for capturing the effects of early AD-related cognitive decline on daily life.

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