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2.
Prog Transplant ; 30(4): 376-381, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventricular assist device (VAD) patients are at high risk for morbidities and mortality. One potentially beneficial component of the Joint Commission VAD Certification process is the requirement that individual VAD programs select 4 performance measures to improve and optimize patients' clinical outcomes. PROBLEM STATEMENT: Review of patient data after our program's first certification visit in 2008 showed that, compared to national recommendations and published reports, our patients had suboptimal outcomes in 4 areas after device implantation: length of hospital stay, receipt of early (<48 hours) postsurgical physical therapy, driveline infection incidence, and adequacy of nutritional status (prealbumin ≥18 mg/dL). METHODS: Plan-Do-Study-Act processes were implemented to shorten length of stay, increase patient receipt of early physical therapy, decrease driveline infection incidence, and improve nutritional status. With 2008 as our baseline, we deployed interventions for each outcome area across 2009 to 2017. Performance improvement activities included staff, patient, and family didactic, one-on-one, and hands-on education; procedural changes; and outcomes monitoring with feedback to staff on progress. Descriptive and inferential statistics were examined to document change in the outcomes. OUTCOMES: Across the performance improvement period, length of stay decreased from 40 to 23 days; physical therapy consults increased from 87% to 100% of patients; 1-year driveline infection incidence went from 38% to 23.5%; and the percentage of patients with prealbumin within the normal range increased from 84% to 90%. IMPLICATIONS: Performance improvement interventions may enhance ventricular assist device patient outcomes. Interventions' sustainability should be evaluated to ensure that gains are not lost over time.

3.
Clin Transplant ; 34(11): e14098, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the leading cause of late graft loss. While there are numerous post-transplant factors which may increase the risk of the development of CAV, there is a paucity of data on the impact of donor-derived atherosclerosis (DA), early discontinuation of prednisone, and early initiation of proliferation signal inhibitors (PSI) as assessed by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). METHODS: Retrospective single-center study of all adult transplant patients (2008-2017) with serial IVUS at baseline and annually for 5 years. DA was defined as a baseline maximal intimal thickness (MIT) ≥0.5 mm, and CAV development was defined as MIT ≥1 mm or an increase in MIT ≥0.5 mm at year 1 compared with baseline or an increase in 0.3 mm annually thereafter. Clinical risk factors for CAV were identified using multivariable hazard regression. Separate multistate models were applied to assess the association of prednisone discontinuation and PSI initiation and CAV. RESULTS: Of 282 patients screened, 186 patients had a 1-year angiogram. The mean age of those included in the cohort was 51 ± 11 years, 70% were male, 58% were Caucasian, and 27% were supported by a left ventricular assist device. Donor atherosclerosis was present in 40%. The cumulative incidence of CAV at 5 years is 41% in DA- vs. 59% in DA + (p = .012). Donor age was a strong predictor of DA (p = .016). Significant risk factors for CAV included male sex (HR = 4.141, p = .001), non-Caucasian race (HR = 1.98, p = .011), BMI < 18 kg/m2 (HR = 4.596, p = .042), longer ischemic time (HR = 1.374, p = .028), older donor age (HR = 1.158, p = .009), and rejection with hemodynamic compromise within the first year (HR = 2.858, p = .043). Prednisone discontinuation within 1 year was associated with a lower risk of CAV (HR 0.58 p = .047). Initiation of proliferation signal inhibitors (PSI) within 2 years resulted in fewer cases of CAV (HR 0.397 p < .001). CONCLUSION: In patients with an angiogram at 1 year, those with DA were significantly more likely to develop CAV. Lower incidence of CAV by IVUS was seen in patients who discontinued prednisone in the first year or had initiation of a PSI within two years of transplantation. Knowledge of early IVUS may allow a more tailored approach to patient management.

4.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711070

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The incidence of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation as destination therapy for heart failure is increasing and kidney failure requiring maintenance hemodialysis is a common complication. Because little is known about the safety or efficacy of outpatient hemodialysis among patients with LVADs, this study sought to describe their clinical course. STUDY DESIGN: Case series of patients with an LVAD undergoing maintenance outpatient hemodialysis whose clinical data were obtained from an electronic medical record. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adults who received an LVAD, survived to hospital discharge, and were subsequently treated with maintenance hemodialysis by a not-for-profit dialysis provider between 2011 and 2019. RESULTS: 11 patients were included. 6 had a known history of chronic kidney disease. Patients underwent outpatient hemodialysis for a mean duration of 165.2 (range, 31-542) days, during which they were treated with 544 total dialysis sessions. 6 of these sessions were stopped early due to dialysis-related adverse events (1.1%). More than 80% of follow-up time was spent out of the hospital; however, 55% of patients were rehospitalized within 1 month of starting outpatient hemodialysis. The most common reason for hospitalization was infection (32%), followed by hypervolemia (14%), and cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack (11%). 4 patients recovered kidney function, 1 underwent combined heart and kidney transplantation, 2 continued treatment, 2 died, and 2 were lost to follow-up. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective design, small number of cases, and lack of complete follow-up data. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half the patients with complete follow-up either recovered kidney function or underwent combined heart and kidney transplantation. This case series demonstrates that outpatient hemodialysis centers, in partnership with LVAD treatment teams, can successfully provide hemodialysis to patients on LVAD support.

7.
Transplantation ; 104(10): e284-e294, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart transplantation is a life-saving procedure that has seen improvements in transplant and patient outcomes due to advances in immunosuppression and prevention of posttransplantation infectious episodes (IEps). This study systematically evaluates IEps in the modern era of heart transplantation at Stanford University Medical Center. METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective review that includes 279 consecutive adult heart transplantation recipients from January 2008 to September 2017. Baseline demographic, clinical, serological, and outcomes information were collected. Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to assess survival stratified by IEp occurrence within the first year. RESULTS: A total of 600 IEps occurred in 279 patients (2.15 IEps per patient) during a median follow-up period of 3 years. Overall survival was 83.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76.2-88.4) at 1 year posttransplantation for those with any IEp compared with 93.0% (95% CI, 87.2-96.4) in those without IEp (P = 0.07). Bacterial IEps were the most common (n = 375; 62.5%), followed by viral (n = 180; 30.0%), fungal (n = 40; 6.7%), and parasitic (n = 5; 0.8%). IEps by Gram-negative bacteria (n = 210) outnumbered those by Gram-positive bacteria (n = 142). Compared with prior studies from our center, there was a decreased proportion of viral (including cytomegalovirus), fungal (including Aspergillus spp. and non-Aspergillus spp. molds), and Nocardia infections. There were no IEps due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pneumocystis jirovecii, or Toxoplasma gondii. CONCLUSIONS: A significant reduction in viral, fungal, and Nocardia IEps after heart transplantation was observed, most likely due to advancements in immunosuppression and preventive strategies, including pretransplant infectious diseases screening and antimicrobial prophylaxis.

9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(6): 703-708, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293644

RESUMO

Importance: The new United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) donor heart allocation system gives priority to patients supported with nondischargeable mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices while awaiting heart transplant. Whether there has been a change in temporary MCS use in cardiac intensive care units (CICUs) since the implementation of this policy is unknown. Objectives: To examine whether the UNOS donor heart allocation system revision in October 2018 was associated with changes in temporary MCS use in CICUs and whether temporary MCS use differed between US transplant centers and US nontransplant centers and Canadian centers. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, 14 centers from the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network (CCCTN), a multicenter network of tertiary CICUs in North America, contributed 2-month snapshots of consecutive medical CICU admissions between September 1, 2017, and September 1, 2018 (prerevision period), and October 1, 2018, and September 1, 2019 (postrevision period). CICUs were classified as US transplant centers (n = 7) or other CICUs (US nontransplant centers or Canadian centers; n = 7). Exposure: Revision to the UNOS donor heart allocation system. Main Outcomes and Measures: Treatment with temporary MCS (intra-aortic balloon pump, microaxial intracardiac ventricular assist device, percutaneous centrifugal ventricular assist device, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or surgically implanted, nondischargeable MCS device) during hospital admission. Results: A total of 384 admissions for acute, decompensated, heart failure-related cardiogenic shock (ADHF-CS) were included, among which 248 (64.6%) were to US transplant centers; 126 admissions (51%) were in the prerevision period and 122 (49%) were in the postrevision period. The mean (SD) patient age was 61.2 (14.6) years; 246 patients (64.1%) were male. The proportion of admissions with ADHF-CS managed with temporary MCS at US transplant centers significantly increased from 25.4% (32 of 126 admissions) before to 42.6% (52 of 122 admissions) after the UNOS allocation system changes (P = .004). In other CICUs, the proportion did not significantly change (24.5% [13 of 53 admissions] to 24.1% [20 of 83 admissions]; P = .95). After multivariable adjustment, patients admitted to US transplant centers in the postrevision period were more likely to receive temporary MCS compared with those admitted in the prerevision period (adjusted odds ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.13-4.24; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In the year after implementation of the new UNOS donor heart allocation system, temporary MCS use in patients admitted with ADHF-CS increased in US transplant centers but not in other CICUs. Whether this shift in practice will affect outcomes of patients with ADHF-CS or organ distribution should be evaluated.

10.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(3): 649-660, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The field of mechanical circulatory support has been impacted by the approval of new continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) and changes to the United States heart allocation system. METHODS: Primary isolated continuous-flow LVAD implants in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Intermacs registry from January 2014 through September 2019 were evaluated. Survival and freedom from major adverse events were compared between axial-flow, centrifugal-flow with hybrid levitation (CF-HL), and centrifugal-flow with full magnetic levitation (CF-FML) devices. RESULTS: Of 2603 devices implanted in 2014, 1824 (70.1%) were axial flow and 1213 (46.6%) were destination therapy (DT); through September 2019, 1752 devices were implanted, but only 37 (2.1%) were axial flow and 1230 (70.2%) were DT. Implants were performed in 13,016 patients between 2014 and 2018. Patients receiving implants in 2017-2018 compared with 2014-2016 were more likely to be at Intermacs profile 1 (17.1% vs 14.3%, P < .001) and to have preimplant temporary mechanical circulatory support (34.8% vs 29.3%, P < .001). Overall survival and freedom from major adverse events were higher with CF-FML devices. In multivariable analysis of survival between CF-HL and CF-FML, device type was not a significant early hazard, but the use of CF-HL devices had a late hazard ratio for death of 3.01 (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Over the past 5 years, centrifugal-flow LVADs have become the dominant technology and DT the most common implant strategy. While outcomes with CF-FML devices are promising, comparisons with other devices from nonrandomized registry studies should be made with caution.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Coração Auxiliar/tendências , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente , Desenho de Prótese , Alocação de Recursos/métodos , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sociedades Médicas , Cirurgia Torácica , Estados Unidos , Listas de Espera
12.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(11): e006635, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temporary mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices provide hemodynamic assistance for shock refractory to pharmacological treatment. Most registries have focused on single devices or specific etiologies of shock, limiting data regarding overall practice patterns with temporary MCS in cardiac intensive care units. METHODS: The CCCTN (Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network) is a multicenter network of tertiary CICUs in North America. Between September 2017 and September 2018, each center (n=16) contributed a 2-month snapshot of consecutive medical CICU admissions. RESULTS: Of the 270 admissions using temporary MCS, 33% had acute myocardial infarction-related cardiogenic shock (CS), 31% had CS not related to acute myocardial infarction, 11% had mixed shock, and 22% had an indication other than shock. Among all 585 admissions with CS or mixed shock, 34% used temporary MCS during the CICU stay with substantial variation between centers (range: 17%-50%). The most common temporary MCS devices were intraaortic balloon pumps (72%), Impella (17%), and veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (11%), although intraaortic balloon pump use also varied between centers (range: 40%-100%). Patients managed with intraaortic balloon pump versus other forms of MCS (advanced MCS) had lower Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores and less severe metabolic derangements. Illness severity was similar at high- versus low-MCS utilizing centers and at centers with more advanced MCS use. CONCLUSIONS: There is wide variation in the use of temporary MCS among patients with shock in tertiary CICUs. While hospital-level variation in temporary MCS device selection is not explained by differences in illness severity, patient-level variation appears to be related, at least in part, to illness severity.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas/tendências , Unidades de Cuidados Coronarianos/tendências , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/tendências , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Coração Auxiliar/tendências , Hemodinâmica , Balão Intra-Aórtico/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Idoso , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/instrumentação , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Balão Intra-Aórtico/efeitos adversos , Balão Intra-Aórtico/instrumentação , Balão Intra-Aórtico/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque Cardiogênico/diagnóstico , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Choque Cardiogênico/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(10): e006218, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, women represent <25% of heart transplant recipients. Reasons for this female underrepresentation have been attributed to selection and referral bias and potentially poorer outcomes in female recipients. The aim of this study was to compare long-term posttransplant survival between men and women, when matched for recipient and donor characteristics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Registry, we performed descriptive analyses and estimated overall freedom from posttransplant death stratified by sex using Kaplan-Meier survival methods. Male and female recipients were matched according to the Index for Mortality Prediction After Cardiac Transplantation and Donor Risk Index score using 1:1 propensity score matching. The study cohort comprised 34 198 heart transplant recipients (76.3% men, 23.7% women) between 2004 and 2014. Compared with men, women were more likely younger (51 [39-59] versus 55 [46-61] years; P<0.001) and had a different distribution of heart failure etiology (P<0.001). In general, the prevalence of comorbidities was lower in women than in men. Women were less likely to have diabetes mellitus (19.1% versus 26.2%; P<0.001), hypertension (40.7% versus 47.9%; P<0.001), peripheral vascular disease (2.4% versus 3.3%; P=0.002), tobacco use (36.5% versus 52.3%; P<0.001), and prior cardiovascular surgery (38.6% versus 50.7%; P<0.001). Women were more likely to have a history of malignancy (10.5% versus 5.3%; P<0.001), require intravenous inotropes (41.4% versus 37.2%; P<0.001), and were less likely supported by an intra-aortic balloon pump (3.3% versus 3.8%; P=0.03) or durable ventricular assist device (22% versus 31.5%; P<0.001). Transplanted male recipients had a higher Index for Mortality Prediction After Cardiac Transplantation score (5 [2-7] versus 4 [1-6]; P<0.001). When male and female heart transplant recipients were matched for recipient and donor characteristics, there was no significant survival difference (P=0.57). CONCLUSIONS: Overall survival does not differ between men and women after cardiac transplantation. Women who survive to heart transplantation appear to have lower risk features than male recipients but receive hearts from higher risk donors.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Sobreviventes , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
14.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 38(10): 1067-1074, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac retransplantation accounts for approximately 3% of cardiac transplantation and is considered a risk factor for increased mortality. However, factors inherent to retransplantation including previous sternotomy, sensitization, and renal dysfunction may account for the increased mortality. We assessed whether retransplantation was associated with all-cause mortality after adjusting for such patient risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult and pediatric patients enrolled in the United Network for Organ Sharing database. We identified patients undergoing cardiac retransplantation based on transplant listing diagnosis and history of previous transplant. We used propensity-score matching to identify a matched cohort undergoing initial heart transplantation. RESULTS: In total, 62,112 heart transplant recipients were identified, with a mean age 46.6 ± 19.1 years. Of these, 2,202 (3.4%) underwent late cardiac retransplantation (>1 year after initial transplant and not for acute rejection). Compared with a matched group of patients undergoing initial heart transplantation, patients undergoing late retransplantation had comparable rates of all-cause mortality at 1 year (13.6% vs 13.8%, p = 0.733). In addition, overall mortality was not significantly different after matching (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.08, p = 0.084). In contrast, patients undergoing retransplantation within 1 year of initial transplant or for acute rejection remained at increased risk of mortality post-transplant after similar matching (unadjusted HR 1.79, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: After matching for comorbidities, late retransplantation in the adult population was not associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing indication acuity and comorbid conditions when considering retransplant candidacy.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Reoperação/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Nações Unidas
15.
Clin Transplant ; 33(10): e13699, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437316

RESUMO

Heart transplant (HTx) recipients are at increased risk of pericardial disease. Idiopathic recurrent pericarditis has not been previously described following HTx. We describe a 35-year-old male who was admitted with pericarditis and moderate pericardial effusion 10 months after HTx. Two weeks before his admission, his prednisone had been tapered off. A thorough infectious workup and endomyocardial biopsy was unrevealing. He was started on colchicine with the addition of tapering prednisone regimen of 40 mg daily due to unresolved pain. Over the next several years, he had three recurrent episodes of pericarditis requiring re-initiation of prednisone with extensive investigations negative for rejection, autoimmune, and infectious causes. Cardiac MRI confirmed pericardial inflammation. Due to his recurrent course and inability to wean off prednisone, anakinra, an IL-1 receptor antagonist, was started at 100 mg sc daily. This allowed successful discontinuation of prednisone. He is now 34 months post-transplant without recurrence on anakinra and colchicine maintenance. Due to the overlap between idiopathic recurrent pericarditis and auto-inflammatory diseases, there is growing evidence for utilizing IL-1 receptor antagonists in this condition. While pericarditis is common in the HTx population, this is the first report of successful use of an IL-1 receptor blocker for pericarditis in this population.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Cardiomiopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Pericardite/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pericardite/etiologia , Pericardite/patologia , Prognóstico
16.
Clin Transplant ; 33(10): e13692, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite significant advances in durable mechanical support survival, infectious complications remain the most common adverse event after ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation and the leading cause of early death after transplantation. In this study, we aim to describe our local infectious epidemiology and review short-term survival and infectious incidence rates in the post-transplantation period and assess risk factors for infectious episodes after transplantation. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study of all consecutive adult heart transplant patients from 2008 to 2017. Survival data were estimated and summarized using the Kaplan-Meier method. We quantified and evaluated the difference in the incidence rate between patients with and without infection using a Fine-Gray model. The outcome of interest is the time to first infection diagnosis with post-transplant death as the competing event. RESULTS: Among 278 heart transplant patients, 74 (26.5%) underwent LVAD implantation. Twenty-one patients (28.3%) developed an infection while supported by an LVAD. When compared to patients supported by an LVAD without a preceding infection, BMI was significantly greater (31.2 vs 27.8 kg/m2 , P = .03). Median follow-up post-transplantation was 3.01 years. Significant risk factors for the competing risk regression for infection after heart transplantation include LVAD infection (HR 1.94, [95% CI] 1.11-3.39, P = .020) and recipient COPD (HR 2.14, [95% CI] 1.39-3.32, P = .001) when adjusted for recipient age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with LVAD-related infection had a significantly increased risk of infectious complications after heart transplantation. Further research on the avoidance of induction agents and reduced maintenance immunosuppression in this patient population is warranted.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Infecções/mortalidade , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infecções/etiologia , Infecções/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 38(8): 820-829, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African Americans (AAs) have lower survival rates after heart transplantation (HTx) than Caucasians. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate racial differences in gene expression and their associations with survival and the composite outcome of death, retransplant, rejection with hemodynamic compromise, and graft dysfunction in the Outcomes AlloMap Registry. METHODS: Registry participants included low-risk Caucasian and AA heart transplant recipients with a baseline and at least 1 follow-up gene expression test (AlloMap(C)) within the first year after HTx. The Kaplan-Meier method with delayed entry was used to describe differences in outcomes. Multivariable Cox hazard regression was used to evaluate the associations of overall gene expression profiling score, MARCH8 and FLT3 expression, and tacrolimus levels with each outcome, and stratified Cox models were developed to quantify race-specific associations. RESULTS: Among 933 eligible recipients, 737 (79%) were Caucasian and 196 (21%) were AA. Compared with Caucasians, AAs were significantly younger (55 vs 59 years, p < 0.001), with higher rates of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (68% vs 50%, p < 0.001), sensitization (>10% panel reactive antibody, 16% vs 9.1%, p = 0.009), and human leukocyte antigen mismatches (7 vs 7, p = 0.01), but less frequent primary cytomegalovirus serostatus mismatch (14.31% vs 27.3%, p < 0.001). Overall, AAs had an increased adjusted mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] 4.13, p = 0.007). Higher tacrolimus levels were associated with decreased mortality in AAs (HR 0.62, p = 0.009). Overall gene expression profiling score was associated with increased mortality among Caucasians (HR 1.21, p = 0.048). In Caucasians, but not AAs, overexpression of MARCH8 was associated with increased mortality (HR 2.90, p = 0.001). FLT3 upregulation was associated with increased mortality (HR 2.42, p = 0.033) in AAs. There was an inverse relationship between FLT3 expression and tacrolimus levels (-0.029 and -0.176, respectively) in Caucasians and AAs. CONCLUSIONS: AAs have a significantly higher mortality risk after HTx than Caucasians, even in the low-risk Outcomes AlloMap Registry population. AAs and Caucasians had differential outcomes based upon the varying expression of MARCH8 and FLT3 genes following HTx.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Transplante de Coração , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(4): e006067, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic ramp (HR) tests can guide the optimization of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) speed and direct medical therapy. We investigated the effects of HR-guided LVAD management. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective, multicenter, randomized, pilot study compared outcomes in LVAD patients using an HR-guided (HR group) versus a standard transthoracic echocardiography-guided (control group) management strategy. Patients were enrolled and randomized 1 to 3 months post-HVAD implantation and followed for 6 months. Twenty-two patients (57±10 years, 73% male) were randomized to the HR group and 19 patients (51±13 years, 63% male) to the control group. HR group patients had double the number of LVAD speed changes (1.68 versus 0.84 changes/patient, P=0.09 with an incidence rate ratio 2.0, 95% CI, 0.9-4.7) with twice the magnitude of rotations per minute changes (130 versus 60 rotations per minute/patient, P=0.004) during the study. The HR group also had 2-fold greater heart failure medication changes (4.32 versus 2.53 changes/patient, P=0.072, incidence rate ratio 1.7 with 95% CI, 0.8-3.5) predominantly because of changes in diuretic dose (40 versus 0 mg/patient, P<0.001). The HR group had numerically but not statistically higher event-free survival (62% versus 46%, P=0.087; hazard ratio, 0.46 with 95% CI, 0.2-1.2), with numerically but not statistically lower events per patient-year ( P=0.084). There were no significant differences in the 6-minute walk or Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire tests at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized pilot study of LVAD patient management we demonstrated the feasibility of standardized HR testing at multiple institutions and that a strategy guided by hemodynamics was associated with more LVAD speed and medication adjustments and a nonsignificant reduction in adverse events. A pivotal study to demonstrate the clinical benefit of HR testing is warranted. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT03021239.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Medição de Risco/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
20.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 38(4): 408-417, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outlook for ambulatory patients with advanced heart failure (HF) and the appropriate timing for left ventricular assist device (LVAD) or transplant remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to better understand disease trajectory and rates of progression to subsequent LVAD therapy and transplant in ambulatory advanced HF. METHODS: Patients with advanced HF who were New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV and Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) Profiles 4 to 7, despite optimal medical therapy (without inotropic therapy), were enrolled across 11 centers and followed for the end-points of survival, transplantation, LVAD placement, and health-related quality of life. A secondary intention-to-treat survival analysis compared outcomes for MedaMACS patients with a matched group of Profile 4 to 7 patients with LVADs from the INTERMACS registry. RESULTS: Between May 2013 and October 2015, 161 patients were enrolled with INTERMACS Profiles 4 (12%), 5 (32%), 6 (49%), and 7 (7%). By 2 years after enrollment, 75 (47%) patients had reached a primary end-point with 39 (24%) deaths, 17 (11%) undergoing LVAD implantation, and 19 (12%) receiving a transplant. Compared with 1,753 patients with Profiles 4 to 7 receiving LVAD therapy, there was no overall difference in intention-to-treat survival between medical and LVAD therapy, but survival with LVAD therapy was superior to medical therapy among Profile 4 and 5 patients (p = 0.0092). Baseline health-related quality of life was lower among patients receiving a LVAD than those enrolled on continuing oral medical therapy, but increased after 1 year for survivors in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Ambulatory patients with advanced HF are at high risk for poor outcomes, with only 53% alive on medical therapy after 2 years of follow-up. Survival was similar for medical and LVAD therapy in the overall cohort, which included the lower severity Profiles 6 and 7, but survival was better with LVAD therapy among patients in Profiles 4 and 5. Given the poor outcomes in this group of advanced HF patients, timely consideration of transplant and LVAD is of critical importance.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
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