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1.
Scand J Immunol ; : e12871, 2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037586

RESUMO

Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is a primary neutrophil disorder. The disease should be considered when the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in peripheral blood is less than 500/mm3 . Clinical symptoms of congenital neutropenia may be life-threatening. Invasive bacterial and fungal infections in addition to chronic and recurrent aphthous lesions, periodontal disease, and tooth loss may be seen in the course of the disease. Furthermore, SCN may complicate as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML).

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056073

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) results in defective B cell differentiation and impaired antibody production and is the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency. Our aim was to evaluate the correlation among B cell subgroups, κ-deleting recombination excision circle (KREC) copy numbers, and clinical and immunological data of the patients with CVID, and evaluate the patients according to classifications currently available to define the role of KREC copy numbers in the diagnosis of CVID. KREC analysis was performed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, and B cell subgroups were measured by flow cytometry. The median age of the patients (n = 30) was 25 (6-69) years. Parental consanguinity ratio was 33%. The median age at diagnosis was 15 (4-59), and follow-up period was 6 (1-37) years. CD19+ and CD4+ cell counts at the time of diagnosis were low in 66.7% and 46.7% of the patients, respectively. CD19+ cell counts were positively correlated with KREC copy numbers in patients and healthy controls. CD19+ cell counts and KREC copy numbers were significantly reduced in CVID patients compared to healthy controls as expected. KRECs are quantitative markers for B cell defects. We found low CD4+ cell numbers, recent thymic emigrants, and lymphopenia in some of the patients at diagnosis, which reminds the heterogeneity of CVID's etiology. In this study, a positive correlation was shown between CD19+ cell counts and KREC copy numbers. Low KREC copy numbers indicated B cell deficiency; however, high KREC copy numbers were not sufficient to rule out CVID.

3.
Cytokine ; 127: 154987, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory periodontal diseases are caused by interaction between gram negative, anaerobic bacteria and host response. Persistent infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients also cause increased pro-inflammatory response and the imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory response in brochoalveolar lavage fluid which leads to destruction of lungs. The aim of this study is to evaluate periodontal status of CF patients, to measure level of cytokines and biochemical molecules in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and to detect presence of P. aeruginosa in dental plaque samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GCF samples were collected from 41 CF patients and 39 healthy (non-CF) subjects. Interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-17, IL-10, human neutrophil elastase (HNE), cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein, and human ß-defensin-1 (HBD1) in GCF were evaluated by ELISA method. Dental plaque samples were collected from 18 CF patients with history of P. aeruginosa colonization and 15 non-CF subjects. Presence of P. aeruginosa was evaluated by using conventional culture methods and molecular methods. RESULTS: Levels of IL-1ß, HNE, and HBD1 in CF patients were significantly higher than non-CF subjects. However, IL-10 level was significantly lower in CF patients. Increased pro-inflammatory (IL-1ß) and decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine levels were observed in GCF samples from CF patients, irrespective of their periodontal status. P. aeruginosa were detected in four samples of 18 CF patients, and all were negative in non-CF group. CONCLUSIONS: As a result of this study, CF coexists increasing pro-inflammatory and decreasing anti-inflammatory response locally. Due to increasing pro-inflammation, CF patients should be followed-up more often than non-CF children.

4.
J Rheumatol ; 47(1): 117-125, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disorder associated with ADA2 mutations. We aimed to investigate the characteristics and ADA2 enzyme activities of patients with DADA2 compared to non-DADA2 patients. METHODS: This is a descriptive study of 24 patients with DADA2 who were admitted to the Adult and Pediatric Rheumatology, Pediatric Haematology, and Pediatric Immunology Departments of Hacettepe University. All ADA2 exons were screened by Sanger sequencing. Serum ADA2 enzyme activity was measured by modified spectrophotometric method. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients with DADA2 were included: 14 with polyarteritis nodosa (PAN)-like phenotype (Group 1); 9 with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA)-like features, and 1 with immunodeficiency (Group 2). Fourteen PAN-like DADA2 patients did not have the typical thrombocytosis seen in classic PAN. Inflammatory attacks were evident only in Group 1 patients. Serum ADA2 activity was low in all patients with DADA2 except one, who was tested after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. There was no significant difference in ADA2 activities between PAN-like and DBA-like patients. In DADA2 patients with one ADA2 mutation, serum ADA2 activities were as low as those of patients with homozygote DADA2. ADA2 activities were normal in non-DADA2 patients. ADA2 mutations were affecting the dimerization domain in Group 1 patients and the catalytic domain in Group 2 patients. CONCLUSION: We suggest assessing ADA2 activity along with genetic analysis because there are patients with one ADA2 mutation and absent enzyme activity. Our data suggest a possible genotype-phenotype correlation in which dimerization domain mutations are associated with PAN-like phenotype, and catalytic domain mutations are associated with hematological manifestations.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheezing, starting early in life, is a heterogeneous medical condition caused by airway obstruction due to different underlying mechanisms. Primary immunodeficiencies are also among the risk factors that cause wheezing and recurrent bronchiolitis. ADA deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency, also a rare metabolic disease associated with multisystemic clinical findings. OBJECTIVE: This report will be helpful for adressing the importance of thinking primary immunodeficiency in case of wheezing and recurret bronchiolitis. METHODS: The patient was diagnosed by using a targeted next generation sequencing PID panel. Lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow-cytometry. RESULTS: Here we present an infant with ADA deficiency who admitted with wheezing and recurrent bronchiolitis as the first presentation. He was found to have wheezing, relative CD4+ T cell deficiency, and prolonged neutropenia. CONCLUSION: Primary immunodeficiencies including ADA deficiency should be considered in infants with wheezing, recurrent bronchiolitis, lymphopenia and neutropenia.

6.
Neuropediatrics ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752029

RESUMO

Defects in the regulatory components of the complement system can lead to inflammatory diseases. We present a patient who had four episodes of demyelination in the central nervous system as the only manifestation of inherited CD59 deficiency. Relapsing encephalopathy partially responsive to intravenous immunoglobulin and steroid treatments on the background of parental consanguinity suggested an inherited immune dysregulation. Next generation sequencing revealed homozygous mutation in the CD59 gene, confirmed by lack of CD59 expression on flow cytometry. Inherited CD59 deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by chronic hemolysis, recurrent strokes, and relapsing peripheral demyelinating neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Recurrent central nervous system demyelinating episodes as the only manifestation has not been reported to date in inherited CD59 deficiency. This entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with early-onset recurrent neurological diseases with central or peripheral origin.

7.
Clin Respir J ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the value of flexible bronchoscopy (FB) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) when determining causes of lung infection in immunocompromised children; to investigate differences in causes and radiological features of lung infections following bone marrow transplantation (BMT) compared to other immunosuppressive conditions; to evaluate the reliability of radiological findings when predicting the pathogen. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 132 immunosuppressed children who underwent FB and BAL because pulmonary complications between January 1999 and May 2014 at the Hacettepe University Hospital Pediatric Pulmonology Unit. Two groups, Group I (n = 106) and Group II (n = 26), consisted of patients who had primary or secondary immunodeficiency and those who were immunosuppressed because BMT, respectively. Radiological findings before FB and macroscopic and microscopic findings of the procedure were evaluated. RESULTS: FB and BAL were diagnostic in 86/132 patients (65.1%) and the antimicrobial treatment changed for 75/132 patients (56.8%). The most common pathogen was bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae was the leading one). Bacteria were more frequent in Group I than Group II (P = .008). No significant difference in radiological findings between Groups I and II was found. Considering all patients, a significant association was detected between viral pathogens and radiologically interstitial infiltration and a ground-glass appearance (P = .003). However, no significant association was detected between bacterial and fungal pathogens and the radiological findings. CONCLUSION: In immunosuppressed patients, FB and BAL should be evaluated early for clarifying the causative agents. Then, appropriate treatments can be utilised and the side effects and high cost of unnecessary treatment may be mitigated.

8.
Pediatr Res ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a set of clinical criteria that identifies patients with a potential autoinflammatory IFNopathy. METHODS: Based on a literature review, a set of clinical criteria identifying genetically confirmed monogenic IFNopathies was selected. For validation, the clinical score was assessed in healthy controls (HCs) and 18 disease controls, including 2 known autoimmune IFNopathies, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE, n = 4) and dermatomyositis (JDM, n = 4); adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency (DADA2, n = 4); and oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (oJIA, n = 6). We assessed an IFN score (IRG-S) in whole blood by NanoString using a previously published 28-gene-IRG-S and a reduced 6-gene-IRG-S. RESULTS: The 12 patients with a possible IFNopathy had higher clinical scores (3-5) than the patients with sJLE, JDM, DADA2, and oJIA and in HCs. Both the 28-IRG-S and 6-IRG-S were significantly higher in the autoinflammatory IFNopathy patients compared to HCs and oJIA and DADA2 patients but not different from patients with JSLE and JDM. Subsequently, genetic analysis revealed mutations in genes previously reported in genes related to the IFN pathway in 9 of the 12 patients. CONCLUSION: We developed a clinical score to identify patients with possible autoinflammatory IFNopathies. A clinical score was associated with a high IRG-S and may serve to identify patients with an autoinflammatory IFNopathy.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(12): 2474-2480, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584751

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair (NS/LAH) is one of the RASopathies, a group of clinically related developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode components acting in the RAS/MAPK pathway. Among RASopathies, NS/LAH (OMIM 607721) is an extremely rare, multiple anomaly syndrome characterized by dysmorphic facial features similar to those observed in Noonan syndrome along with some distinctive ectodermal findings including easily pluckable, sparse, thin, and slow-growing hair. ADA2 deficiency (DADA2, OMIM 615688) is a monogenic autoinflammatory disorder caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in ADA2, with clinical features including recurrent fever, livedo racemosa, hepatosplenomegaly, and strokes as well as immune dysregulation. This is the first report of NS/LAH and ADA2 deficiency in the same individual. We report on a patient presenting with facial features, recurrent infections and ectodermal findings in whom both the clinical and molecular diagnoses of NS/LAH and ADA2 deficiency were established, respectively.

10.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 726-738, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432443

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Autosomal recessively inherited lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) protein deficiency was shown to be responsible for different types of inborn errors of immunity, such as common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). The aim of this study was to compare patients with LRBA-related ALPS and LRBA-related CVID, to describe their clinical and laboratory phenotypes, and to prepare an algorithm for their diagnosis and management. METHODS: Fifteen LRBA-deficient patients were identified among 31 CVID and 14 possible ALPS patients with Western blotting (WB), primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) gene, next-generation panel screening (NGS), and whole exome sequencing (WES). RESULTS: The median age on admission and age of diagnosis were 7 years (0.3-16.5) and 11 years (5-44), respectively. Splenomegaly was seen in 93.3% (14/15) of the patients on admission. Splenectomy was performed to 1/5. Recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (93.3% (14/15)), autoimmune cytopenia (80% (12/15)), chronic diarrhea (53.3% (8/15)), lower respiratory tract infections (53.3% (8/15)), lymphoma (26.6% (4/15)), Evans syndrome (26.6% (4/15)), and autoimmune thyroiditis (20% (3/15)) were common clinical findings and diseases. Lymphopenia (5/15), intermittant neutropenia (4/15), eosinophilia (4/15), and progressive hypogammaglobulinemia are recorded in given number of patients. Double negative T cells (TCRαß+CD4-CD8-) were increased in 80% (8/10) of the patients. B cell percentage/numbers were low in 60% (9/15) of the patients on admission. Decreased switched memory B cells, decreased naive and recent thymic emigrant (RTE) Thelper (Th) cells, markedly increased effector memory/effector memory RA+ (TEMRA) Th were documented. Large PD1+ population, increased memory, and enlarged follicular helper T cell population in the CD4+ T cell compartment was seen in one of the patients. Most of the deleterious missense mutations were located in the DUF1088 and BEACH domains. Interestingly, one of the two siblings with the same homozygous LRBA defect did not have any clinical symptom. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed to 7/15 (46.6%) of the patients. Transplanted patients are alive and well after a median of 2 years (1-3). In total, one patient died from sepsis during adulthood before HSCT. CONCLUSION: Patients with LRBA deficiency may initially be diagnosed as CVID or ALPS in the clinical practice. Progressive decrease in B cells as well as IgG in ALPS-like patients and addition of IBD symptoms in the follow-up should raise the suspicion for LRBA deficiency. Decreased switched memory B cells, decreased naive and recent thymic emigrant (RTE) Th cells, and markedly increased effector memory/effector memory RA+ Th cells (TEMRA Th) cells are important for the diagnosis of the patients in addition to clinical features. Analysis of protein by either WB or flow cytometry is required when the clinicians come across especially with missense LRBA variants of uncertain significance. High rate of malignancy shows the regulatory T cell's important role of immune surveillance. HSCT is curative and succesful in patients with HLA-matched family donor.

11.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(3): 316-323, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924026

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most serious PID, characterized by T cell lymphopenia and lack of antigen-specific T cell and B cell immune responses, inevitably leading to death within the first year of life if hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is not performed. PURPOSE AND METHODS: Since SCID is a common type of PID with an estimated incidence of 1/10.000 in Turkey, a retrospective analysis of HSCT characteristics, survival, immune recovery, and the major clinical features of SCID prior to HSCT is the aim of this multi-transplant center-based analysis. RESULTS: A total of 234 SCID patients transplanted between the years 1994 and 2014 were included in the study. Median age at diagnosis was 5 months, at transplantation, 7 months, B- phenotype and RAGs were the most common defects among others. Immune phenotype did not seem to have an effect on survival rate (p > 0.05), Immunoglobulin (Ig) requirement following HSCT did not differ between B+ and B- phenotypes (p > 0.05). Overall survival rate was 65.7% over a period of 20 years. It increased from 54% (1994-2004) to 69% (p = 0.052) during the last 10 years (2005-2014). Ten-year survival after HSCT has improved over time although the difference was not significant. Infection at the time of transplantation (p = 0.006), mismatched related donor (MMRD) (haploidentical parents), and matched unrelated donor (MUD) donor transplants p < 0.001 were the most important factors, significantly affecting the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first multicenter study with the largest data obtained from transplanted SCID patients in Turkey. Early diagnosis with newborn screening (NBS) together with emerging referrals, treatment by transplantation centers, and specialized teams are mandatory in countries with high parental consanguinity such as Turkey.

12.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 18(1): 395-400, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder which may heal with scarring. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF α) and interleukin 1 ß (IL-1ß) are considered as the main responsible proinflammatory mediators of acne pathogenesis. Oversecretion of these cytokines was found to be associated with TNF α-308 G>A and IL-1ß-511 C .05). CONCLUSION: TNF α-308 and IL-1ß polymorphic variants are not associated with acne and postacne scarring susceptibility and acne severity.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Acne Vulgar/complicações , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cicatriz/etiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
Haematologica ; 104(3): 609-621, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309848

RESUMO

Hyper-IgE syndromes comprise a group of inborn errors of immunity. STAT3-deficient hyper-IgE syndrome is characterized by elevated serum IgE levels, recurrent infections and eczema, and characteristic skeletal anomalies. A loss-of-function biallelic mutation in IL6ST encoding the GP130 receptor subunit (p.N404Y) has very recently been identified in a singleton patient (herein referred to as PN404Y) as a novel etiology of hyper-IgE syndrome. Here, we studied a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome caused by a novel homozygous mutation in IL6ST (p.P498L; patient herein referred to as PP498L) leading to abrogated GP130 signaling after stimulation with IL-6 and IL-27 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well as IL-6 and IL-11 in fibroblasts. Extending the initial identification of selective GP130 deficiency, we aimed to dissect the effects of aberrant cytokine signaling on T-helper cell differentiation in both patients. Our results reveal the importance of IL-6 signaling for the development of CCR6-expressing memory CD4+ T cells (including T-helper 17-enriched subsets) and non-conventional CD8+T cells which were reduced in both patients. Downstream functional analysis of the GP130 mutants (p.N404Y and p.P498L) have shown differences in response to IL-27, with the p.P498L mutation having a more severe effect that is reflected by reduced T-helper 1 cells in this patient (PP498L) only. Collectively, our data suggest that characteristic features of GP130-deficient hyper-IgE syndrome phenotype are IL-6 and IL-11 dominated, and indicate selective roles of aberrant IL-6 and IL-27 signaling on the differentiation of T-cell subsets.

14.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(4): 1829-1836, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of oral prophylaxis including tongue scraping on level of halitosis, clinical periodontal parameters and local cytokine response in gingivitis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 36 gingivitis patients were randomly assigned into two subgroups after scaling and polishing. Group 1 received oral hygiene instructions including the use of tongue scraper; group 2 received oral hygiene instructions alone without tongue cleaning. Levels of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), organoleptic and tongue coating scores, clinical periodontal parameters and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected at baseline and 7 days after oral prophylaxis. GCF samples were analyzed using multiplexing analysis for the simultaneous measurements of cytokines. The Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, and Student's paired and unpaired t tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Statistically significant reductions were found in terms of clinical periodontal parameters in both groups. However, significant improvements in VSC levels, organoleptic and tongue coating scores were observed just in tongue scraping group. Moreover, the GCF levels of IL-1ß and IL-8 significantly decreased after the treatment in group 1 according to the baseline values. CONCLUSION: The present study indicated that oral prophylaxis including tongue scraping was effective in improving intra-oral halitosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine response in GCF in gingivitis patients. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The results suggest that tongue scraping can be taken into consideration in order to manage gingival inflammation as well as VSC levels in gingivitis patients but further clinical studies are required to judge the clinical relevance.


Assuntos
Gengivite/terapia , Halitose/terapia , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Língua , Humanos , Compostos de Enxofre/análise
15.
Turk J Pediatr ; 60(3): 270-276, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511539

RESUMO

Gür-Çetinkaya P, Çagdas-Ayvaz DN, Öksüz AB, Ertoy A, Hayran U, Özkan F, Erol M, Tezcan I. Advantage of the subcutaneous immunoglobulin replacement therapy in primary immunodeficient patients with or without secondary protein loss. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 270-276. In recent years subcutaneous immunoglobulin is widely used for primary immunodeficient patients. Subcutaneous administration provides a more stable and higher serum immunoglobulin levels due to continuous and steady transition from lymphatics to the systemic circulation. We aimed to evaluate the changes in serum immunoglobulin levels under subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with primary immunodeficiency with or without secondary protein loss. Nine patients with primary immunodeficiency who switched to subcutaneous immunoglobulin were enrolled. Age, gender, diagnosis, reasons of transition to subcutaneous route, reasons of secondary protein loss were recorded. A questionnaire consisting of frequencies and types of infections, side effects observed with intravenous and subcutaneous routes; date and reason of transition to subcutaneous route were asked to all participants. Serum immunoglobulin levels at the 3rd and the 6th months before and after subcutaneous route were recorded. Of the 9 patients (M/F=4/5) the median age was 12 years (6.1-28.7) and 5 of them had protein loss. In total, 444 injections were applied, and all patients experienced local reactions. Infections were more frequent under intravenous than subcutaneous route (p=0.004). We observed an increase in immunoglobulin levels under subcutaneous route (p=0.069 at 3rd; p=0.13 at 6th month). This increase was evident at the 3rd month of transition to subcutaneous route in patients with protein loss (p=0.080). There was an increase in serum immunoglobulin levels under subcutaneous route. However, increase was not statistically significant since the study group was small. This increment was prominent in patients with protein loss. Subcutaneous administration may be a good alternative for primary immunodeficient patients with protein loss who have persistent low serum immunoglobulin levels despite increments in the intravenous immunoglobulin doses.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/deficiência , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/efeitos adversos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Reação no Local da Injeção/epidemiologia , Reação no Local da Injeção/etiologia , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin Immunol ; 197: 1-5, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121298

RESUMO

V(D)J recombination, during which recognition and repair of broken DNA chains are accomplished by non-homologous end joining pathway, is a critical process in B and T cell development.Null mutations of each enzyme or protein of this pathway result in T- B- NK+ severe combined immunodeficiency whereas hypomorphic mutations result in atypical(leaky)severe combined immunodeficiency forms. We present two siblings with PRKDC (Protein Kinase, DNA-Activated, Catalytic Polypeptide) mutation who presented with granulomatous skin lesions and recurrent lung infections. Primary immune deficiencies may initially present with skin findings. Disruption in central and peripheral B-cell tolerance and impaired intrathymic T-cell maturation,a central player in T-cell tolerance, have been identified as the mechanism of autoimmunity and granuloma seen in patients. The variation in clinical phenotypes of patients with PRKDC mutation suggests that additional factors such as modifying genes, epigenetic and environmental factors may affect the severity and clinical phenotype of the disease. Functional studies during the follow-up and evaluation before and after hematopoeitic stem cell transplantation will hopefully increase our knowledge about the autoimmune and inflammatory process of the disease spectrum.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Ativada por DNA/genética , Granuloma/genética , Histiocitose de Células não Langerhans/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Dermatopatias/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Granuloma/imunologia , Granuloma/patologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Histiocitose de Células não Langerhans/imunologia , Histiocitose de Células não Langerhans/patologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pneumonia Bacteriana/genética , Pneumonia Bacteriana/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Irmãos , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Dermatopatias/patologia
17.
Scand J Immunol ; 88(4): e12709, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152873

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy (THI) is a common immunodeficiency, but definitive diagnosis can only be made retrospectively. While the pathogenesis is still unknown, abnormalities have been reported in the B cell compartment. In this study, we analysed the B cell subsets of patients with an initial THI diagnosis (n = 20) and compared them with those of healthy age-matched Turkish children (n = 72). METHODS: Flow cytometric analyses of the B subsets were performed by staining with anti-CD27-PE, anti-CD19-PerCP, anti-IgD-FITC and anti-IgM-APC antibodies. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 6.6 years, 13 patients whose IgG levels had normalized before they reached four years of age were diagnosed with definitive THI. The memory subsets of these patients were lower but not statistically different from the healthy controls (HC). The remaining seven patients had prolonged hypogammaglobulinemia after the age of four and had significantly lower memory B cell subsets compared to the HC. On follow-up, these patients had not experienced recurrent infections or autoimmunity. Re-evaluation of patients' B cell subsets six years later showed that the memory B cell ratios had increased to levels comparable to HC, despite the patients still having mildly low IgG levels. CONCLUSION: Patients with prolonged hypogammaglobulinemia had lower levels of memory B cells despite having a similar clinical course to patients who had been diagnosed with definitive THI. This subgroup of putative THI patients poses a diagnostic and classification dilemma. Our results suggested that these patients' memory B cells and IgG levels may recover over time.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/imunologia , /imunologia , Agamaglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Autoimunidade , Separação Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Memória Imunológica , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Turquia
18.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(4): 484-493, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744787

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency. It results in the intracellular accumulation of toxic metabolites which have effects particularly on lymphocytes and the brain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of 13 ADA-deficient patients. We planned to evaluate their clinical and laboratory findings before and after enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT), and hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSCGT). METHODS: Measurement of ADA enzyme activity and metabolites and sequencing of the ADA gene were performed in most of the patients with ADA deficiency. One of the patients with late-onset ADA deficiency was diagnosed by the help of primary immunodeficiency panel screening. RESULTS: Ten out of 13 patients were diagnosed as SCID, while 3 out of 13 were diagnosed as delayed-/late-onset ADA deficiency. Late-onset ADA deficiency patients had clinical and laboratory findings of combined immunodeficiency (CID). Eight patients with ADA-SCID were found to have higher levels of ADA metabolite (dAXP%) (62.1% (34.6-71.9)) than 3 patients with delayed-/late-onset ADA deficiency (6.9% (2.1-8.9). All but one patient with SCID had T-B-NK- phenotype, one had T-B-NK+ phenotype. Genetic defect was documented in 11 patients. Four out of 11 patients had compound heterozygous defects. Three out of 4 patients with compound heterozygous defects had delayed-onset/late-onset ADA deficiency. Seven out of 11 patients with SCID had homozygous defects. Five out of 7 had the same homozygous indel frameshift mutation (c.955-959delGAAGA) showing a founder effect. There were two novel splice site defects: one (IVS10+2T>C) was heterozygous in a patient with late-onset ADA deficiency, and the other was homozygous (IVS2delT+2) in a SCID patient. Other defects were missense defects. Nine out of 13 patients were put on pegylated ADA ERT. Four out of six patients were transplanted without using a conditioning regimen. HSCGT was performed to one of the patients. CONCLUSION: The genetic diagnosis of SCID is utmost important. There is a chance to give ERT before the definitive therapy if the patient with SCID/CID has ADA deficiency. Although ERT was insufficient to restore a normal immune function in ADA-SCID patients, it was useful to improve and stabilize the clinical status before curative therapy (aHSCT/HSCGT). Enzyme replacement therapy was successful in patients with late-/delayed-onset ADA deficiency who presented with the features of combined immunodeficiency. Gastrointestinal polyposis in a patient with late-onset ADA deficiency may be an association or a coincidental finding. Intermittent neurodevelopmental evaluation especially for hearing impairment should be performed in most of the ADA-deficient patients. This may alleviate the speech delay and cognitive abnormalities which may be observed in the follow-up.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/deficiência , Agamaglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Estudos de Associação Genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Adenosina Desaminase/sangue , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/mortalidade , Agamaglobulinemia/terapia , Idade de Início , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Ativação Enzimática , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Terapia Genética , Genótipo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/mortalidade , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Child Neurol ; 33(5): 320-328, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421957

RESUMO

The nervous system may be affected in primary immune deficiency (PID) syndromes through infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic mechanisms, or as a primary feature of the syndrome. However certain neurologic problems do not conform to these etiopathogenetic groups. We retrospectively examined PID patients seen in neurology consultation between 2014 and 2017 in order to determine the spectrum of nervous system involvement. Among patients with confirmed neurologic problems (n = 35), common manifestations were encephalopathy and global developmental/cognitive delay. In 13 (37%) instances, the neurologic signs had no apparent relation with a treatment-related, infectious, or vascular complication and were considered as primary findings: acquired microcephaly, central nervous system malformation, or peripheral neuropathy. The diagnosis of PID was made after, and based on, the neurologic manifestation in 6 of 35 (17%) patients. Neurologic presentation may constitute the initial manifestation in some types of primary immune deficiency.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Lactente , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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