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1.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-7, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786954

RESUMO

Background: Trunk muscle endurance may be associated with balance and falls self-efficacy for people with osteoporosis. However, all previous studies have examined trunk muscle strength rather than endurance.Purpose: To explore the relationships between trunk muscle endurance and standing balance and falls self-efficacy for women with vertebral fractures.Materials and Methods: This is an exploratory, secondary analysis of baseline data of a pilot randomized controlled trial in Ontario, Canada. Thirty-one women with osteoporosis, aged 65 years or older, with at least one vertebral fracture were included. The associations between balance (Balance Outcome Measure for Elder Rehabilitation) and trunk muscle endurance (Timed Loaded Standing Test) and falls self-efficacy (Falls Efficacy Scale International) and trunk muscle endurance were tested via Spearman rank order correlation with Fisher's z transformations.Results: Trunk muscle endurance was correlated with better balance performance on the Balance Outcome Measure for Elder Rehabilitation [Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.85; p < 0.001], but not with falls self efficacy (Spearman correlation coefficient; -0.22; 95% confidence interval: -0.53 to 0.14; p = 0.23).Conclusions: Trunk muscle endurance was moderately associated with better standing balance performance but not falls self-efficacy, highlighting the importance of trunk muscle endurance for standing balance for older adults with osteoporosis and vertebral fractures.Implications for RehabilitationOlder adults with osteoporosis and vertebral fractures who have better trunk muscle endurance may also have better standing balance.There was no association between trunk muscle endurance and how confident a person is that they will not fall while completing various activities of daily living.Trunk muscle endurance training could be included as part of a standing balance rehabilitation program for this population.

2.
Can J Anaesth ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802414

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The use of interventional pain management (IPM) modalities to alleviate chronic pain is increasing despite the lack of high-quality evidence. We undertook this survey to explore patterns, training, and attributes of IPM practice. METHODS: We administered a 32-item survey via seven Canadian physician member organizations, whose members were engaged in the management of chronic pain. RESULTS: Of 777 physicians contacted, 256 (33%) responded: 45 (6%) declined to participate and 211 (27%) agreed to participate; the number of participants answering any given question varied. One hundred and sixty-nine of 194 (87%) practiced IPM and 103 of 194 (53%) managed only non-cancer pain. Pain management training of ≥ six months was associated with higher odds of IPM training (odds ratio [OR], 2.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 6.7), but not necessarily ongoing IPM practice (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 0.74 to 5.3). A substantial percentage of physicians (108 of 168 [64%]) practiced IPM based only on training received during either their base residency program or courses. Only 48 of 186 (26%) felt that there were adequate opportunities for IPM training, and 69 of 186 (37%) believed that their colleagues practiced IPM in accordance with the best current evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Our survey indicates that IPM practice and training were not uniform, and that interventional therapies for chronic pain may not be performed in accordance with the best available evidence. Our survey highlights a lack of IPM training opportunities, which may result in substandard training. Concerted efforts involving physician organizations and regulators are needed to standardize IPM training and develop clinical guidelines to optimize evidence-based practice.

3.
Emerg Med J ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between the publication of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials extension for abstracts (CONSORT-EA) and other variables of interest on the quality of reporting of abstracts of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in emergency medicine (EM) journals. METHODS: We performed a survey of the literature, comparing the quality of reporting before (2005-2007) with after (2014-2015) the publication of the dedicated CONSORT-EA in 2008. The quality of reporting was measured as the sum of items of the CONSORT-EA checklist reported in each abstract, ranging from 0 to 15. The main explanatory variable was the period of publication: pre-CONSORT-EA versus post-CONSORT-EA public. Other explanatory variables were journal's endorsement of the CONSORT statement, number of centres participating in the study, study's sample size, type of intervention, significance of results, source of funding and study setting. We analysed the data using generalised estimation equations, performing a univariate and a multivariable analysis. RESULTS: We retrieved 844 articles, and randomly selected 60 per period for review, after stratifying for journal. The mean (SD) number of items reported was 6.4 (1.9) in the period before and 6.9 (1.8) in the period after the publication of the CONSORT-EA, with an adjusted mean difference (aMD) of 0.47 (95% CI -0.13 to 1.06). Abstracts of trials of pharmacological interventions had a significantly larger mean number of reported items than those of trials of non-pharmacological interventions (aMD 1.59; 95% CI 0.94 to 2.24). CONCLUSIONS: The quality of reporting in abstracts of RCTs published in EM journals is low and was not significantly impacted by the publication of a dedicated CONSORT-EA.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17647, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioids are frequently prescribed for the management of patients with chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). Previous meta-analyses of efficacy and harms have combined treatment effects across all opioids; however, specific opioids, pharmacokinetic properties (ie, long acting vs short acting), or the type of formulation (ie, immediate vs extended release) may be a source of heterogeneity for pooled effects. METHODS: We will conduct a network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized controlled trials evaluating opioids for CNCP. We will acquire eligible studies through systematic searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Eligible studies will have randomly allocated adult CNCP patients to an oral or transdermal opioid versus another type of opioid (or formulation) or placebo, and follow patients for ≥ 4 weeks. We will collect outcome data for pain intensity, physical function, nausea, vomiting, and constipation. Pairs of reviewers will, independently and in duplicate, abstract data from eligible trials and assess risk of bias using a modified Cochrane tool. We will assess coherence of our networks through both a global test, and by comparing direct and indirect evidence for each comparison with node-splitting. RESULTS: Using a frequentist approach, we will conduct random effects multiple treatment meta-analysis to establish treatment effects of individual opioids for each outcome. The certainty of evidence for pooled treatment effects will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. We will categorize interventions from most to least effective based on the effect estimates obtained from NMAs and their associated certainty of evidence, as follows: superior to both placebo and alternatives; superior to placebo, but inferior to alternatives; and no better than placebo. CONCLUSION: This NMA will determine the relative effectiveness and adverse effects of individual opioids among patients with CNCP. Our results will help inform the appropriateness of assuming similar beneficial and adverse effects of varying opioid formulations. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This systematic review is registered with Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, an international prospective register of systematic reviews (registration no.: CRD42018110331), available at https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=110331.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Humanos , Meta-Análise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
5.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 117: 46-51, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Primary studies and systematic reviews of prognostic factors commonly analyze and report relative measures of association between the factor(s) and outcome(s) of interest. For decision making, however, guideline panelists, systematic reviewers, and health care professionals at the point of care will ultimately need the absolute risk of the outcome(s) in those with and without the prognostic factor(s) of interest. The objective of the study was to develop a framework for calculating the absolute risk of the outcome(s) in those with and without the prognostic factor(s) of interest. METHODS: We developed a mathematical approach to calculate the absolute risk of events from the relative measure of association, the total number of events and patients at risk, and the prevalence of the prognostic factor, all of which are usually reported in cohort studies assessing prognostic factors. We demonstrate how simpler approximations lead to biased estimates of absolute risk and thus the need for these formulas. We explain our logical framework using the simplest case, in which the measure of association is a relative risk, and provide extensions of the formula to odds ratios and hazard ratios. The same formulas can be applied to reports providing only the relative measure of association (e.g., case-control studies) by using external evidence regarding prevalence of the prognostic factor and overall risk of events. CONCLUSIONS: Our proposed formulas facilitate accurate calculation of measures of absolute risk in those with and without prognostic factors of interest for studies reporting the total number of events and patients at risk, the prevalence of the prognostic factor and a relative risk, odds ratio, or hazard ratio.

6.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 117: 89-98, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Forest plots are an important graphical method in meta-analyses used to show results from individual studies and pooled analyses. Forest plots are easy and straightforward to understand because they provide tabular and graphical information about estimates of comparisons or associations, corresponding precision, and statistical significance. This visual representation also makes it easier to see variations between individual study results. Forest plots are widely used in not only systematic reviews and meta-analyses but also observational studies and clinical trials. In this study, we aimed to show readers the various uses of forest plots in displaying analysis results. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We used a tutorial type to show multiple uses of forest plots in meta-analyses, clinical trials, and observational studies according to the PICO (Population or Subgroup, Intervention or Exposure, Control, and Outcome) framework. RESULTS: We introduced forest plots' structure, application, current practice, and research advances in health research. We provided some examples from the literature to show the various uses of forest plot-type graphics in health research including meta-analyses, clinical trials, and observational studies. CONCLUSION: It is expected that our discussion of the current multiple uses of forest plots in meta-analyses, clinical trials, and observational studies provides a glimpse about their potential in displaying results in a way that makes comparisons between items easier.

7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 368, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess gestational weight gain has long- and short-term implications for women and children, and postpartum weight retention is associated with an increased risk of long-term obesity. Despite the existence of dietary and exercise guidelines, many women struggle to return to pre-pregnancy weight. Experiences of women in tackling postpartum weight loss are poorly understood. We undertook this study to explore experiences related to nutrition, exercise and weight in the postpartum in women in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: This was a nested qualitative study within The Be Healthy in Pregnancy Study, a randomized controlled trial. Women randomized to the control group were invited to participate. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted at 4-6 months postpartum. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded and analyzed thematically using a constructivist grounded theory approach. RESULTS: Women experienced a complex relationship with their body image, due to unrealistic expectations related to their postpartum body. Participants identified barriers and enablers to healthy habits during pregnancy and postpartum. Gestational weight gain guidelines were regarded as unhelpful and unrealistic. A lack of guidance and information about weight management, healthy eating, and exercise in the postpartum period was highlighted. CONCLUSION: Strategies for weight management that target the unique characteristics of the postpartum period have been neglected in research and in patient counselling. Postpartum women may begin preparing for their next pregnancy and support during this period could improve their health for subsequent pregnancies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01689961 registered September 21, 2012.

8.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 20(10): 1190-1198, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze and determine the comparative effectiveness of interventions targeting frailty prevention or treatment on frailty as a primary outcome and quality of life, cognition, depression, and adverse events as secondary outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA). METHODS: Data sources-Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified by a systematic search of several electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AMED. Duplicate title and abstract and full-text screening, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were performed. Data extraction-All RCTs examining frailty interventions aimed to decrease frailty were included. Comparators were standard care, placebo, or another intervention. Data synthesis-We performed both standard pairwise meta-analysis and Bayesian NMA. Dichotomous outcome data were pooled using the odds ratio effect size, whereas continuous outcome data were pooled using the standardized mean difference (SMD) effect size. Interventions were ranked using the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) for each outcome. The quality of evidence was evaluated using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: A total of 66 RCTs were included after screening of 7090 citations and 749 full-text articles. NMA of frailty outcome (including 21 RCTs, 5262 participants, and 8 interventions) suggested that the physical activity intervention, when compared to placebo and standard care, was associated with reductions in frailty (SMD -0.92, 95% confidence interval -1.55, -0.29). According to SUCRA, physical activity intervention and physical activity plus nutritional supplementation were probably the most effective intervention (100% and 71% likelihood, respectively) to reduce frailty. Physical activity was probably the most effective or the second most effective interventions for all included outcomes. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Physical activity is one of the most effective frailty interventions. The quality of evidence of the current review is low and very low. More robust RCTs are needed to increase the confidence of our NMA results and the quality of evidence.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e024625, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide a framework for quantifying the robustness of treatment ranks based on Surface Under the Cumulative RAnking curve (SUCRA) in network meta-analysis (NMA) and investigating potential factors associated with lack of robustness. METHODS: We propose the use of Cohen's kappa to quantify the agreement between SUCRA-based treatment ranks estimated through NMA of a complete data set and a subset of it. We illustrate our approach using five published NMA data sets, where robustness was assessed by removing studies one at a time. RESULTS: Overall, SUCRA-based treatment ranks were robust to individual studies in the five data sets we considered. We observed more incidences of disagreement between ranks in the networks with larger numbers of treatments. Most treatments moved only one or two ranks up or down. The lowest quadratic weighted kappa estimate observed across all networks was in the network with the smallest number of treatments (4), where weighted kappa=40%. In the network with the largest number of treatments (12), the lowest observed quadratic weighted kappa=89%, reflecting a small shift in this network's treatment ranks overall. Preliminary observations suggest that a study's size, the number of studies making a treatment comparison, and the agreement of a study's estimated treatment effect(s) with those estimated by other studies making the same comparison(s) may explain the overall robustness of treatment ranks to studies. CONCLUSIONS: Investigating robustness or sensitivity in an NMA may reveal outlying rank changes that are clinically or policy-relevant. Cohen's kappa is a useful measure that permits investigation into study characteristics that may explain varying sensitivity to individual studies. However, this study presents a framework as a proof of concept and further investigation is required to identify potential factors associated with the robustness of treatment ranks using more extensive empirical evaluations.

10.
Lancet ; 394(10205): 1231-1242, 2019 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease globally. Despite proven benefits, hypertension control is poor. We hypothesised that a comprehensive approach to lowering blood pressure and other risk factors, informed by detailed analysis of local barriers, would be superior to usual care in individuals with poorly controlled or newly diagnosed hypertension. We tested whether a model of care involving non-physician health workers (NPHWs), primary care physicians, family, and the provision of effective medications, could substantially reduce cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: HOPE 4 was an open, community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 1371 individuals with new or poorly controlled hypertension from 30 communities (defined as townships) in Colombia and Malaysia. 16 communities were randomly assigned to control (usual care, n=727), and 14 (n=644) to the intervention. After community screening, the intervention included treatment of cardiovascular disease risk factors by NPHWs using tablet computer-based simplified management algorithms and counselling programmes; free antihypertensive and statin medications recommended by NPHWs but supervised by physicians; and support from a family member or friend (treatment supporter) to improve adherence to medications and healthy behaviours. The primary outcome was the change in Framingham Risk Score 10-year cardiovascular disease risk estimate at 12 months between intervention and control participants. The HOPE 4 trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01826019. FINDINGS: All communities completed 12-month follow-up (data on 97% of living participants, n=1299). The reduction in Framingham Risk Score for 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was -6·40% (95% CI 8·00 to -4·80) in the control group and -11·17% (-12·88 to -9·47) in the intervention group, with a difference of change of -4·78% (95% CI -7·11 to -2·44, p<0·0001). There was an absolute 11·45 mm Hg (95% CI -14·94 to -7·97) greater reduction in systolic blood pressure, and a 0·41 mmol/L (95% CI -0·60 to -0·23) reduction in LDL with the intervention group (both p<0·0001). Change in blood pressure control status (<140 mm Hg) was 69% in the intervention group versus 30% in the control group (p<0·0001). There were no safety concerns with the intervention. INTERPRETATION: A comprehensive model of care led by NPHWs, involving primary care physicians and family that was informed by local context, substantially improved blood pressure control and cardiovascular disease risk. This strategy is effective, pragmatic, and has the potential to substantially reduce cardiovascular disease compared with current strategies that are typically physician based. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Grand Challenges Canada; Ontario SPOR Support Unit and the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; Boehringer Ingelheim; Department of Management of Non-Communicable Diseases, WHO; and Population Health Research Institute. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Hipertensão/complicações , Idoso , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/terapia , Malásia , Masculino , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
11.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e030092, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511287

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) constitutes 15% of new adult leukaemia cases as well as 2%-3% of leukaemia in children under 15% and 9% of leukaemias in adolescents 15-19 years of age annually. The introduction of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI) therapy has dramatically improved survival in these patients, yet the off-target effects of this treatment may have long-term health impacts on CML survivors. The risk of adverse health outcomes is especially important in children, where TKI exposure may occur during critical windows of growth and puberty, and patients require treatment for prolonged periods of time. The aim of this systematic review protocol is to report on the methods used to conduct a systematic review to investigate the endometabolic and bone health effects of TKI therapy in CML. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Searches will be conducted in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE and MEDLINE from inception on August 1st, 2019. Searches may be updated while performing the systematic review to ensure new evidence is included if applicable. Grey literature search will include ClinicalTrials.gov and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses A&I. We will perform a meta-analysis if there are at least two studies reporting similar populations, interventions, methods and tracking the same outcome measures. The studies should also have similar age and sex distributions. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: As this is a systematic review protocol, it does not include patient data; therefore, Research Ethics Board approval is not indicated. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018091175.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 381(23): 2199-2208, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, hip fractures are among the top 10 causes of disability in adults. For displaced femoral neck fractures, there remains uncertainty regarding the effect of a total hip arthroplasty as compared with hemiarthroplasty. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1495 patients who were 50 years of age or older and had a displaced femoral neck fracture to undergo either total hip arthroplasty or hemiarthroplasty. All enrolled patients had been able to ambulate without the assistance of another person before the fracture occurred. The trial was conducted in 80 centers in 10 countries. The primary end point was a secondary hip procedure within 24 months of follow-up. Secondary end points included death, serious adverse events, hip-related complications, health-related quality of life, function, and overall health end points. RESULTS: The primary end point occurred in 57 of 718 patients (7.9%) who were randomly assigned to total hip arthroplasty and 60 of 723 patients (8.3%) who were randomly assigned to hemiarthroplasty (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 1.40; P = 0.79). Hip instability or dislocation occurred in 34 patients (4.7%) assigned to total hip arthroplasty and 17 patients (2.4%) assigned to hemiarthroplasty (hazard ratio, 2.00; 99% CI, 0.97 to 4.09). Function, as measured with the total Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total score, pain score, stiffness score, and function score, modestly favored total hip arthroplasty over hemiarthroplasty. Mortality was similar in the two treatment groups (14.3% among the patients assigned to total hip arthroplasty and 13.1% among those assigned to hemiarthroplasty, P = 0.48). Serious adverse events occurred in 300 patients (41.8%) assigned to total hip arthroplasty and in 265 patients (36.7%) assigned to hemiarthroplasty. CONCLUSIONS: Among independently ambulating patients with displaced femoral neck fractures, the incidence of secondary procedures did not differ significantly between patients who were randomly assigned to undergo total hip arthroplasty and those who were assigned to undergo hemiarthroplasty, and total hip arthroplasty provided a clinically unimportant improvement over hemiarthroplasty in function and quality of life over 24 months. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00556842.).

13.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(9): 1288-1296, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is a limited appreciation of the epidemiology of dialysis-receiving AKI in children. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate changes in the incidence of dialysis-receiving AKI among children over a period of 20 years in Ontario, Canada. The secondary objectives were to assess temporal trends in the utilization of various dialysis modalities and 30-day mortality among children with dialysis-receiving AKI. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: All children (29 days to 18 years) who received their first dialysis for AKI between 1996 and 2015 were identified from healthcare administrative databases. Those who received dialysis for ESKD, inborn errors of metabolism, and poisonings were excluded. The incidence rates of dialysis-receiving AKI were reported annually. The Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess trends in the incidence and short-term mortality after dialysis-receiving AKI. RESULTS: We identified 1394 children treated with dialysis for AKI during a hospital stay. There was a significant increase in the incidence of dialysis-receiving AKI among hospitalized children from 1996 (0.58 per 1000 person-years) to 2015 (0.65 per 1000 person-years) (P=0.01). The use of continuous kidney replacement therapy and intermittent hemodialysis increased whereas the relative use of peritoneal dialysis declined over time. Thirty-day mortality rates after dialysis-receiving AKI increased from 14% to 25% between 1996 and 2009 and reduced to 19% in the more recent years (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In Ontario, the incidence of dialysis-receiving AKI among children has increased between 1996 and 2015. The use of peritoneal dialysis for AKI has declined and the short-term mortality after dialysis-receiving AKI has increased.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444918

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECT?: Immigrant women in Canada are at greater risk for post-partum depression (PPD) than native-born women. Immigrant women are less likely to have their care needs met as they face multiple barriers to care at both individual and system levels. To date, most PPD research has focused on individual barriers to care, with limited research examining organizational and system level barriers and the uniqueness of immigrant women's post-partum health experiences. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study provides unique insights into immigrant women's perceptions of what influences their post-partum mental health and ability to access services for PPD. Factors contributing to immigrant women's PPD included several social determinants of health, particularly a lack of social support and limited knowledge about PPD and available services. Most helpful services acknowledge women's concerns, build trust, enact cultural competence and help with system navigation. Assessment approaches and organizational wait times created barriers to accessing care. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Relationship building by providers is foundational to effective care for immigrant women with PPD. Findings highlight the need for mental health practitioners to improve cultural competence when working with diverse ethno-cultural communities and for more effective assistance with system navigation, service integration and timely, flexible and accessible services. Findings have implications for the development of healthy public policy to address perinatal mental health issues amongst immigrant women. Abstract Introduction Immigrant women in Canada are at greater risk for post-partum depression (PPD) than native-born women yet face multiple barriers to care at individual and system levels. Aim To explore factors that contribute to PPD and health service accessibility, and the role of health services in supporting immigrant women with PPD. Methods A qualitative interpretive descriptive design was used. Individual interviews were conducted with 11 immigrant women who had delivered a baby within the previous year and had experienced PPD. Inductive thematic content analysis was conducted. Results Factors contributing to immigrant women's PPD included several social health determinants. Services were most helpful and accessible when providers acknowledged women's concerns, allowed time to build trust, provided culturally competent care and helped with navigating services. Assessment approaches and organizational wait times created barriers to care. Discussion Immigrant women with PPD see relationship building by providers as foundational to providing effective support, enhancing coping and facilitating access to services. Improved communication with diverse ethno-cultural communities and assistance with system navigation, service integration and timely, accessible services are needed. Implications for Practice Findings can inform health service delivery models and the development of healthy public policy to address perinatal mental health issues amongst immigrant women.

15.
Obes Rev ; 20(11): 1572-1596, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410961

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with the production of inflammatory cytokines that are implicated in insulin resistance (IR), and if not addressed, can lead to type 2 diabetes (T2D). The role of the immune system in skeletal muscle (SM) inflammation and insulin sensitivity is not yet well characterized. As SM IR is an important determinant of glycaemia, it is critical that the muscle-immune phenotype is mapped to help design interventions to target T2D. This systematic review synthesized the evidence for SM macrophage content and phenotype in humans and murine models of obesity, and the association of muscle macrophage content and phenotype with IR. Results were synthesized narratively, as we were unable to conduct a meta-analysis. We included 28 studies (n=10 human, n=18 murine), and all studies detected macrophage markers in SM. Macrophage content was positively associated with IR. In humans and mice, there was variability in muscle macrophage content and phenotype in obesity. Overall certainty in the evidence was low due to heterogeneity in detection methods and incompleteness of data reporting. Macrophages are detected in human and murine SM in obesity and a positive association between macrophage content and IR is noted; however, the standardization of markers, detection methods, and reporting of study details is warranted to accurately characterize macrophages and improve the potential for creating specific and targeted immune-based therapies in obesity.

16.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e029394, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326936

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation are lifesaving interventions that are commonly performed in the intensive care unit (ICU). Laryngeal oedema is a known complication of intubation that may cause airway obstruction in a patient on extubation. To date, the only test available to predict this complication is the cuff leak test (CLT); however, its diagnostic accuracy and utility remains uncertain. Herein, we report the protocol for the CuffLeak and AirwayObstruction in MechanicallyVentilated ICU Patients (COMIC) pilottrial. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a multicentred, pragmatic, pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT). We will enrol 100 mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU who are deemed ready for extubation. We will exclude patients at a high risk of laryngeal oedema. All enrolled patients will have a CLT done before extubation. In the intervention arm, the results of the CLT will be communicated to the bedside physician, and decision to extubate will be left to the treating team. In the control arm, respiratory therapist will not communicate the results of the CLT to the treating physician, and the patient will be extubated regardless of the CLT result. Randomisation will be done in a 1:1 allocation ratio, stratified by size of the endotracheal tube and duration of invasive mechanical ventilation.Although we will examine all clinical outcomes relevant for the future COMIC RCT, the primary outcomes of the COMIC pilottrial will be feasibility outcomes including: consent rate, recruitment rate and protocol adherence. Clinical outcomes include postextubation stridor, reintubation, emergency surgical airway, ICU mortality, in hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay in days. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University Institutional Review Board and Bioethical Commission of the Jagiellonian University approved this study. The trial results will be disseminated via publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03372707.

17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 257, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that suggests misoprostol may supplement the action of oxytocin in preventing post-partum haemorrhage (PPH). The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of the administration of 600 µg misoprostol in addition to oxytocin versus oxytocin alone, on the risk of PPH among pregnant women after delivery. The secondary objectives were to determine the effects of the above combination on maternal death and blood transfusion among pregnant women after delivery; and to determine the incidence of PPH, its case fatality, and the maternal mortality ratio in our hospital. METHODS: Design and setting: Retrospective chart review of 1736 women delivering at the Regional Hospital Bamenda Cameroon, between 2015 and 2016. This was a pre versus post study following a policy change in the prevention of PPH. Exposure groups: One group received oxytocin-misoprostol (January-April 2016: period after policy change), and the second group received oxytocin-only (January-April 2015: period before policy change) after delivery. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was PPH, and the secondary outcomes were maternal death and blood transfusion. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A 1:1 matching with replacement was done with the propensity score (PS). The groups were compared using PS matching with conditional logistic regression on the matched pairs as the main analysis. A sensitivity analysis was done using other PS adjustment methods and multiple regression. RESULTS: Of the 1736 women included in this study, 1238 were matched and compared. Women who received oxytocin-misoprostol were less likely to have PPH as compared to those receiving oxytocin-only (odds ratio [OR] 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08, 0.59, p = 0.003). This reduced odds of PPH was upheld in the different sensitivity analyses. There were no significant differences in the odds of maternal death and the use of blood transfusions between the two groups: OR 3.91, 95% CI [0.44, 35.08], p = 0.22, and OR 0.89, 95% CI [0.14-5.63], p = 0.91, respectively. Sensitivity analyses showed similar results. The incidence of PPH was 2.9% (before adding misoprostol the incidence was 4.4% and after adding misoprostol it was 1.5%), the case fatality rate of PPH was 1.96%, and the overall maternal mortality ratio in the hospital was 293 maternal deaths/100000 life births. CONCLUSION: Our evidence suggests that using 600 µg misoprostol as an add-on to oxytocin in the prevention of post-partum haemorrhage significantly reduces the odds of PPH without affecting other maternal outcomes.

18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD008618, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vertebral fractures are associated with increased morbidity (e.g. pain, reduced quality of life) and mortality. Therapeutic exercise is a non-pharmacological conservative treatment that is often recommended for patients with vertebral fractures to reduce pain and restore functional movement. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of exercise intervention of four weeks or greater (alone or as part of a physical therapy intervention) versus non-exercise/non-active physical therapy intervention, no intervention or placebo among adults with a history of vertebral fractures on incident fragility fractures of the hip, vertebra or other sites. Our secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of exercise on the following outcomes: falls, pain, physical performance, health-related quality of life (disease-specific and generic), and adverse events. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases until November 2017: the Cochrane Library (Issue 11 of 12), MEDLINE (from 2005), Embase (from 1988), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, from 1982), AMED (from 1985), and PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database, from 1929). Ongoing/recently completed trials were identified by searching the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov. Conference proceedings were searched via ISI and SCOPUS, and targeted searches of proceedings of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Search terms or MeSH headings included terms such as vertebral fracture AND exercise OR physical therapy. For this update, the search results were limited from 2011 onward. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials comparing exercise or active physical therapy interventions with placebo/non-exercise/non-active physical therapy interventions or no intervention implemented in individuals with a history of vertebral fracture. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials and extracted data using a pre-tested data extraction form. Disagreements were resolved by consensus, or third-party adjudication. We used Cochrane's tool for assessing risk of bias to evaluate each study. Studies were grouped according to duration of follow-up (i.e. a) 4-12 weeks; b) 16-24 weeks; c) 52 weeks); a study could be represented in more than one group depending on the number of follow-up assessments. For dichotomous data, we reported risk ratios (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For continuous data, we reported mean differences (MD) of the change from baseline and 95% CI. Data were pooled for Timed Up and Go test, self-reported physical function measured by the QUALEFFO-41 physical function subscale score (scale of zero to 100; lower scores indicate better self-reported physical function), and disease-specific quality of life measured by the QUALEFFO-41 total score (scale of zero to 100; lower scores indicate better quality of life) at 12 weeks using a fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS: Nine trials (n = 749, 68 male participants; two new trials in this review update) were included. Substantial variability across the trials prevented any meaningful pooling of data for most outcomes. Risk of bias across all studies was variable; low risk across most domains in four studies, and unclear/high risk in most domains for five studies. Performance bias and blinding of subjective outcome assessment were almost all high risk of bias.One trial reported no between-group difference in favor of the effect of exercise on incident fragility fractures after 52 weeks (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.71; very low-quality evidence with control: 184 per 1000 and exercise: 100 per 1000, 95% CI 31 to 315; absolute difference: 8%, 95% CI 2 to 30). One trial reported no between-group difference in favor of the effect of exercise on incident falls after 52 weeks (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.10; very low-quality evidence with control: 262 per 1000 and exercise: 277 per 1000; 95% CI 139 to 550; absolute difference: 2%, 95% CI -12 to 29). These findings should be interpreted with caution because of the very serious risk of bias in these studies and the small sample sizes resulting in imprecise estimates.We are uncertain that exercise could improve pain, self-reported physical function, and disease-specific quality of life, because certain studies showed no evidence of clinically important differences for these outcomes. Pooled analyses revealed a small between-group difference in favor of exercise for Timed Up and Go (MD -1.13 seconds, 95% CI -1.85 to -0.42; studies = 2), which did not change following a sensitivity analysis (MD -1.09 seconds, 95% CI -1.78 to -0.40; studies = 3; moderate-quality evidence). Exercise improved QUALEFFO-41 physical function score (MD -2.84 points, 95% CI -5.57 to -0.11; studies = 2; very low-quality evidence) and QUALEFFO-41 total score (MD -3.24 points, 95% CI -6.05 to -0.43; studies = 2; very low-quality evidence), yet it is unlikely that we observed any clinically important differences. Three trials reported four adverse events related to the exercise intervention (costal cartilage fracture, rib fracture, knee pain, irritation to tape, very low-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we do not have sufficient evidence to determine the effects of exercise on incident fractures, falls or adverse events. Our updated review found moderate-quality evidence that exercise probably improves physical performance, specifically Timed Up and Go test, in individuals with vertebral fracture (downgraded due to study limitations). However, a one-second improvement in Timed Up and Go is not a clinically important improvement. Although individual trials did report benefits for some pain and disease-specific quality of life outcomes, the findings do not represent clinically meaningful improvements and should be interpreted with caution given the very low-quality evidence due to inconsistent findings, study limitations and imprecise estimates. The small number of trials and variability across trials limited our ability to pool outcomes or make conclusions. Evidence regarding the effects of exercise after vertebral fracture in men is scarce. A high-quality randomized trial is needed to inform safety and effectiveness of exercise to lower incidence of fracture and falls and to improve patient-centered outcomes (pain, function) for individuals with vertebral fractures (minimal sample size required is approximately 2500 untreated participants or 4400 participants if taking anti-osteoporosis therapy).


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Fraturas por Osteoporose/terapia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Exercício/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Humanos , Equilíbrio Postural , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
19.
Endocr Pathol ; 30(3): 201-218, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300997

RESUMO

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) in evaluating thyroid surgical specimens may facilitate diagnostic and prognostic evaluation, with potential therapeutic implications. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the analytic validity of IHC in detecting BRAFV600E mutations in thyroid cancer (primary or metastatic). We screened citations from three electronic databases (until December 20, 2018), supplemented by a hand search of authors' files and cross-references of reviews. Citations and full-text papers were independently reviewed in duplicate, and consensus was achieved on inclusion of papers. Two reviewers independently critically appraised and abstracted data from included papers. Random-effect meta-analyses were conducted for sensitivity and specificity estimates. We reviewed 1499 unique citations and 93 full-text articles. We included 1 systematic review and 30 original articles. The published review (from 2015) needed to be updated as there were multiple subsequent original studies. The pooled sensitivity of IHC in detecting a BRAFV600E mutation was 96.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] at 94.1%, 98.3%) (29 studies, including 2659 BRAFV600E mutant tumors). The IHC pooled specificity was 86.3% (95% CI 80.7%, 90.4%) (28 studies, including 1107 BRAFV600E wild-type specimens). These meta-analyses were subject to statistically significant heterogeneity, partly explained by antibody type (sensitivity and specificity) and tissue/tumor type (specificity). In conclusion, BRAF IHC is highly sensitive and reasonably specific in detecting the BRAFV600E mutation; however, there is some variability in analytic performance.

20.
Trials ; 20(1): 309, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An international workshop on population health intervention research (PHIR) was organized to foster exchanges between experts from different disciplines and different fields. AIMS: This paper aims to summarize the discussions around one of the issues addressed: the place or role of pilot studies in PHIR. Pilot studies are well-established in biomedical research, but the situation is more ambiguous for PHIR, in which a pilot study could refer to different purposes. METHODS: The workshop included formal presentations of participants and moderated discussions. An oral synthesis was carried out by a rapporteur to validate by expert consensus the key points of the discussion and the recommendations. All discussions have been recorded and fully transcribed. DISCUSSION: PHIR generally addresses complex interventions. Thus, numerous tasks may be required to inform the intervention and test different aspects of its design and implementation. While in clinical research the pilot study mainly concerns the preparation of the trial, in PHIR the pilot study focuses on the preparation of both the intervention and the trial. In particular, pilot studies in PHIR could be used for viability evaluation and theory development. RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS: The following recommendations were generated by consensus from the workshop discussions: i) terms need to be clarified for PHIR; ii) reporting and publication should be standardized and transparency should be promoted; iii) the objectives and research questions should drive the methods used and be clearly stated; iv) a pilot study is generally needed for complex intervention evaluation and for research-designed programs; and v) for field-designed programs, it is important to integrate evaluability assessments as pilot studies . CONCLUSION: Pilot studies play an important role in intervention development and evaluation. In particular, they contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of intervention and the conditions of its applicability and transferability. Pilot studies could therefore facilitate evidence-based decisions about design and conduct of main studies aimed to generate evidence to inform public health policy.

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