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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(10): 107002, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transportation noise is increasingly acknowledged as a cardiovascular risk factor, but the evidence base for an association with stroke is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between transportation noise and stroke incidence in a large Scandinavian population. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled data from nine Scandinavian cohorts (seven Swedish, two Danish), totaling 135,951 participants. We identified residential address history and estimated road, railway, and aircraft noise for all addresses. Information on stroke incidence was acquired through linkage to national patient and mortality registries. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models, including socioeconomic and lifestyle confounders, and air pollution. RESULTS: During follow-up (median=19.5y), 11,056 stroke cases were identified. Road traffic noise (Lden) was associated with risk of stroke, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.08] per 10-dB higher 5-y mean time-weighted exposure in analyses adjusted for individual- and area-level socioeconomic covariates. The association was approximately linear and persisted after adjustment for air pollution [particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and NO2]. Stroke was associated with moderate levels of 5-y aircraft noise exposure (40-50 vs. ≤40 dB) (HR=1.12; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.27), but not with higher exposure (≥50 dB, HR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.11). Railway noise was not associated with stroke. DISCUSSION: In this pooled study, road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk of stroke. This finding supports road traffic noise as an important cardiovascular risk factor that should be included when estimating the burden of disease due to traffic noise. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8949.

2.
Environ Res ; : 112167, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked transportation noise and cardiovascular diseases, however, atrial fibrillation (AF) has received limited attention. We aimed to investigate the association between transportation noise and AF risk. METHODS: Over the period 1990-2017 we estimated road and railway noise (Lden) at the most and least exposed façades for all residential addresses across Denmark. We estimated time-weighted mean noise exposure for 3.6 million individuals age ≥35 years. Of these, 269,756 incident cases of AF were identified with a mean follow-up of 13.0 years. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for individual and area-level sociodemographic covariates and long-term residential air pollution. RESULTS: A 10 dB higher 10-year mean road traffic noise at the most and least exposed façades were associated with incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for AF of 1.006 (1.001-1.011) and 1.013 (1.007-1.019), respectively. After further adjustment for PM2.5, the IRRs (CIs) were 1.000 (0.995-1.005) and 1.007 (1.000-1.013), respectively. For railway noise, the IRRs per 10 dB increase in 10-year mean exposure were 1.017 (1.007-1.026) and 1.035 (1.021-1.050) for the most and least exposed façades, respectively, and were slightly attenuated when adjusted for PM2.5. Aircraft noise between 55 and 60 dB and ≥60 dB were associated with IRRs of 1.055 (0.996-1.116) and 1.036 (0.931-1.154), respectively, when compared to <45 dB. CONCLUSION: Transportation noise seems to be associated with a small increase in AF risk, especially for exposure at the least exposed façade.

3.
BMJ ; 374: n1954, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between long term residential exposure to road traffic and railway noise and risk of incident dementia. DESIGN: Nationwide prospective register based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 1 938 994 adults aged ≥60 years living in Denmark between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident cases of all cause dementia and dementia subtypes (Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and Parkinson's disease related dementia), identified from national hospital and prescription registries. RESULTS: The study population included 103 500 participants with incident dementia, and of those, 31 219 received a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, 8664 of vascular dementia, and 2192 of Parkinson's disease related dementia. Using Cox regression models, 10 year mean exposure to road traffic and railway noise at the most (Ldenmax) and least (Ldenmin) exposed façades of buildings were associated with a higher risk of all cause dementia. These associations showed a general pattern of higher hazard ratios with higher noise exposure, but with a levelling off or even small declines in risk at higher noise levels. In subtype analyses, both road traffic noise and railway noise were associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease, with hazard ratios of 1.16 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.22) for road Ldenmax ≥65 dB compared with <45 dB, 1.27 (1.22 to 1.34) for road Ldenmin ≥55 dB compared with <40 dB, 1.16 (1.10 to 1.23) for railway Ldenmax ≥60 dB compared with <40 dB, and 1.24 (1.17 to 1.30) for railway Ldenmin ≥50 dB compared with <40 dB. Road traffic, but not railway, noise was associated with an increased risk of vascular dementia. Results indicated associations between road traffic Ldenmin and Parkinson's disease related dementia. CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide cohort study found transportation noise to be associated with a higher risk of all cause dementia and dementia subtypes, especially Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Causalidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
4.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(12): 1447-1455, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Few studies have suggested that traffic noise is a risk factor for cancer, but evidence is inconclusive. We aimed to investigate whether road traffic and railway noise are associated with risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: We obtained address history for all 3.5 million people above 40 years of age and living in Denmark for the period 1990-2017 and estimated road traffic and railway noise (Lden) at the most and least exposed facades of all addresses as well as air pollution (PM2.5). During follow-up (2000-2017), 35,881 persons developed colon cancer and 19,755 developed rectal cancer. Information on individual and area-level demographic and socioeconomic variables was collected from Danish registries. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models, including traffic noise as time-varying 10-year average exposure. RESULTS: Exposure to road traffic noise at the most exposed façade was associated with an incidence rate ratio and 95% confidence interval for proximal colon cancer of 1.018 (0.999-1.038) per 10 dB higher noise. We observed no associations for road traffic noise at the least exposed façade or for railway noise in relation to proximal colon cancer. Also, we found no association between road traffic or railway noise and risk for distal colon cancer or rectal cancer. CONCLUSION: Traffic noise did not seem associated with higher risk for colorectal cancer, although the suggestion of a slightly higher risk of proximal colon cancer following exposure to road traffic noise warrants further research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Ruído dos Transportes , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos
5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(4): 1147-1156, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on transportation noise and incident stroke are few and inconclusive. We aimed to investigate associations between road-traffic and railway noise and the risk of incident stroke in the entire Danish population. METHODS: We estimated road-traffic and railway noise (Lden) at the most and least exposed façades for all residential addresses across Denmark (2.8 million) for the period 1990-2017. Based on this, we estimated the 10-year time-weighted mean noise exposure for 3.6 million Danes aged >35 years, of whom 184 523 developed incident stroke during follow-up from 2000 to 2017. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional-hazards models, with adjustment for various individual- and area-level demographic and socio-economic covariates collected from registries and air pollution [fine particulate matter with particles with a diameter of ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)]. RESULTS: A 10-dB increase in the 10-year mean road-traffic noise at the most exposed façade was associated with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.05] for all strokes. For road-traffic noise at the least exposed façade, the IRR per 10 dB was 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.04) for all strokes. Railway noise was not associated with a higher risk of stroke. CONCLUSION: Road-traffic noise increased the risk of stroke. These findings add to the evidence of road-traffic noise as a cardiovascular risk factor.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Ruído dos Transportes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
6.
Environ Res ; 195: 110739, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that transportation noise may increase risk for breast cancer, but existing literature is scarce and inconclusive. We aimed to investigate associations between road traffic and railway noise and risk for breast cancer across the entire Danish female population. METHODS: For all 2.8 million residential addresses across Denmark, we modelled road and railway noise at the most and least exposed façades for the period 1990-2017. We calculated 10-year time-weighted mean noise exposure for 1.8 million women aged >35 years, of whom 66,006 developed breast cancer during follow-up from 2000 to 2017. We analysed data using Cox proportional hazards models with noise exposure included as 10-year running means and adjusted for a number of individual and area-level socioeconomic co-variates and air pollution with fine particles estimated for all addresses. RESULTS: For exposures at the least exposed façade, we found that a 10 dB increase in 10-year time-weighted noise was associated with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer of 1.032 (1.019-1.046) for road noise and 1.023 (0.993-1.053) for railway noise. For exposures at the most exposed façade, the IRRs (95% CIs) were 1.012 (1.002-1.022) for road noise and 1.020 (1.001-1.039) for railway noise. Associations were strongest among women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Road traffic and railway noise were associated with higher risk for breast cancer, especially noise at the least exposed façade, which is a proxy for noise exposure during sleep.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Ruído dos Transportes , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos
7.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 231: 113652, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated whether road traffic noise is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and have yielded inconsistent findings. We aimed to investigate whether maternal exposure to residential transportation noise, before and during pregnancy, was associated with GDM in a nationwide cohort. METHODS: From the Danish population (2004-2017) we identified 629,254 pregnancies using the Danish Medical Birth Register. By linkage with the National Patient Registry, we identified 15,973 pregnancies complicated by GDM. Road traffic and railway noise (Lden) at the most and least exposed façades for all residential addresses from five years before pregnancy until birth were estimated for all. Analyses were conducted using generalized estimating equation models with adjustment for various individual and area-level sociodemographic covariates gathered from Danish registries, as well as green space and air pollution (PM2.5) estimated for all addresses. RESULTS: We found no positive associations between road traffic noise at either façade and GDM. For railway noise, a 10 dB increase in railway noise at the most and least exposed façades during the first trimester was associated with GDM, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.10) and 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.13), respectively. We found indications of higher odds of GDM among women exposed to both high road traffic and railway noise at the least exposed facade during the first trimester (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.07-1.44). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this nationwide study suggests that railway noise but not road traffic noise might be associated with GDM.

8.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(5): 57004, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological research on effects of transportation noise on incident hypertension is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether residential road traffic noise increases the risk for hypertension. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of 57,053 individuals 50-64 years of age at enrollment, we identified 21,241 individuals who fulfilled our case definition of filling ≥2 prescriptions and ≥180 defined daily doses of antihypertensive drugs (AHTs) within a year, during a mean follow-up time of 14.0 y. Residential addresses from 1987 to 2016 were obtained from national registers, and road traffic noise at the most exposed façade as well as the least exposed façade was modeled for all addresses. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: We found no associations between the 10-y mean exposure to road traffic noise and filled prescriptions for AHTs, with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of 0.999 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.980, 1.019)] per 10-dB increase in road traffic noise at the most exposed façade and of 1.001 (95% CI: 0.977, 1.026) at the least exposed façade. Interaction analyses suggested an association with road traffic noise at the least exposed façade among subpopulations of current smokers and obese individuals. CONCLUSION: The present study does not support an association between road traffic noise and filled prescriptions for AHTs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6273.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
9.
Environ Res ; 187: 109633, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442789

RESUMO

Transportation noise is a growing public health concern worldwide and epidemiological evidence has linked road traffic noise with mortality. However, incongruent effect estimates have been reported between incidence and mortality studies. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise at the most and least exposed façades was associated with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, respiratory, or cancer mortality in a Danish cohort study. In a cohort of 52,758 individuals from Copenhagen and Aarhus, we estimated road traffic noise at the most and least exposed façades, as well as ambient air pollution, at all present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2016. Using the Danish cause of death register we identified cause-specific mortality. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Ten-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure at the most exposed façade was associated with an 8% higher risk for all-cause mortality per interquartile range (IQR; 10.4 dB) higher exposure level (95% CI: 1.05-1.11). Higher risks were also observed for CVD (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.19) and stroke (HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.25) mortality. Road traffic noise at the least exposed façade (per IQR; 8.4 dB) was associated with CVD (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03-1.15), IHD (HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.21) and stroke (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.95-1.19) mortality. Results were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 and NO2. In conclusion, this study adds to the body of evidence linking exposure to road traffic noise with higher risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Ruído dos Transportes , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos
10.
Sleep ; 43(8)2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083664

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Traffic noise has been associated with poor sleep quality and short sleep duration. This study investigates the association between nighttime road traffic noise at the least and most exposed façades of the residence and redemption of sleep medication. METHODS: In a cohort of 44,438 Danes, aged 50-64 at baseline (1993-1997), we identified all addresses from 1987 to 2015 from a national registry and calculated nighttime road traffic noise at the most and least exposed façades. Using Cox Proportional Hazard Models we investigated the association between residential traffic noise over 1, 5, and 10 years before redemption of the first sleep medication prescription in the Danish National Prescription Registry. During a median follow-up time of 18.5 years, 13,114 persons redeemed a prescription. RESULTS: We found that 10-year average nighttime exposure to road traffic noise at the most exposed façade was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.00 to 1.10) for Ln greater than 55 as compared to not more than 45 dB, which when stratified by sex was confined to men (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.25). For the least exposed façade the HR for Ln >45 vs ≤35 dB was 1.00, 95% CI (0.95 to 1.05). For the most exposed façade, the overall association was strongest in smokers and physically inactive. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term residential nighttime noise exposure at the most exposed façade may be associated with a higher likelihood of redeeming prescriptions for sleep medication, especially among men, smokers, and physically inactive.


Assuntos
Ruído dos Transportes , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Prescrições , Sono
11.
Environ Res ; 182: 109051, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896468

RESUMO

Recent studies show associations between transportation noise and various diseases. However, selection bias remains an inherent limitation in many cohort studies. In this study, we aimed to model road traffic noise exposure across the entire Danish population and investigate its distribution in relation to area-level socioeconomic indicators and green space. Based on the Nordic prediction method, we estimated road traffic noise for all Danish residential addresses, in total 2,761,739 addresses, for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 at the most and least exposed façades. Area-level sociodemographic variables encompassing education, income, and unemployment were collected and residential green within a 150 m radius buffer at the address level was estimated using high-resolution national land use classification data. Median levels of noise at both the most and least exposed facades across Denmark increased slightly from 1995 to 2015. Correlations between most and least exposed façades varied based on population density and building type, with the highest correlations between the most and least exposed façades found for semidetached homes and lowest for multistory buildings. Increasing median noise levels were observed across increasing levels of higher education, lower income, and higher unemployment. A decreasing trend in median noise levels with increasing levels of green space was observed. In conclusion, we showed that it is feasible to estimate nationwide, address-specific exposure over a long time-period. Furthermore, the low correlations found between most and least exposed façade for multistory buildings, which characterize metropolitan centers, suggests that the most exposed façade estimation used in most previous studies and predicts exposure at the silent façade relatively poorly.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Ruído dos Transportes , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Respir Med ; 139: 48-54, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858001

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Little is known about how perinatal and childhood factors influence lung function change between childhood and adolescence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible early life predictors of change in FEV1 between age 8 and 16 years. In addition, to investigate possible predictors of having persistently low lung function (FEV1 <25th percentiles both at age 8 and 16) up to adolescence. METHODS: The BAMSE birth cohort study collected data throughout childhood on environmental factors, individual characteristics, and spirometric measures at 8 and 16 years (n = 1425). Associations between early life predictors (n = 31) and FEV1 increase between 8 and 16 years were assessed with linear regression. Predictors of having persistently low lung function were examined. RESULTS: Few factors were consistently associated with altered lung function growth, although low birth weight, asthma heredity (paternal), secondhand smoke in infancy, and season of birth had a significant impact (p-value ≤0.01). The majority of subjects stayed however within the same category of lung function between ages 8 and 16 years (in total 821/1425 = 58%). Predictors associated with having persistently low lung function were gestational age, secondhand smoke (at 2 and 8 years of age), and factors related to lower respiratory tract infections in infancy. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, rather few exposures in childhood were identified to have a significant impact on lung function growth between childhood and adolescence. Our data support previous study findings indicating that lung function development is influenced by factors before birth and in infancy, including second hand tobacco smoke.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Espirometria
14.
Eur Respir J ; 51(6)2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748304

RESUMO

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with impaired lung function among young children, but less is known about long-term effects and the impact of adolescents' own smoking. We investigated the influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy, secondhand smoke exposure and adolescent smoking on lung function at age 16 years.The BAMSE (Barn/Child, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology) birth cohort collected information on participants' tobacco smoke exposure through repeated questionnaires, and measured saliva cotinine concentrations at age 16 years. Participants performed spirometry and impulse oscillometry (IOS) at age 16 years (n=2295).Exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio of -1.1% (95% CI -2.0 to -0.2%). IOS demonstrated greater resistance at 5-20 Hz (R5-20) in participants exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy. Adolescents who smoked had reduced FEV1/FVC ratios of -0.9% (95% CI -1.8 to -0.1%) and increased resistance of 6.5 Pa·L-1·s (95% CI 0.7 to 12.2 Pa·L-1·s) in R5-20 Comparable associations for FEV1/FVC ratio were observed for cotinine concentrations, using ≥12 ng·mL-1 as a cut-off for adolescent smoking.Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with lower FEV1/FVC ratios and increased airway resistance. In addition, adolescent smoking appears to be associated with reduced FEV1/FVC ratios and increased peripheral airway resistance.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/análise , Cotinina/análise , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Gravidez , Saliva/química , Distribuição por Sexo , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital
15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(4): 047005, 2018 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of tobacco smoke exposure in the development and persistence of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis through childhood into adolescence is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the associations of parental smoking from fetal life through adolescence with asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis during childhood and adolescence. METHODS: We analyzed data for 10,860 participants of five European birth cohort studies from the Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy (MeDALL) consortium. Parental smoking habits and health outcomes (early transient, persistent, and adolescent-onset asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis) were based on questionnaires covering the period from pregnancy to 14-16 y of age. Data were combined and analyzed using a one-stage and two-stage individual participant data meta-analysis. RESULTS: Overall, any maternal smoking during pregnancy tended to be associated with an increased odds of prevalent asthma [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.19 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.43)], but not prevalent rhinoconjunctivitis [aOR=1.05 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.22)], during childhood and adolescence. In analyses with phenotypes related to age of onset and persistence of disease, any maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with early transient asthma [aOR=1.79 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.83)]. Maternal smoking of ≥10 cigarettes/day during pregnancy was associated with persistent asthma [aOR=1.66 (95% CI: 1.29, 2.15)] and persistent rhinoconjunctivitis [aOR=1.55 (95% CI, 1.09, 2.20)]. Tobacco smoke exposure during fetal life, infancy, childhood, and adolescence was not associated with adolescent-onset asthma or rhinoconjunctivitis. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this combined analysis of five European birth cohorts strengthen evidence linking early exposure to tobacco smoke with asthma during childhood and adolescence. Children with high early-life exposure were more likely than unexposed children to have early transient and persistent asthma and persistent rhinoconjunctivitis. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2738.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Rinite/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Conjuntivite/induzido quimicamente , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Rinite/induzido quimicamente
16.
Pediatrics ; 134(3): 428-34, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25136039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of prenatal and postnatal second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure on asthma, rhinitis, and eczema development up to 16 years of age. METHODS: A birth cohort of 4089 children was followed for 16 years. Information on parental smoking habits, lifestyle factors, and symptoms of allergic disease was gathered using repeated parental questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations assessed the overall and age-specific associations between SHS exposure and allergic disease at ages 1 to 16 years. RESULTS: Exposure to SHS in utero was associated with an overall elevated risk of developing asthma up to 16 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-1.83) but not for rhinitis or eczema. After additional adjustment for parental smoking throughout childhood, excess overall risks for asthma remained statistically significant. Moreover, a dose-dependent pattern with SHS was observed. Exposure to SHS during infancy was associated with an overall elevated risk of asthma (OR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.01-1.51), rhinitis (OR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.39), and eczema (OR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45) up to 16 years. When age-specific associations were examined, the elevated risks related to SHS exposure in utero or during infancy were mostly confined to early childhood for asthma and rhinitis, whereas the excess risk of eczema appeared greatest at later ages. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that early SHS exposure, in utero or during infancy, influences the development of allergic disease up to adolescence. Excess risks for asthma and rhinitis were seen primarily in early childhood, whereas those for eczema occurred at later ages.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Vigilância da População/métodos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico
17.
Respir Med ; 107(12): 1845-51, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24094943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomass fuel smoke exposure contributes to respiratory infections in childhood, but its association with asthma has not been established. We studied the relationship of biomass fuel use with asthma symptoms and lung function in Nigerian children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 299 village children aged 5-11 years in North Central Nigeria. Data were collected regarding the cooking fuels used and duration of daily smoke exposure in the cooking area. Asthma symptoms were assessed with a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire, and lung function was assessed with spirometry. RESULTS: The prevalence of a lifetime history of wheeze was 9.4% (95% CI: 6.3%-13.2%). Fourteen children (4.7%) had airway obstruction (FEV1/FEV6 <85%). Female subjects had lower FEV1 and FEV6 (110 % and 120% percent predicted, respectively) than males (121% and 130%, respectively, P <0.001 for both differences). Advancing age was associated with a relative decline in the predicted value of FEV1 of 7.8 % per year (r = -0.61; P < 0.001). Children in families that used firewood daily did not have a significantly increased likelihood of asthma-related symptoms (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 0.66-8.44). Similarly, airway obstruction did not differ significantly between children in households that did and did not use firewood daily (mean FEV1/FEV6 of 0.95 and 0.97, respectively; P = 0.41). CONCLUSION: Reported smoke exposure was not associated with an increased risk of asthma symptoms or airway obstruction. However, lifetime smoke exposure may explain the reduction in spirometric values in female subjects and with advancing age.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Biocombustíveis/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Asma/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sons Respiratórios/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
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