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1.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; : 105545, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751783

RESUMO

Socioeconomic status (SES), defined as the ability to access desired resources, is associated with behaviors that may affect vitamin D status. Most studies of the effect of vitamin D status on outcomes do not account for individual-level SES. The ability to adjust for SES in epidemiologic studies, when data on conventional SES measures have not been obtained, would be advantageous. We identified all serum 25(OH)D measurements in adults age 18 years and older residing in Olmsted County, MN, a mixed urban-rural setting, between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011, through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. The first 25(OH)D measurement was considered the index measurement for each subject. SES was determined for each subject by the HOUsing-based SocioEconomic Status (HOUSES) index, derived from real property data. The HOUSES index is an aggregated z-score of assessed housing value, area of living space, number of bedrooms, and number of bathrooms, with higher scores indicating higher SES. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, sex, race, season of 25(OH)D measurement, and Charlson comorbidity index. HOUSES was matched for 10,378 of 11,002 subjects (94%) with 25(OH)D measurements available. The mean (SD) age was 54.3 (17.1) years with 26.9% ≥65 years; 77.3% were women, and 12.1% were non-white. The mean 25(OH)D concentration was 30.0 (12.9) ng/mL, and 598 (5.8%) had a 25(OH)D value <12 ng/mL. The mean (SD) HOUSES was -1.55 (3.09),-0.97 (3.34), 0.14 (3.52), 0.24 (3.51) for serum 25(OH)D categories of <12, 12-19, 20-50, and >50 ng/mL, respectively (P = 0.12 for trend). 25(OH)D increased by 0.43 (95% CI 0.36-0.50) ng/mL for each unit increase in HOUSES in univariate analysis and by 0.28 (0.21-0.35; P < 0.001) ng/mL in multivariable analysis. This represents a change of 4 ng/mL across the entire range of observed HOUSES, an effect similar in magnitude to the seasonal variation of 25(OH)D values. SES was independently associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in a dose-response manner after adjustment for important covariates. HOUSES is a useful tool to assess the role of individual-level SES in health outcomes when other SES measures are unavailable and to control for confounding by SES in examining the effect of 25(OH)D on clinical and metabolic outcomes.

2.
J Pediatr ; 211: 98-104.e4, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of potentially life-threatening complications of hypocalcemia in infants and children in Olmsted County, Minnesota; and to determine if vitamin D deficiency contributed to these events and was, at the time of clinical presentation, considered as a possible cause. STUDY DESIGN: In this population-based descriptive study, data were abstracted from the Rochester Epidemiology Project, a medical record linkage system covering 95% of patients in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Participants were children aged 0-5 years who resided in Olmsted County between January 1, 1996 and June 30, 2017, and who received diagnoses of seizures, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, laryngospasm, and/or tetany. The incidence of hypocalcemia plus a potentially life-threatening complication was calculated. RESULTS: Among 15 419 patients aged 0-5 years in Olmsted County during the study period, 1305 had eligible complications: 460 had serum calcium checked within 14 days of presentation and 85 had hypocalcemia. Patients were excluded when causes other than hypocalcemia likely triggered the complication, leaving 16 children whose complication was attributed to hypocalcemia. Three of these 16 patients had a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurement and 2 were deficient (≤6 ng/mL [15 nmol/L]). Among children aged 0-5 years, the incidence of hypocalcemia plus a potentially life-threatening complication was 6.1 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI, 3.5-10.0). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is an underinvestigated cause of complications of hypocalcemia in children. Serum calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be measured in children with these complications to identify possibly life-threatening vitamin D deficiency.

3.
Bone ; 122: 76-81, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772600

RESUMO

The Rickets Severity Score (RSS) was used to evaluate X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a genetic disorder mediated by increased circulating FGF23. The reliability of the RSS was assessed using data from a randomized, phase 2 clinical trial that evaluated the effects of burosumab, a fully human anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibody, in 52 children with XLH ages 5 to 12 years. Bilateral knee and wrist radiographs were obtained at baseline, week 40, and week 64. We evaluated the relationships of the RSS to the Radiographic Global Impression of Change (RGI-C), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), height Z-score, 6-minute walk test (6MWT) percent predicted, and the Pediatric Orthopedic Society of North America Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (POSNA-PODCI). The RSS showed moderate-to-substantial inter-rater reliability (weighted kappa, 0.45-0.65; Pearson correlation coefficient (r), 0.83-0.89) and substantial intra-rater reliability (weighted Kappa, 0.66; r = 0.91). Baseline RSS correlated with serum ALP (r = 0.47). Baseline RSS identified two subgroups (higher [RSS ≥1.5] and lower RSS [RSS <1.5]) that discriminated between subjects with greater and lesser rachitic disease. Higher RSS was associated with more severe clinical features, including impaired growth (Z-score, -2.12 vs -1.44) and walking ability (6MWT percent predicted, 77% vs 86%), more severe self-reported pain (29.9 [more severe] vs 45.3 [less severe]) and less physical function (29.6 [more severe] vs 40.9 [less severe]). During burosumab treatment, greater reductions in RSS corresponded to higher RGI-C global scores (r = -0.65). Improvements in RSS correlated with decreased serum ALP (r = 0.47). These results show the reliability of the RSS in XLH, and demonstrate that higher RSS values are associated with greater biochemical, clinical, and functional impairments in children with XLH.

4.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1430(1): 44-79, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225965

RESUMO

Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for bone health and may influence the risks of respiratory illness, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and chronic diseases of adulthood. Because many countries have a relatively low supply of foods rich in vitamin D and inadequate exposure to natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from sunlight, an important proportion of the global population is at risk of vitamin D deficiency. There is general agreement that the minimum serum/plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25(OH)D) that protects against vitamin D deficiency-related bone disease is approximately 30 nmol/L; therefore, this threshold is suitable to define vitamin D deficiency in population surveys. However, efforts to assess the vitamin D status of populations in low- and middle-income countries have been hampered by limited availability of population-representative 25(OH)D data, particularly among population subgroups most vulnerable to the skeletal and potential extraskeletal consequences of low vitamin D status, namely exclusively breastfed infants, children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, and the elderly. In the absence of 25(OH)D data, identification of communities that would benefit from public health interventions to improve vitamin D status may require proxy indicators of the population risk of vitamin D deficiency, such as the prevalence of rickets or metrics of usual UVB exposure. If a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is identified (>20% prevalence of 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L) or the risk for vitamin D deficiency is determined to be high based on proxy indicators (e.g., prevalence of rickets >1%), food fortification and/or targeted vitamin D supplementation policies can be implemented to reduce the burden of vitamin D deficiency-related conditions in vulnerable populations.

5.
BMC Pediatr ; 18(1): 183, 2018 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whilst hypocalcemic complications from vitamin D deficiency are considered rare in high-income countries, they are highly prevalent among Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) group with darker skin. To date, the extent of osteomalacia in such infants and their family members is unknown. Our aim was to investigate clinical, cardiac and bone histomorphometric characteristics, bone matrix mineralization in affected infants and to test family members for biochemical evidence of osteomalacia. CASE PRESENTATION: Three infants of BAME origin (aged 5-6 months) presented acutely in early-spring with cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest following seizure or severe respiratory distress, with profound hypocalcemia (serum calcium 1.22-1.96 mmol/L). All infants had dark skin and vitamin D supplementation had not been addressed during child surveillance visits. All three had severely dilated left ventricles (z-scores + 4.6 to + 6.5) with reduced ejection fraction (25-30%; normal 55-70), fractional shortening (7 to 15%; normal 29-40) and global hypokinesia, confirming hypocalcemic dilated cardiomyopathy. They all had low serum levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD < 15 nmol/L), and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH; 219-482 ng/L) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP; 802-1123 IU/L), with undiagnosed rickets on radiographs. One infant died from cardiac arrest. At post-mortem examination, his growth plate showed a widened, irregular zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Histomorphometry and backscattered electron microscopy of a trans-iliac bone biopsy sample revealed increased osteoid thickness (+ 262% of normal) and osteoid volume/bone volume (+ 1573%), and extremely low bone mineralization density. Five of the nine tested family members had vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 30 nmol/L), three had insufficiency (< 50 nmol/L) and 6/9 members had elevated PTH and ALP levels. CONCLUSIONS: The severe, hidden, cardiac and bone pathology described here exposes a failure of public health prevention programs, as complications from vitamin D deficiency are entirely preventable by routine supplementation. The family investigations demonstrate widespread deficiency and undiagnosed osteomalacia in ethnic risk groups and call for protective legislation.

6.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 93(6): 721-730, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) values and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all serum 25(OH)D measurements in adults residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. All-cause mortality was the primary outcome. Patients were followed up until their last clinical visit as an Olmsted County resident, December 31, 2014, or death. Multivariate analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, month of measurement, and Charlson comorbidity index score. RESULTS: A total of 11,022 individuals had a 25(OH)D measurement between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, with a mean ± SD value of 30.0±12.9 ng/mL. Mean age was 54.3±17.2 years, and most were female (77.1%) and white (87.6%). There were 723 deaths after a median follow-up of 4.8 years (interquartile range, 3.4-6.2 years). Unadjusted all-cause mortality hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for 25(OH)D values of less than 12, 12 to 19, and more than 50 ng/mL were 2.6 (95% CI, 2.0-3.2), 1.3 (95% CI, 1.0-1.6), and 1.0 (95% CI, 0.72-1.5), respectively, compared with the reference value of 20 to 50 ng/mL. In a multivariate model, the interaction between the effect of 25(OH)D and race/ethnicity on mortality was significant (P<.001). In white patients, adjusted HRs for 25(OH)D values of less than 12, 12 to 19, 20 to 50, and greater than 50 ng/mL were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.2-2.9), 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2-1.6), 1.0 (referent), and 1.0 (95% CI, 0.81-1.3), respectively. In patients of other race/ethnicity, adjusted HRs were 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5-2.3), 1.7 (95% CI, 1.1-2.6), 1.5 (95% CI, 1.0-2.0), and 2.1 (95% CI, 0.77-5.5). CONCLUSION: White patients with 25(OH)D values of less than 20 ng/mL had greater all-cause mortality than those with values of 20 to 50 ng/mL, and white patients had greater mortality associated with low 25(OH)D values than patients of other race/ethnicity. Values of 25(OH)D greater than 50 ng/mL were not associated with all-cause mortality.

7.
J Hum Lact ; 34(2): 331-336, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Academy of Medicine recommend vitamin D supplementation for breastfeeding infants. However, compliance with this recommendation is poor. Maternal supplementation with vitamin D is a safe and effective alternative to achieving vitamin D sufficiency in breastfeeding infants, and mothers have indicated a preference for self-supplementation over infant supplementation. Research aim: We sought to explore Family Medicine clinicians' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding vitamin D supplementation recommendations for breastfeeding dyads. METHODS: Fifty-six Family Medicine clinicians (including faculty physicians, resident physicians, and nurse practitioners/physician assistants) completed an online, anonymous survey regarding their knowledge and practices concerning vitamin D supplementation for breastfeeding infants. RESULTS: The vast majority of clinicians (92.9%) correctly identified the American Academy of Pediatrics' 2008 recommended dose for vitamin D supplementation in breastfeeding infants and estimated recommending vitamin D supplementation of exclusively breastfeeding infants 70.1% of the time. If all options were equivalent, clinicians would prefer to offer maternal or infant supplementation (50%) or maternal supplementation (37.5%) over infant supplementation (12.5%). Most (69.6%) preferred daily over monthly supplementation regimens. CONCLUSION: Family Medicine clinicians are knowledgeable regarding current recommendations for vitamin D supplementation in breastfeeding infants. They are also open to recommending maternal supplementation or offering parents a choice of maternal or infant vitamin supplementation.

8.
J Clin Invest ; 128(5): 1913-1918, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461981

RESUMO

Genetic forms of vitamin D-dependent rickets (VDDRs) are due to mutations impairing activation of vitamin D or decreasing vitamin D receptor responsiveness. Here we describe two unrelated patients with early-onset rickets, reduced serum levels of the vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and deficient responsiveness to parent and activated forms of vitamin D. Neither patient had a mutation in any genes known to cause VDDR; however, using whole exome sequencing analysis, we identified a recurrent de novo missense mutation, c.902T>C (p.I301T), in CYP3A4 in both subjects that alters the conformation of substrate recognition site 4 (SRS-4). In vitro, the mutant CYP3A4 oxidized 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D with 10-fold greater activity than WT CYP3A4 and 2-fold greater activity than CYP24A1, the principal inactivator of vitamin D metabolites. As CYP3A4 mutations have not previously been linked to rickets, these findings provide insight into vitamin D metabolism and demonstrate that accelerated inactivation of vitamin D metabolites represents a mechanism for vitamin D deficiency.

9.
Bone ; 110: 321-325, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Supplementing lactating mothers with high doses of vitamin D3 can adequately meet vitamin D requirements of the breastfed infant. We compared the effect of bolus versus daily vitamin D3 dosing in lactating mothers on vitamin D3 catabolism. We hypothesized that catabolism of 25(OH)D3 to 24,25(OH)2D3 would be greater in the bolus than in the daily dose group. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: Randomized controlled trial (clinicaltrials.govNCT01240265) in 40 lactating women. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were randomized to receive vitamin D3 orally, either a single dose of 150,000IU or 5000IU daily for 28days. Vitamin D metabolites were measured in serum and breast milk at baseline, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Temporal changes in the serum 24,25(OH)2D3/25(OH)D3 ratio. RESULTS: The concentration of serum 24,25(OH)2D3 was directly related to that of 25(OH)D in both groups (r2=0.63; p<0.001). The mean (±SD) 24,25(OH)2D3/25(OH)D3 ratio remained lower at all time points than baseline values in the daily dose group (0.093±0.024, 0.084±0.025, 0.083±0.024, 0.080±0.020, 0.081±0.023, 0.083±0.018 at baseline, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28days, respectively). In the single dose group, the increase in 24,25(OH)2D3 lagged behind that of 25(OH)D, but the 24,25(OH)2D3/25(OH)D3 values (0.098±0.032, 0.067±0.019, 0.081±0.017, 0.092±0.024, 0.103±0.020, 0.106±0.024, respectively) exceeded baseline values at 14 and 28days and were greater than the daily dose group at 14 and 28days (p=0.003). The 24,25(OH)2D3/25(OH)D3 ratio remained in the normal range with both dosing regimens. Greater breast milk vitamin D3 values in the single dose group were inversely associated with the 24,25(OH)2D3/25(OH)D3 ratio (r2=0.14, p<0.001), but not with daily dosing. CONCLUSIONS: After a 14-day lag, a single high dose of vitamin D led to greater production of 24,25(OH)2D3, presumably via induction of the 24-hydroxylase enzyme (CYP24A1), relative to the 25(OH)D3 value than did daily vitamin D supplementation, and this effect persisted for at least 28days after vitamin D administration. A daily dose of vitamin D may have more lasting effectiveness in increasing 25(OH)D3 with lesser diversion of 25(OH)D3 to 24,25(OH)2D3 than does larger bolus dosing.

10.
Ann Fam Med ; 15(1): 68-70, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28376463

RESUMO

Daily vitamin D supplementation is recommended for breastfed infants, but alternative methods include enriching breast milk with vitamin D through maternal supplementation or intermittent high-dose vitamin D. We determined maternal preferences for vitamin D supplementation in 140 mothers with exclusively breastfed infants, and 44 who used both breast and formula milk. Only 101 (55%) supplemented their infants with vitamin D. One hundred sixty (88%) preferred supplementing themselves rather than their infants, and 102 (57%) preferred daily to monthly supplementation. Safety was most important in choosing a method of supplementation. Taking maternal preferences into consideration may improve adequate intakes of vitamin D in breastfed infants.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Suplementos Nutricionais , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leite Humano , Mães , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 92(3): 327-328, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28259225
12.
Bone ; 97: 216-221, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28126634

RESUMO

Factors that affect maternal bone mineral density may be related to the risk of nutritional rickets in their offspring. Our aim was to determine the relationship between maternal areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and rickets in Nigerian children. Using a case-control design, we measured forearm aBMD in 56 and 135 mothers of children with and without nutritional rickets, respectively. Active rickets was confirmed or excluded in all children radiographically. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association of maternal aBMD, adjusted for parity, pregnancy and lactation status, duration of most recent completed lactation, age of menarche, height, body mass index, and maternal age with nutritional rickets. The median (range) age of all mothers was 30years (17-47years), and parity was 4 (1-12). A total of 36 (19%) were pregnant and 55 (29%) were currently breast feeding. Mean (±SD) metaphyseal forearm aBMDs were 0.321±0.057 and 0.316±0.053g/cm2 in mothers of children with and without rickets, respectively (P=0.60). Diaphyseal forearm aBMDs were 0.719±0.071 and 0.715±0.072g/cm2, respectively (P=0.69). In an adjusted analysis, maternal forearm aBMD, bone mineral content and bone area at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites were not associated with rickets in the child. In the adjusted analysis, rickets was associated with shorter duration of most recently completed lactation (aOR 0.91 for each additional month; 95% CI 0.83-0.99), older maternal age (aOR 1.07 for each additional year; 1.00-1.14), and less frequent maternal use of lead-containing eye cosmetics (aOR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05-0.64), without any difference in maternal blood lead levels. Maternal age, parity, age of menarche, height, and body mass index were not associated with having had a child with rickets in multivariate analysis. Nutritional rickets in Nigerian children was not associated with maternal forearm aBMD. Other unidentified maternal characteristics and practices likely contribute to the risk of rickets in Nigerian children.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Raquitismo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Criança , Densitometria , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Mães
13.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 173: 333-336, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27473561

RESUMO

CYP2R1 is the principal hepatic 25-hydroxylase responsible for the hydroxylation of parent vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D reflect vitamin D status, because 25(OH)D is the major circulating metabolite of vitamin D. The 1α-hydroxylation of 25(OH)D in the kidney by CYP27B1 generates the fully active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). The human CYP2R1 gene, located at 11p15.2, has five exons, coding for an enzyme with 501 amino acids. In Cyp2r1-/- knockout mice, serum 25(OH)D levels were reduced by more than 50% compared wild-type mice. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2R1 account for some of the individual variability of circulating 25(OH)D values in the population. We review the evidence that inactivating mutations in CYP2R1 can lead to a novel form of vitamin D-deficiency rickets resulting from impaired 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D. We sequenced the promoter, exons and intron-exon flanking regions of the CYP2R1 gene in members of 12 Nigerian families with rickets in more than one family member. We found missense mutations (L99P and K242N) in affected members of 2 of 12 families. The L99P mutation had previously been reported as a homozygous defect in an unrelated child of Nigerian origin with rickets. In silico analyses predicted impaired CYP2R1 folding or reduced interaction with substrate vitamin D by L99P and K242N mutations, respectively. In vitro studies of the mutant CYP2R1 proteins in HEK293 cells confirmed normal expression levels but completely absent or markedly reduced 25-hydroxylase activity by the L99P and K242N mutations, respectively. Heterozygous subjects had more moderate biochemical and clinical features of vitamin D deficiency than homozygous subjects. After an oral bolus dose of 50,000 IU of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3, heterozygous subjects had lower increases in serum 25(OH)D than control subjects, and homozygous subjects had minimal increases, supporting a semidominant inheritance of these mutations. No CYP2R1 mutations were found in 27 Nigerian children with sporadic rickets, a cohort of 50 unrelated Nigerian subjects, or in 628 unrelated subjects in the 1000 Genomes Project. We conclude that mutations in CYP2R1 are responsible for an atypical form of vitamin D-deficiency rickets, which has been classified as vitamin D dependent rickets type 1B (VDDR1B, MIM 600081).


Assuntos
Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/genética , Mutação , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Animais , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/sangue , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/etiologia , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/metabolismo , Humanos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/genética , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo
14.
Am J Med ; 130(5): e191-e193, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28012823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary care providers often manage skin abscesses in the outpatient setting. Estimating the size and depth of an abscess, and distinguishing abscess from cellulitis by clinical examination can be challenging due to surrounding firm tissue induration. Definitive treatment of abscess requires incision and drainage, and the approach chosen may be altered by abscess size, depth, and surrounding neurovascular structures. METHODS: For 31 consecutive patients seen in the primary care outpatient clinic, we prospectively compared the estimated size of skin abscesses by clinical examination with that determined by ultrasound. Prior to incision and drainage, a limited point-of-care ultrasound examination was performed and the abscess dimensions were measured, the depth was determined, and adjacent vascular structures were noted. Based on ultrasound findings, physicians reported whether the decision to perform the procedure or the techniques used to perform the procedure were altered by the scan. RESULTS: The clinical examination was inaccurate for size estimation by >0.5 cm in 16 of 31 patients (52%). Ultrasound examination changed the physician decision of whether or not incision and drainage should be performed in 7 patients (23%) and altered the technique/approach in an additional 10 patients (32%); thus, management was changed in 55% of cases. Physician confidence in performing the procedure was improved in 16 cases (52%). CONCLUSION: Outpatient procedural management of skin abscesses by primary care physicians was altered in more than half the cases by performing point-of-care ultrasound prior to incision and drainage.


Assuntos
Abscesso/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso/cirurgia , Drenagem , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Dermatopatias/cirurgia , Abscesso/patologia , Celulite (Flegmão)/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Estudos Prospectivos , Dermatopatias/patologia , Ultrassonografia
15.
Paediatr Int Child Health ; 37(2): 84-98, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27922335

RESUMO

Worldwide, nutritional rickets continues to be an evolving problem with several causes. This paper provides an updated literature review characterising the prevalence, aetiology, pathophysiology and treatment of nutritional rickets worldwide. A systematic review of articles on nutritional rickets from various geographical regions was undertaken. For each region, key information was extracted, including prevalence, cause of rickets specific to the region, methods of confirming the diagnosis and current treatment and preventive measures. Calcium deficiency continues to be a major cause of rickets in Africa and Asia. Vitamin D deficiency rickets is perhaps increasing in the Americas, Europe and parts of the Middle East. There continues to be a distinct presentation of calcium-predominant versus vitamin D predominant rickets, although there are overlapping features. More careful diagnosis of rickets and reporting of 25-OHD concentrations has improved accurate knowledge of rickets prevalence and better delineated the cause. Nutritional rickets continues to be an evolving and multi-factorial problem worldwide. It is on a spectrum, ranging from isolated vitamin D deficiency to isolated calcium deficiency. Specific areas which require emphasis include a consistent community approach to screening and diagnosis, vitamin D supplementation of infants and at-risk children, prevention of maternal vitamin D deficiency and the provision of calcium in areas with low calcium diets.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/complicações , Raquitismo/epidemiologia , Raquitismo/patologia , Cálcio/deficiência , Saúde Global , Humanos , Prevalência , Raquitismo/terapia , Deficiência de Vitamina D
16.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 29(4): 444-51, 2016 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27390375

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The demand for comprehensive primary health care continues to expand. The development of team-based practice allows for improved capacity within a collective, collaborative environment. Our hypothesis was to determine the relationship between panel size and access, quality, patient satisfaction, and cost in a large family medicine group practice using a team-based care model. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from 36 family physicians and included total panel size of patients, percentage of time spent on patient care, cost of care, access metrics, diabetic quality metrics, patient satisfaction surveys, and patient care complexity scores. We used linear regression analysis to assess the relationship between adjusted physician panel size, panel complexity, and outcomes. RESULTS: The third available appointments (P < .01) and diabetic quality (P = .03) were negatively affected by increased panel size. Patient satisfaction, cost, and percentage fill rate were not affected by panel size. A physician-adjusted panel size larger than the current mean (2959 patients) was associated with a greater likelihood of poor-quality rankings (≤25th percentile) compared with those with a less than average panel size (odds ratio [OR], 7.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-51.46). Increased panel size was associated with a longer time to the third available appointment (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 1.36-87.26) compared with physicians with panel sizes smaller than the mean. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a negative impact of larger panel size on diabetic quality results and available appointment access. Evaluation of a family medicine practice parameters while controlling for panel size and patient complexity may help determine the optimal panel size for a practice.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Agendamento de Consultas , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Bone Miner Res ; 31(11): 2024-2031, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27311415

RESUMO

Calcium supplementation is indicated for the treatment of nutritional rickets. Our aim was to determine the optimal dose of calcium for treatment of children with rickets. Sixty-five Nigerian children with radiographically confirmed rickets were randomized to daily supplemental calcium intake of 500 mg (n = 21), 1000 mg (n = 23), or 2000 mg (n = 21). Venous blood, radiographs, and forearm areal bone density (aBMD) were obtained at baseline and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after enrollment. The primary outcome was radiographic healing, using a 10-point radiographic severity score. The radiographic severity scores improved in all three groups, but the rate of radiographic healing (points per month) was significantly more rapid in the 1000-mg (-0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.13 to -0.45) and 2000-mg (-0.36; 95% CI -0.19 to -0.53) supplementation groups relative to the 500-mg group. The 2000-mg group did not heal more rapidly than the 1000-mg group. Of those who completed treatment for 24 weeks, 12 (67%), 20 (87%), and 14 (67%) in the 2000-mg, 1000-mg, and 500-mg groups, respectively, had achieved a radiographic score of 1.5 or less (p = 0.21). Serum alkaline phosphatase decreased and calcium increased similarly in all groups. Forearm diaphyseal aBMD improved significantly more rapidly in the 2000-mg group than in the 500-mg and 1000-mg groups (p < 0.001). Daily calcium intakes of 1000 mg or 2000 mg produced more rapid radiographic healing of rickets than 500 mg, but 2000 mg did not have greater benefit than 1000 mg. Some children require longer than 24 weeks for complete healing of nutritional rickets. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Raquitismo/tratamento farmacológico , Densidade Óssea , Pré-Escolar , Diáfises/fisiopatologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Antebraço/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Raquitismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Raquitismo/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 29(2): 233-9, 2016 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26957380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) threshold score of 9.3% (calculated without femoral neck bone density) with the Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimate (SCORE), Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (OST), and the Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI) to identify osteoporosis in younger women. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of women ages 50 to 64 years who underwent dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry (DXA) at our institution over a 6-month period. Scores for the FRAX, ORAI, OST, and SCORE tools were calculated using various thresholds: FRAX ≥9.3%, SCORE ≥6, OST <2, and ORAI ≥9. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for detection of densitometric osteoporosis by DXA for each tool were compared. RESULTS: A total of 290 women were identified. Of these, 284 (97.9%) were white, and the mean ± standard deviation age was 56.6 ± 3.4 years. Fifty (17.2%) had osteoporosis of the lumbar spine and/or femoral neck on DXA. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for identifying densitometric osteoporosis at the femoral neck and/or spine were 36%, 73%, and 0.55 for FRAX; 74%, 42%, and 0.58 for SCORE; 56%, 69%, and 0.63 for the OST; and 52%, 67%, and 0.60 for the ORAI, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: DXA screening based on the USPSTF-recommended FRAX threshold score of 9.3% has a low sensitivity to identify densitometric osteoporosis in women ages 50 to 64. Lowering the threshold score would increase sensitivity but would also increase the number of women sent for screening DXA. Use of the validated SCORE tool would improve sensitivity to identify osteoporosis in this age group.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos/normas , Densidade Óssea , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/normas , Autoavaliação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos
19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 101(2): 394-415, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26745253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are common worldwide, causing nutritional rickets and osteomalacia, which have a major impact on health, growth, and development of infants, children, and adolescents; the consequences can be lethal or can last into adulthood. The goals of this evidence-based consensus document are to provide health care professionals with guidance for prevention, diagnosis, and management of nutritional rickets and to provide policy makers with a framework to work toward its eradication. EVIDENCE: A systematic literature search examining the definition, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nutritional rickets in children was conducted. Evidence-based recommendations were developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system that describe the strength of the recommendation and the quality of supporting evidence. PROCESS: Thirty-three nominated experts in pediatric endocrinology, pediatrics, nutrition, epidemiology, public health, and health economics evaluated the evidence on specific questions within five working groups. The consensus group, representing 11 international scientific organizations, participated in a multiday conference in May 2014 to reach a global evidence-based consensus. RESULTS: This consensus document defines nutritional rickets and its diagnostic criteria and describes the clinical management of rickets and osteomalacia. Risk factors, particularly in mothers and infants, are ranked, and specific prevention recommendations including food fortification and supplementation are offered for both the clinical and public health contexts. CONCLUSION: Rickets, osteomalacia, and vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are preventable global public health problems in infants, children, and adolescents. Implementation of international rickets prevention programs, including supplementation and food fortification, is urgently required.


Assuntos
Recomendações Nutricionais , Raquitismo/prevenção & controle , Cálcio/deficiência , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consenso , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Osteomalacia/diagnóstico , Osteomalacia/terapia , Raquitismo/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/terapia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
20.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 85(2): 83-106, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26741135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are common worldwide, causing nutritional rickets and osteomalacia, which have a major impact on health, growth, and development of infants, children, and adolescents; the consequences can be lethal or can last into adulthood. The goals of this evidence-based consensus document are to provide health care professionals with guidance for prevention, diagnosis, and management of nutritional rickets and to provide policy makers with a framework to work toward its eradication. EVIDENCE: A systematic literature search examining the definition, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nutritional rickets in children was conducted. Evidence-based recommendations were developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system that describes the strength of the recommendation and the quality of supporting evidence. PROCESS: Thirty-three nominated experts in pediatric endocrinology, pediatrics, nutrition, epidemiology, public health, and health economics evaluated the evidence on specific questions within five working groups. The consensus group, representing 11 international scientific organizations, participated in a multiday conference in May 2014 to reach a global evidence-based consensus. RESULTS: This consensus document defines nutritional rickets and its diagnostic criteria and describes the clinical management of rickets and osteomalacia. Risk factors, particularly in mothers and infants, are ranked, and specific prevention recommendations including food fortification and supplementation are offered for both the clinical and public health contexts. CONCLUSION: Rickets, osteomalacia, and vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are preventable global public health problems in infants, children, and adolescents. Implementation of international rickets prevention programs, including supplementation and food fortification, is urgently required.


Assuntos
Raquitismo/terapia , Cálcio/deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Raquitismo/diagnóstico , Raquitismo/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
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