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Sci Total Environ ; 712: 135241, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843312


Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 seeks to "by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water", which is challenging particularly in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Pacific Island Countries (PIC). We report drinking water sources and services in the Solomon Islands and examine geographical inequalities. Based on two quantitative baseline datasets of n = 1,598 rural and n = 1,068 urban households, we analyzed different drinking water variables (source type, collection time, amount, use, perceived quality, storage, treatment) and a composite index, drinking water service level. We stratified data by urban and rural areas and by province, mapped, and contextualized them. There are substantive rural-urban drinking water inequalities in the Solomon Islands. Overall, urban households are more likely to: use improved drinking water sources, need less time to collect water, collect more water, store their water more safely, treat water prior to consumption, perceive their water quality as better and have an at least basic drinking water service than rural households. There are also provincial and center-periphery inequalities in drinking water access, with more centrally located provinces using piped water supplies and more distant and remote provinces using rainwater and surface water as their primary source. There are also inter-national inequalities. Out of all PICs, the Solomon Islands have among the lowest access to basic drinking water services: 92% of urban and 55% of rural households. Of all SIDS, PICs are least serviced. This study shows that drinking water inequality is a critical issue, and highlights that all identified dimensions of inequality - rural-urban, provincial, center-periphery and inter-national - need to be explicitly recognized and addressed and included in pro-equity monitoring, policy and programming efforts by the Solomon Islands Government and stakeholders to reduce inequalities as per the Agenda 2030.

Água Potável , Humanos , Melanesia , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 331-340, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132712


The Solomon Islands, like other small island developing states in the Pacific, face significant challenges from a changing climate, and from increasing extreme weather events, while also lagging behind the rest of the world in terms of drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) services. In order to support planning for the implementation of national WaSH strategies and policies, this study contextualizes representative urban and rural baselines for Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 ("by 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation"). We highlight specific threats to the current sanitation services under extreme weather events such as flooding and drought, both of which are commonly observed in the country, and provide suggestions for structural improvements to sanitation facilities to increase resiliency. As the first detailed nationally representative cross-sectional sanitation study in urban and rural areas in the Solomon Islands, the results of this paper inform national WaSH policy, strategic planning and programming by the Solomon Islands Government and stakeholders.

J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010408, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546869


Background: Lack of menstrual knowledge, poor access to sanitary products and a non-facilitating school environment can make it difficult for girls to attend school. In India, interventions have been developed to reduce the burden of menstruation for school girls by government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). We sought to identify challenges related to menstruation, and facilitators of menstrual management in schools in three states in India. Methods: Surveys were conducted among menstruating school girls in class 8-10 (above 12 years of age) of 43 government schools selected through stratified random sampling in three Indian states (Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu) in 2015. For comparison, ten model schools supported by NGOs or UNICEF with a focussed menstrual hygiene education program were selected purposely in the same states to represent the better-case scenario. We examined awareness about menarche, items used for menstruation, and facilitators on girls' experience of menstruation in regular schools and compared with model schools. Factors associated with school absence during menstruation were explored using multivariate analysis. Findings: More girls (mean age 14.1 years) were informed about menstruation before menarche in model schools (56%, n = 492) than in regular schools (36%, n = 2072, P < 0.001). Girls reported menstruation affected school attendance (6% vs 11% in model vs regular schools respectively, P = 0.003) and concentration (40% vs 45%, P = 0.1) and was associated with pain (31% vs 38%, P = 0.004) and fear of stain or smell (11% vs 16%, P = 0.002). About 45% of girls reported using disposable pads in both model and regular schools, but only 55% and 29% of pad-users reported good disposal facilities, respectively (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, reported absenteeism during menstruation was significantly lower in Tamil Nadu (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.24, 0.14-0.40) and Maharashtra (APR 0.56, CI = 0.40-0.77) compared to Chhattisgarh, and halved in model compared to regular schools (APR 0.50, CI = 0.34-0.73). Pain medication in school (APR 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.97) and use of disposable pads (APR 0.57, CI = 0.42-0.77) were associated with lower absenteeism and inadequate sanitary facilities with higher absenteeism during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene education, accessible sanitary products, pain relief, and adequate sanitary facilities at school would improve the schooling-experience of adolescent girls in India.

Higiene , Menstruação , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/provisão & distribução , Setor Público , Inquéritos e Questionários
BMJ Open ; 6(3): e010290, 2016 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26936906


OBJECTIVES: To assess the status of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) among adolescent girls in India to determine unmet needs. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, The Global Health Database, Google Scholar and references for studies published from 2000 to September 2015 on girls' MHM. SETTING: India. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescent girls. OUTCOME MEASURES: Information on menarche awareness, type of absorbent used, disposal, hygiene, restrictions and school absenteeism was extracted from eligible materials; a quality score was applied. Meta-analysis was used to estimate pooled prevalence (PP), and meta-regression to examine the effect of setting, region and time. RESULTS: Data from 138 studies involving 193 subpopulations and 97,070 girls were extracted. In 88 studies, half of the girls reported being informed prior to menarche (PP 48%, 95% CI 43% to 53%, I(2) 98.6%). Commercial pad use was more common among urban (PP 67%, 57% to 76%, I(2) 99.3%, n=38) than rural girls (PP 32%, 25% to 38%, I(2) 98.6%, n=56, p<0.0001), with use increasing over time (p<0.0001). Inappropriate disposal was common (PP 23%, 16% to 31%, I(2) 99.0%, n=34). Menstruating girls experienced many restrictions, especially for religious activities (PP 0.77, 0.71 to 0.83, I(2) 99.1%, n=67). A quarter (PP 24%, 19% to 30%, I(2) 98.5%, n=64) reported missing school during periods. A lower prevalence of absenteeism was associated with higher commercial pad use in univariate (p=0.023) but not in multivariate analysis when adjusted for region (p=0.232, n=53). Approximately a third of girls changed their absorbents in school facilities (PP 37%, 29% to 46%, I(2) 97.8%, n=17). Half of the girls' homes had a toilet (PP 51%, 36% to 67%, I(2) 99.4%, n=21). The quality of studies imposed limitations on analyses and the interpretation of results (mean score 3 on a scale of 0-7). CONCLUSIONS: Strengthening of MHM programmes in India is needed. Education on awareness, access to hygienic absorbents and disposal of MHM items need to be addressed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42015019197.

Absenteísmo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene/normas , Menarca , Menstruação , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , População Urbana