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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935164

RESUMO

Disorders of calcium homeostasis are the most frequent metabolic bone and mineral disease encountered by endocrinologists. These disorders usually manifest as primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) or hypoparathyroidism (HP), which have a monogenic aetiology in 5%-10% of cases, and may occur as an isolated endocrinopathy, or as part of a complex syndrome. The recognition and diagnosis of these disorders is important to facilitate the most appropriate management of the patient, with regard to both the calcium-related phenotype and any associated clinical features, and also to allow the identification of other family members who may be at risk of disease. Genetic testing forms an important tool in the investigation of PHPT and HP patients and is usually reserved for those deemed to be an increased risk of a monogenic disorder. However, identifying those suitable for testing requires a thorough clinical evaluation of the patient, as well as an understanding of the diversity of relevant phenotypes and their genetic basis. This review aims to provide an overview of the genetic basis of monogenic metabolic bone and mineral disorders, primarily focusing on those associated with abnormal calcium homeostasis, and aims to provide a practical guide to the implementation of genetic testing in the clinic.

2.
Nat Genet ; 53(9): 1360-1372, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385710

RESUMO

Most aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) have gain-of-function somatic mutations of ion channels or transporters. However, their frequency in aldosterone-producing cell clusters of normal adrenal gland suggests a requirement for codriver mutations in APAs. Here we identified gain-of-function mutations in both CTNNB1 and GNA11 by whole-exome sequencing of 3/41 APAs. Further sequencing of known CTNNB1-mutant APAs led to a total of 16 of 27 (59%) with a somatic p.Gln209His, p.Gln209Pro or p.Gln209Leu mutation of GNA11 or GNAQ. Solitary GNA11 mutations were found in hyperplastic zona glomerulosa adjacent to double-mutant APAs. Nine of ten patients in our UK/Irish cohort presented in puberty, pregnancy or menopause. Among multiple transcripts upregulated more than tenfold in double-mutant APAs was LHCGR, the receptor for luteinizing or pregnancy hormone (human chorionic gonadotropin). Transfections of adrenocortical cells demonstrated additive effects of GNA11 and CTNNB1 mutations on aldosterone secretion and expression of genes upregulated in double-mutant APAs. In adrenal cortex, GNA11/Q mutations appear clinically silent without a codriver mutation of CTNNB1.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/genética , Adenoma Adrenocortical/genética , Aldosterona/biossíntese , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , beta Catenina/genética , Adolescente , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Adenoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/patologia , Masculino , Menopausa/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Puberdade/metabolismo
3.
J Mol Endocrinol ; 67(3): 83-94, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223822

RESUMO

Corticotrophinomas represent 10% of all surgically removed pituitary adenomas, however, current treatment options are often not effective, and there is a need for improved pharmacological treatments. Recently, JQ1+, a bromodomain inhibitor that promotes gene transcription by binding acetylated histone residues and recruiting transcriptional machinery, has been shown to reduce proliferation in a murine corticotroph cell line, AtT20. RNA-Seq analysis of AtT20 cells following treatment with JQ1+ identified the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene as significantly downregulated, which was subsequently confirmed using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. CaSR is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays a central role in calcium homeostasis but can elicit non-calcitropic effects in multiple tissues, including the anterior pituitary where it helps regulate hormone secretion. However, in AtT20 cells, CaSR activates a tumour-specific cAMP pathway that promotes ACTH and PTHrP hypersecretion. We hypothesised that the Casr promoter may harbour binding sites for BET proteins, and using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing demonstrated that the BET protein Brd3 binds to the promoter of the Casr gene. Assessment of CaSR signalling showed that JQ1+ significantly reduced Ca2+e-mediated increases in intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) mobilisation and cAMP signalling. However, the CaSR-negative allosteric modulator, NPS-2143, was unable to reduce AtT20 cell proliferation, indicating that reducing CaSR expression rather than activity is likely required to reduce pituitary cell proliferation. Thus, these studies demonstrate that reducing CaSR expression may be a viable option in the treatment of pituitary tumours. Moreover, current strategies to reduce CaSR activity, rather than protein expression for cancer treatments, may be ineffective.

5.
Nature ; 595(7867): 455-459, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194040

RESUMO

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a cell-surface sensor for Ca2+, is the master regulator of calcium homeostasis in humans and is the target of calcimimetic drugs for the treatment of parathyroid disorders1. CaSR is a family C G-protein-coupled receptor2 that functions as an obligate homodimer, with each protomer composed of a Ca2+-binding extracellular domain and a seven-transmembrane-helix domain (7TM) that activates heterotrimeric G proteins. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of near-full-length human CaSR in inactive or active states bound to Ca2+ and various calcilytic or calcimimetic drug molecules. We show that, upon activation, the CaSR homodimer adopts an asymmetric 7TM configuration that primes one protomer for G-protein coupling. This asymmetry is stabilized by 7TM-targeting calcimimetic drugs adopting distinctly different poses in the two protomers, whereas the binding of a calcilytic drug locks CaSR 7TMs in an inactive symmetric configuration. These results provide a detailed structural framework for CaSR activation and the rational design of therapeutics targeting this receptor.

6.
Surgery ; 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes in children and adolescents with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are not well characterized. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 80 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 who commenced tumor surveillance at ≤18 years of age. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients (70%) developed an endocrine tumor by age ≤18 years (median age = 14 years, range = 6-18 years). Primary hyperparathyroidism occurred in >80% of patients, with >70% undergoing parathyroidectomy, in which less-than-subtotal (<3-gland) resection resulted in decreased disease-free outcomes versus subtotal (3-3.5-gland) or total (4-gland) parathyroidectomy (median 27 months versus not reached; P = .005). Pancreaticoduodenal neuroendocrine tumors developed in ∼35% of patients, of whom >70% had nonfunctioning tumors, >35% had insulinomas, and <5% had gastrinomas, with ∼15% having metastases and >55% undergoing surgery. Pituitary tumors developed in >30% of patients, and ∼35% were macroprolactinomas. Tumor occurrence in male patients and female patients was not significantly different. Genetic analyses revealed 38 germline MEN1 mutations, of which 3 were novel. CONCLUSION: Seventy percent of children aged ≤18 years with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 develop endocrine tumors, which include parathyroid tumors for which less-than-subtotal parathyroidectomy should be avoided; pancreaticoduodenal neuroendocrine tumors that may metastasize; and pituitary macroprolactinomas.

7.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 17(6): 336-349, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948016

RESUMO

The major mineralized tissues are bone and teeth, which share several mechanisms governing their development and mineralization. This crossover includes the hormones that regulate circulating calcium and phosphate concentrations, and the genes that regulate the differentiation and transdifferentiation of cells. In developing endochondral bone and in developing teeth, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) acts in chondrocytes to delay terminal differentiation, thereby increasing the pool of precursor cells. Chondrocytes and (in specific circumstances) pre-odontoblasts can also transdifferentiate into osteoblasts. Moreover, bone and teeth share outcomes when affected by systemic disorders of mineral homeostasis or of the extracellular matrix, and by adverse effects of treatments such as bisphosphonates and fluoride. Unlike bone, teeth have more permanent effects from systemic disorders because they are not remodelled after they are formed. This Review discusses the normal processes of bone and tooth development, followed by disorders that have effects on both bone and teeth, versus disorders that have effects in one without affecting the other. The takeaway message is that bone specialists should know when to screen for dental disorders, just as dental specialists should recognize when a tooth disorder should raise suspicions about a possible underlying bone disorder.


Assuntos
Biomineralização/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/fisiologia , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/metabolismo , Odontogênese/fisiologia , Doenças Dentárias/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/patologia , Humanos , Doenças Dentárias/patologia
8.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 17(5): 261-275, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727709

RESUMO

Biomineralization is the process by which organisms produce mineralized tissues. This crucial process makes possible the rigidity and flexibility that the skeleton needs for ambulation and protection of vital organs, and the hardness that teeth require to tear and grind food. The skeleton also serves as a source of mineral in times of short supply, and the intestines absorb and the kidneys reclaim or excrete minerals as needed. This Review focuses on physiological and pathological aspects of the hormonal regulation of biomineralization. We discuss the roles of calcium and inorganic phosphate, dietary intake of minerals and the delicate balance between activators and inhibitors of mineralization. We also highlight the importance of tight regulation of serum concentrations of calcium and phosphate, and the major regulators of biomineralization: parathyroid hormone (PTH), the vitamin D system, vitamin K, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and phosphatase enzymes. Finally, we summarize how developmental stresses in the fetus and neonate, and in the mother during pregnancy and lactation, invoke alternative hormonal regulatory pathways to control mineral delivery, skeletal metabolism and biomineralization.


Assuntos
Biomineralização/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Humanos
9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(10): 880-892, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729479

RESUMO

Adaptor protein 2 (AP2), a heterotetrameric complex comprising AP2α, AP2ß2, AP2µ2 and AP2σ2 subunits, is ubiquitously expressed and involved in endocytosis and trafficking of membrane proteins, such as the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein coupled receptor that signals via Gα11. Mutations of CaSR, Gα11 and AP2σ2, encoded by AP2S1, cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia types 1-3 (FHH1-3), respectively. FHH3 patients have heterozygous AP2S1 missense Arg15 mutations (p.Arg15Cys, p.Arg15His or p.Arg15Leu) with hypercalcaemia, which may be marked and symptomatic, and occasional hypophosphataemia and osteomalacia. To further characterize the phenotypic spectrum and calcitropic pathophysiology of FHH3, we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to generate mice harboring the AP2S1 p.Arg15Leu mutation, which causes the most severe FHH3 phenotype. Heterozygous (Ap2s1+/L15) mice were viable, and had marked hypercalcaemia, hypermagnesaemia, hypophosphataemia, and increases in alkaline phosphatase activity and fibroblast growth factor-23. Plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was normal, and no alterations in bone mineral density or bone turnover were noted. Homozygous (Ap2s1L15/L15) mice invariably died perinatally. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that the AP2S1 p.Arg15Leu mutation impaired protein-protein interactions between AP2σ2 and the other AP2 subunits, and also with the CaSR. Cinacalcet, a CaSR positive allosteric modulator, decreased plasma calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations in Ap2s1+/L15 mice, but had no effect on the diminished AP2σ2-CaSR interaction in vitro. Thus, our studies have established a mouse model that is representative for FHH3 in humans, and demonstrated that the AP2S1 p.Arg15Leu mutation causes a predominantly calcitropic phenotype, which can be ameliorated by treatment with cinacalcet.

10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(5): R165-R175, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599211

RESUMO

Background: Permanent postsurgical hypoparathyroidism (POSH) is a major complication of anterior neck surgery in general and of thyroid surgery in particular. Depending on diagnostic criteria, up to 10% of patients undergoing bilateral thyroid surgery develop POSH. This leads to a multitude of symptoms that decrease the quality of life and burden the healthcare provision through complex needs for medication and treatment of specific complications, such as seizures and laryngospasm. Methods: Narrative review of current medical treatments for POSH and of the experience accumulated with parathyroid allotransplantation. Results: In most patients, POSH is controlled with regular use of calcium supplements and active vitamin D analogues but a significant proportion of patients continue to experience severe symptoms requiring repeated emergency admissions. Replacement therapy with synthetic PTH compounds (PTH1-34, Natpara® and PTH1-84, teriparatide, Forsteo®) has been assessed in multicentre trials, but the use of this medication is restricted by costs and concerns related to the risk of development of osteosarcoma. Based on recent case reports of successful allotransplantation of parathyroid tissue between siblings, there is renewed interest in this technique. Data on selection of donors, parathyroid cell preparation before allotransplantation, site and timing of transplantation, need for immunosuppression and long-term outcomes are reviewed. Conclusion: A prospective trial to assess the efficacy of parathyroid allotransplantation in patients with severely symptomatic protracted post-surgical hypoparathyroidism is warranted.


Assuntos
Hipoparatireoidismo/etiologia , Hipoparatireoidismo/terapia , Esvaziamento Cervical/efeitos adversos , Glândulas Paratireoides/transplante , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Transplante Homólogo
11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(2): 1319-1322, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200471

RESUMO

Dent disease type 1 is caused by mutations in the CLCN5 gene that encodes CLC5, a 2Cl- /H+ exchanger. The CLC5 mutants that have been functionally analysed constitute three major classes based on protein expression, cellular localization and channel function. We tested two small molecules, 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) and its analogue 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOAA), for their effect on mutant CLC5 function and expression by whole-cell patch-clamp and Western blot, respectively. The expression and function of non-Class I CLC5 mutants that have reduced function could be restored by either treatment. Cell viability was reduced in cells treated with 2-NOAA. 4PBA is a FDA-approved drug for the treatment of urea cycle disorders and offers a potential therapy for Dent disease.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL5/genética , Doença de Dent/genética , Mutação/genética , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL5/metabolismo , Glicolatos/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fenilbutiratos/farmacologia
12.
Endocr Rev ; 42(2): 133-170, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249439

RESUMO

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a rare tumor syndrome that is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, is continuing to raise great interest for endocrinology, gastroenterology, surgery, radiology, genetics, and molecular biology specialists. There have been 2 major clinical practice guidance papers published in the past 2 decades, with the most recent published 8 years ago. Since then, several new insights on the basic biology and clinical features of MEN1 have appeared in the literature, and those data are discussed in this review. The genetic and molecular interactions of the MEN1-encoded protein menin with transcription factors and chromatin-modifying proteins in cell signaling pathways mediated by transforming growth factor ß/bone morphogenetic protein, a few nuclear receptors, Wnt/ß-catenin, and Hedgehog, and preclinical studies in mouse models have facilitated the understanding of the pathogenesis of MEN1-associated tumors and potential pharmacological interventions. The advancements in genetic diagnosis have offered a chance to recognize MEN1-related conditions in germline MEN1 mutation-negative patients. There is rapidly accumulating knowledge about clinical presentation in children, adolescents, and pregnancy that is translatable into the management of these very fragile patients. The discoveries about the genetic and molecular signatures of sporadic neuroendocrine tumors support the development of clinical trials with novel targeted therapies, along with advancements in diagnostic tools and surgical approaches. Finally, quality of life studies in patients affected by MEN1 and related conditions represent an effort necessary to develop a pharmacoeconomic interpretation of the problem. Because advances are being made both broadly and in focused areas, this timely review presents and discusses those studies collectively.

13.
J Bone Miner Res ; 36(1): 100-109, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780883

RESUMO

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pancreatic and pituitary tumors, and is due to mutations in the coding region of the MEN1 gene, which encodes menin. We investigated a family with identical twins that had MEN1, with different MEN1 tumors. DNA sequence analysis of the MEN1 coding region had not identified any abnormalities and we hypothesized that deletions and mutations involving the untranslated regions may be involved. Informed consent and venous blood samples were obtained from five family members. Sanger DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyses were performed using leukocyte DNA. This revealed a heterozygous 596bp deletion (Δ596bp) between nucleotides -1087 and -492 upstream of the translation start site, located within the MEN1 5' untranslated region (UTR), and includes the core promoter and multiple cis-regulatory regions. To investigate the effects of this 5'UTR deletion on MEN1 promoter activity, we generated luciferase reporter constructs, containing either wild-type 842bp or mutant 246bp MEN1 promoter, and transfected them into human embryonic kidney HEK293 and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor BON-1 cells. This revealed the Δ596bp mutation to result in significant reductions by 37-fold (p < 0.0001) and 16-fold (p < 0.0001) in luciferase expression in HEK293 and BON-1 cells, respectively, compared to wild-type. The effects of this 5'UTR deletion on MEN1 transcription and translation were assessed using qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively, of mRNA and protein lysates obtained from Epstein-Barr-virus transformed lymphoblastoid cells derived from affected and unaffected individuals. This demonstrated the Δ596bp mutation to result in significant reductions of 84% (p < 0.05) and 88% (p < 0.05) in MEN1 mRNA and menin protein, respectively, compared to unaffected individuals. Thus, our results report the first germline MEN1 5'UTR mutation and highlight the importance of investigating UTRs in MEN1 patients who do not have coding region mutations. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1 , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Neuroendocrinology ; 111(7): 609-630, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971521

RESUMO

The better understanding of the biological behavior of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) organ manifestations and the increase in clinical experience warrant a revision of previously published guidelines. Duodenopancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasias (DP-NENs) are still the second most common manifestation in MEN1 and, besides NENs of the thymus, remain a leading cause of death. DP-NENs are thus of main interest in the effort to reevaluate recommendations for their diagnosis and treatment. Especially over the last 2 years, more clinical experience has documented the follow-up of treated and untreated (natural-course) DP-NENs. It was the aim of the international consortium of experts in endocrinology, genetics, radiology, surgery, gastroenterology, and oncology to systematically review the literature and to present a consensus statement based on the highest levels of evidence. Reviewing the literature published over the past decade, the focus was on the diagnosis of F- and NF-DP-NENs within the MEN1 syndrome in an effort to further standardize and improve treatment and follow-up, as well as to establish a "logbook" for the diagnosis and treatment of DP-NENs. This shall help further reduce complications and improve long-term treatment results in these rare tumors. The following international consensus statement builds upon the previously published guidelines of 2001 and 2012 and attempts to supplement the recommendations issued by various national and international societies.

15.
J Endocr Soc ; 4(11): bvaa142, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150274

RESUMO

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the combined occurrence of parathyroid tumors, pituitary adenomas, and pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs). MEN1 is caused by germline MEN1 mutations in > 75% of patients, and the remaining 25% of patients may have mutations in unidentified genes or represent phenocopies with mutations in genes such as cell cycle division 73 (CDC73), the calcium sensing receptor (CASR), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B), which are associated with the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 1, and MEN4, respectively. Here, we report a heterozygous c.1138C>T (p.Leu380Phe) CDC73 germline variant in a clinically diagnosed MEN1 patient, based on combined occurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism, acromegaly, and a PNEN. Characterization of the PNEN confirmed it was a neuroendocrine neoplasm as it immuno-stained positively for chromogranin and glucagon. The rare variant p.Leu380Phe occurred in a highly conserved residue, and further analysis using RNA-Scope indicated that it was associated with a significant reduction in CDC73 expression in the PNEN. Previously, CDC73 mutations have been reported to be associated with tumors of the parathyroids, kidneys, uterus, and exocrine pancreas. Thus, our report of a patient with PNEN and somatotrophinoma who had a CDC73 variant, provides further evidence that CDC73 variants may result in a MEN1 phenocopy.

16.
JBMR Plus ; 4(10): e10402, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103030

RESUMO

Calcilytics are calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonists that reduce the sensitivity of the CaSR to extracellular calcium. Calcilytics have the potential to treat autosomal dominant hypocalcemia type 1 (ADH1), which is caused by germline gain-of-function CaSR mutations and leads to symptomatic hypocalcemia, inappropriately low PTH concentrations, and hypercalciuria. To date, only one calcilytic compound, NPSP795, has been evaluated in patients with ADH1: Doses of up to 30 mg per patient have been shown to increase PTH concentrations, but did not significantly alter ionized blood calcium concentrations. The aim of this study was to further investigate NPSP795 for the treatment of ADH1 by undertaking in vitro and in vivo studies involving Nuf mice, which have hypocalcemia in association with a gain-of-function CaSR mutation, Leu723Gln. Treatment of HEK293 cells stably expressing the mutant Nuf (Gln723) CaSR with 20nM NPSP795 decreased extracellular Ca2+-mediated intracellular calcium and phosphorylated ERK responses. An in vivo dose-ranging study was undertaken by administering a s.c. bolus of NPSP795 at doses ranging from 0 to 30 mg/kg to heterozygous (Casr +/Nuf ) and to homozygous (Casr Nuf/Nuf ) mice, and measuring plasma PTH responses at 30 min postdose. NPSP795 significantly increased plasma PTH concentrations in a dose-dependent manner with the 30 mg/kg dose causing a maximal (≥10-fold) rise in PTH. To determine whether NPSP795 can rectify the hypocalcemia of Casr +/Nuf and Casr Nuf/Nuf mice, a submaximal dose (25 mg/kg) was administered, and plasma adjusted-calcium concentrations measured over a 6-hour period. NPSP795 significantly increased plasma adjusted-calcium in Casr +/Nuf mice from 1.87 ± 0.03 mmol/L to 2.16 ± 0.06 mmol/L, and in Casr Nuf/Nuf mice from 1.70 ± 0.03 mmol/L to 1.89 ± 0.05 mmol/L. Our findings show that NPSP795 elicits dose-dependent increases in PTH and ameliorates the hypocalcemia in an ADH1 mouse model. Thus, calcilytics such as NPSP795 represent a potential targeted therapy for ADH1. © 2020 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5210, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060578

RESUMO

Human insulinomas are rare, benign, slowly proliferating, insulin-producing beta cell tumors that provide a molecular "recipe" or "roadmap" for pathways that control human beta cell regeneration. An earlier study revealed abnormal methylation in the imprinted p15.5-p15.4 region of chromosome 11, known to be abnormally methylated in another disorder of expanded beta cell mass and function: the focal variant of congenital hyperinsulinism. Here, we compare deep DNA methylome sequencing on 19 human insulinomas, and five sets of normal beta cells. We find a remarkably consistent, abnormal methylation pattern in insulinomas. The findings suggest that abnormal insulin (INS) promoter methylation and altered transcription factor expression create alternative drivers of INS expression, replacing canonical PDX1-driven beta cell specification with a pathological, looping, distal enhancer-based form of transcriptional regulation. Finally, NFaT transcription factors, rather than the canonical PDX1 enhancer complex, are predicted to drive INS transactivation.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Insulina/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Insulinoma/genética , Insulinoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Sítios de Ligação , Biologia Computacional , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 33(9): 1231-1235, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866121

RESUMO

Objectives Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disease in children that occurs as a result of autoimmune destruction of the parathyroid glands, a defect in parathyroid gland development or secondary to physical parathyroid gland disturbance. Typical symptoms of hypoparathyroidism present as hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphatemia due to decreased parathyroid hormone secretion and may lead to nerve and muscles disturbances resulting in clinical manifestation of tetany, arrhythmias and epilepsy. Currently, there is no conventional hormone replacement treatment for hypoparathyroidism and therapeutic approaches include normalising mineral levels using an oral calcium supplement and active forms of vitamin D. Case presentation We present the case of a 10-year-old girl with primary hypoparathyroidism who had no prior history of autoimmune disorders, but who subsequently developed systemic lupus erythematosus.


Assuntos
Hipoparatireoidismo/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etiologia , Prognóstico , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(11): 2521-2528, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776440

RESUMO

Hereditary hyperuricemia may occur as part of a syndromic disorder or as an isolated nonsyndromic disease, and over 20 causative genes have been identified. Here, we report the use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to establish a diagnosis in a family in which individuals were affected with gout, hyperuricemia associated with reduced fractional excretion of uric acid, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and secondary hyperparathyroidism, that are consistent with familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN). However, single gene testing had not detected mutations in the uromodulin (UMOD) or renin (REN) genes, which cause approximately 30-90% of FJHN. WGS was therefore undertaken, and this identified a heterozygous c.226G>C (p.Gly76Arg) missense variant in the paired box gene 2 (PAX2) gene, which co-segregated with renal tubulopathy in the family. PAX2 mutations are associated with renal coloboma syndrome (RCS), which is characterized by abnormalities in renal structure and function, and anomalies of the optic nerve. Ophthalmological examination in two adult brothers affected with hyperuricemia, gout, and CKD revealed the presence of optic disc pits, consistent with optic nerve coloboma, thereby revising the diagnosis from FJHN to RCS. Thus, our results demonstrate the utility of WGS analysis in establishing the correct diagnosis in disorders with multiple etiologies.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia/genética , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição PAX2/genética , Adulto , Creatinina/sangue , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Renina/genética , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Uromodulina/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(2): G79-G88, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554825

RESUMO

In viral pandemics, most specifically Covid-19, many patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), including phaeochromocytomas, paragangliomas and medullary thyroid carcinoma, may develop Covid-19 in a mild or severe form, or be concerned about the influence of viral infection relative to their anti-tumoral therapy. In general, newly presenting patients should be assessed, and patients recently receiving chemotherapy, targeted therapy or radionuclide therapy, or showing tumour growth, should be closely followed. For previously diagnosed patients, who have indolent disease, some delay in routine follow-up or treatment may not be problematic. However, patients developing acute secretory syndromes due to functional neuroendocrine neoplasms (such as of the pancreas, intestine or lung), phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, will require prompt treatment. Patients with life-threatening Covid-19-related symptoms should be urgently treated and long-term anti-tumoral treatments may be temporarily delayed. In patients with especially aggressive NENs, a careful judgement should be made regarding the severity of any Covid-19 illness, tumour grade, and the immunosuppressant effects of any planned chemotherapy, immunotherapy (e.g. interferon-alpha), targeted therapy or related treatment. In other cases, especially patients with completely resected NENs, or who are under surveillance for a genetic disorder, a telephone or delayed consultation may be in order, balancing the risk of a delay against that of the possible development of Covid-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Telemedicina/tendências , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Endocrinologia/métodos , Endocrinologia/tendências , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores/métodos , Gradação de Tumores/tendências , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicina/métodos
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