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1.
N Engl J Med ; 385(5): 395-405, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer, the most effective duration for adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor remains unclear. METHODS: In this prospective, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer who had received 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy to receive the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole for an additional 2 years (2-year group, receiving a total of 7 years) or an additional 5 years (5-year group, receiving a total of 10 years). The primary end point was disease-free survival. The primary analysis included all the patients who were still participating in the trial and who had no recurrence 2 years after randomization (i.e., when treatment in the 2-year group had ended). Secondary end points were overall survival, contralateral breast cancer, second primary cancer, and clinical bone fracture. RESULTS: Among the 3484 women who were enrolled in the trial, 3208 remained in the trial without disease progression after the first 2 years of extended anastrozole treatment following randomization. Among these women, disease progression or death occurred in 335 women in each treatment group in the primary-analysis set at 8 years (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.15; P = 0.90). No between-group differences occurred in most secondary end points, and subgroup analyses did not indicate differences in any particular subgroup. The risk of clinical bone fracture was higher in the 5-year group than in the 2-year group (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.84). CONCLUSIONS: In postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer who had received 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy, extending hormone therapy by 5 years provided no benefit over a 2-year extension but was associated with a greater risk of bone fracture. (Funded by AstraZeneca and the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group; ABCSG-16/SALSA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00295620.).


Assuntos
Anastrozol/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anastrozol/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Estrogênio , Receptores de Progesterona , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico
2.
Eur J Haematol ; 107(2): 265-274, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998054

RESUMO

In older patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) and limited life expectancy due to age and or comorbidities, it is particularly important to consider the risk of transformation for individualised treatment decisions. There is limited information on potential differences between younger and older CMML patients regarding the cumulative risk of transformation as well as haematological, molecular and biologic characteristics. We analysed data from the Austrian Biodatabase for CMML (ABCMML) to compare these parameters in 518 CMML patients. Categorisation of patients into 3 age-related groups: <60 years, 60-79 years and ≥80 years, showed a significantly lower risk of transformation at higher age by competing risk analysis, with a 4-year risk of 39%, 23% and 13%, respectively (P < .0001). The lower probability of transformation was associated with a lower percentage of blast cells in the peripheral blood (PB) of older patients. Furthermore, we provide a simple score based on age, PB blasts and platelet counts that allowed us to define subgroups of CMML patients with a different cumulative transformation risk, including a low-risk group with a transformation risk of only 5%. Our findings may facilitate reasonable treatment decisions in elderly patients with CMML.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925931

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of oncological treatments in metastatic CRC related to comorbidities and age. This retrospective study included 1105 patients from three oncological centers. aaCCI and CCI was available from 577 patients. An aaCCI > 3 was of the highest predictive value compared to other aaCCI-levels, CCI or age (p < 0.001 for all). Treatment (best supportive care (BSC), systemic treatment only (STO) and resection of metastases (ROM)) significantly prolonged survival in patients with aaCCI > 3 (STO: HR 0.39, CI 0.29-0.51; ROM: HR 0.16, CI 0.10-0.24) and patients older than 70 years (STO: HR 0.56, CI 0.47-0.66; ROM: HR 0.23, 0.18-0.30). Median overall survival was shorter in patients with aaCCI or age > 70 years and interaction for treatment type not significant for aaCCI, but significant for age older or younger than 70 years (STO: p = 0.01; ROM p = 0.02). BSC is more often considered as optimal care for patients with an aaCCI > 3 (37.6% vs. 12.4%; p < 0.001) or age > 70 years (35.7% vs. 11.2%; p < 0.001). Older patients or patients with comorbidities benefit from cancer-specific therapy independently of their age and comorbidities.

4.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 1149, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remains a lethal disease. Survival, however, is increasing due to a growing number of treatment options. Yet due to the number of prognostic factors and their interactions, prediction of mortality is difficult. The aim of this study is to provide a clinical model supporting prognostication of mCRC mortality in daily practice. METHODS: Data from 1104 patients with mCRC in three prospective cancer datasets were used to construct and validate Cox models. Input factors for stepwise backward method variable selection were sex, RAS/BRAF-status, microsatellite status, treatment type (no treatment, systemic treatment with or without resection of metastasis), tumor load, location of primary tumor, metastatic patterns and synchronous or metachronous disease. The final prognostic model for prediction of survival at two and 3 years was validated via bootstrapping to obtain calibration and discrimination C-indices and dynamic time dependent AUC. RESULTS: Age, sidedness, number of organs with metastases, lung as only site of metastasis, BRAF mutation status and treatment type were selected for the model. Treatment type had the most prominent influence on survival (resection of metastasis HR 0.26, CI 0.21-0.32; any treatment vs no treatment HR 0.31, CI 0.21-0.32), followed by BRAF mutational status (HR 2.58, CI 1.19-1.59). Validation showed high accuracy with C-indices of 72.2 and 71.4%, and dynamic time dependent AUC's of 76.7 ± 1.53% (both at 2 or 3 years), respectively. CONCLUSION: The mCRC mortality prediction model is well calibrated and internally valid. It has the potential to support both, clinical prognostication for treatment decisions and patient communication.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Nomogramas , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007814

RESUMO

Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) guidelines recommend regorafenib or trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) for the third-line therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In this analysis, we evaluated hospitalizations during regorafenib or TAS-102 treatment and the impact of hospitalizations on overall survival (OS). This retrospective analysis was based on unselected, consecutive mCRC patients treated with regorafenib and/or TAS-102 at the tertiary cancer centers in Salzburg and Wels-Grieskirchen, Austria. Between January 2013 and May 2019, 93 patients started third- or fourth-line therapy with regorafenib or TAS-102. Tumor therapy (regorafenib versus TAS-102, HR: 1.95 [95% CI: 1.07-3.54], p = 0.03) and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (2-3 versus 0-1, HR: 4.04 [95% CI: 2.11-7.71], p < 0.001) showed a statistically significant association with hospitalization risk in multivariate analysis. The corresponding hospitalization probability from initiation of third- or fourth-line was 30% with regorafenib versus 18% with TAS-102 at five weeks and 41% versus 28% at ten weeks, respectively. Hospitalizations irrespective of cause during regorafenib or TAS-102 therapy did neither impact median survival in patients undergoing only third-line therapy (never-hospitalized: 5.7 months [95% CI: 3.9-10.5] versus hospitalized: 5.4 months [95% CI: 2.8-9.6], p = 0.45), nor in patients receiving third- and fourth-line therapy (12.2 months [95% CI: 10.6-28.8] versus 18.6 months [95% CI: 6.3-not reached], p = 0.90). In conclusion, apart from poor ECOG performance status, regorafenib therapy was associated with an increased hospitalization probability during palliative systemic third- and fourth-line therapy in mCRC. However, hospitalizations during regorafenib or TAS-102 therapy did not impact OS beyond second-line therapy.

6.
Hematol Oncol ; 38(5): 792-798, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757230

RESUMO

The goal of current management of patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is to reach treatment-free remission with sustained deep molecular remission (DMR) being the prerequisite therefor. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors can induce deeper and faster remission than imatinib, but are often associated with severe adverse events (AEs). The combination of pegylated interferon (IFN) with imatinib was shown to induce higher molecular remissions than imatinib alone in two studies. Treatment discontinuation rates due to IFN induced AEs were high in both studies. To investigate safety, tolerability (primary objective), and efficacy (secondary objective) of the combination of imatinib with ropeginterferon alpha-2b this phase I study was initiated. Twelve patients were planned to be enrolled. Nine patients completed the study according to protocol. Three patients terminated the study early, one due to occurrence of a dose-limiting toxicity (neutropenia grade 3), one due to an AE (panic attacks grade 2) and one due to the patient's decision. Tolerability was good, non-hematologic AEs were mainly grade 1/2, hematologic AEs were mainly neutropenias. No new AEs were reported for the combination of imatinib and ropeginterferon alpha-2b. In a nondose-dependent manner the addition of ropeginterferon alpha-2b led to the achievement of a DMR in four out of nine patients after a treatment duration of 18 months. The combination of imatinib and ropeginterferon alpha-2b is safe and showed in this phase I study the ability to deepen the molecular response in patients with chronic phase CML not achieving a DMR with imatinib alone.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Interferon alfa-2/administração & dosagem , Interferon-alfa/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Retratamento , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 19: 1534735420938458, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735463

RESUMO

Purpose: Cancer and its treatment strategies can have adverse effects on physical functioning and quality of life. Treatment strategies for better quality of life are still an unresolved issue. Physical activity is a promising treatment strategy that still has to be fully investigated. Methods: The ABCSG C07-EXERCISE study evaluated the feasibility of a 1-year exercise training after adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients. The present report presents the patient-reported outcomes during the exercise training. Fourteen patients of one center filled out the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ C30) questionnaire at 5 time points after initiating a 1-year exercise training. Results: At baseline, patients scored social functioning, emotional functioning, financial impact, insomnia, and diarrhea much worse than the German general population. After 1 year of a structured exercise training, a large improvement was reported for social functioning; moderate improvements were reported for pain, diarrhea, financial impact, and taste; and a small change for physical and emotional functioning as well as for global quality of life. Conclusions: The present study observed improvements of social, physical, and emotional functioning as well as global quality of life after 1 year of a structured exercise training in patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer after receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. To enhance compliance, sufficient support and different sport facilities should be offered. The positive effect of exercise on patient-reported outcomes, disease-free survival, and overall survival in cancer survivors have to be further investigated in further randomized clinical trials.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674283

RESUMO

Patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) sometimes show a chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML)-like phenotype but, according to the 2016 WHO classification, a documented history of an MPN excludes the diagnosis of CMML. Forty-one patients with an MPN (35 polycythemia vera (PV), 5 primary myelofibrosis, 1 essential thrombocythemia) and a CMML-like phenotype (MPN/CMML) were comprehensively characterized regarding clinical, hematologic, biologic and molecular features. The white blood cell counts in MPN/CMML patients were not different from CMML patients and PV patients. The hemoglobin values and platelet counts of these patients were higher than in CMML but lower than in PV, respectively. MPN/CMML patients showed myelomonocytic skewing, a typical in vitro feature of CMML but not of PV. The mutational landscape of MPN/CMML was not different from JAK2-mutated CMML. In two MPN/CMML patients, development of a CMML-like phenotype was associated with a decrease in the JAK2 V617F allelic burden. Finally, the prognosis of MPN/CMML (median overall survival (OS) 27 months) was more similar to CMML (JAK2-mutated, 28 months; JAK2-nonmutated 29 months) than to PV (186 months). In conclusion, we show that patients with MPN and a CMML-like phenotype share more characteristics with CMML than with PV, which may be relevant for their classification and clinical management.

9.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(15-16): 423-430, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A frequent side effect of the multikinase inhibitor regorafenib is fatigue. Physical activity has shown potential in reducing cancer-related fatigue. METHODS: This non-interventional pilot study assessed physical activity levels of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with regorafenib based on median daily step counts measured at 1­week intervals using a pedometer. The study further evaluated relations between physical activity levels and fatigue, quality of life (QoL) and progression-free survival. RESULTS: Pedometer data were available for 22 out of 25 enrolled patients. The numbers of days with available pedometer data ranged from 6 to 100 days. The overall median daily step count was 2357 (range 10-14,931), with substantial interindividual and intraindividual variations. Interindividual median weekly step counts were in the range of 5000-7000 in some, 2000-3000 in others, and several hundreds or less in a few patients. Intraindividual daily step counts also varied by several thousands of steps. Step counts in weeks in which patients reported fatigue were well within the range of or even higher than step counts in adjacent weeks, indicating a lack of correlation. The risk of disease progression was also independent of median weekly step counts; however, significant correlations were seen between QoL and step counts. CONCLUSION: Despite the severity of their disease patients showed remarkable levels of walking activity. In view of the highly individual activity levels, exercise prescriptions for seriously ill patient populations should be personalized to the specific needs and preferences of each individual patient.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Compostos de Fenilureia , Projetos Piloto , Piridinas , Caminhada
10.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 252, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444775

RESUMO

Tumors have evolved mechanisms to escape anti-tumor immunosurveillance. They limit humoral and cellular immune activities in the stroma and render tumors resistant to immunotherapy. Sensitizing tumor cells to immune attack is an important strategy to revert immunosuppression. However, the underlying mechanisms of immune escape are still poorly understood. Here we discover Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1)+ Paneth cells in the stem cell niche of intestinal crypts and tumors, which promoted immune escape of colorectal cancer (CRC). Ido1 expression in Paneth cells was strictly Stat1 dependent. Loss of IDO1+ Paneth cells in murine intestinal adenomas with tumor cell-specific Stat1 deletion had profound effects on the intratumoral immune cell composition. Patient samples and TCGA expression data suggested corresponding cells in human colorectal tumors. Thus, our data uncovered an immune escape mechanism of CRC and identify IDO1+ Paneth cells as a target for immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Celulas de Paneth/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/fisiologia , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/genética , Neoplasias Intestinais/imunologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
11.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235305

RESUMO

Trastuzumab in combination with a platinum and fluorouracil is the treatment of choice for patients with advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive gastric cancer and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Pathological assessment of the HER2 status in gastric/GEJ cancer, however, still remains difficult. However, it is a crucial prerequisite for optimal treatment. The GASTRIC-5 registry was designed as an observational, multi-center research initiative comparing local and central HER2 testing. HER2 status was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in equivocal cases (IHC score 2+) by additional in-situ hybridization. Between May 2011 and August 2018, tumor samples of 183 patients were tested in local and central pathology laboratories, respectively. Central testing revealed HER2 positivity in 38 samples (21%). Discordant HER2 results were found in 12% (22 out of 183) with locally HER2 positive/centrally HER2 negative results (9%, 17 out of 183), exceeding locally HER2 negative/centrally HER2 positive results (3%, 5 out of 183). Centrally confirmed HER2 positive patients receiving trastuzumab-based palliative first-line therapy showed a longer median overall survival compared to centrally HER2 positive patients not receiving trastuzumab (17.7 months (95% CI: 10,870-24,530) vs. 6.9 months (95% CI: 3.980-9.820), p = 0.016). The findings of the GASTRIC-5 registry corroborate the challenge of HER2 testing in gastric/GEJ cancer and highlight the necessity for central quality control to optimize individual treatment options. Centrally HER2 positive patients not receiving trastuzumab had the worst outcome in a Western real-world gastric/GEJ cancer cohort.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344757

RESUMO

Although the RAS-pathway has been implicated as an important driver in the pathogenesis of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) a comprehensive study including molecular and functional analyses in patients with progression and transformation has not been performed. A close correlation between RASopathy gene mutations and spontaneous in vitro myeloid colony (CFU-GM) growth in CMML has been described. Molecular and/or functional analyses were performed in three cohorts of 337 CMML patients: in patients without (A, n = 236) and with (B, n = 61) progression/transformation during follow-up, and in patients already transformed at the time of sampling (C, n = 40 + 26 who were before in B). The frequencies of RAS-pathway mutations (variant allele frequency ≥ 20%) in cohorts A, B, and C were 30%, 47%, and 71% (p < 0.0001), and of high colony growth (≥20/105 peripheral blood mononuclear cells) 31%, 44%, and 80% (p < 0.0001), respectively. Increases in allele burden of RAS-pathway mutations and in numbers of spontaneously formed CFU-GM before and after transformation could be shown in individual patients. Finally, the presence of mutations in RASopathy genes as well as the presence of high colony growth prior to transformation was significantly associated with an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) development. Together, RAS-pathway mutations in CMML correlate with an augmented autonomous expansion of neoplastic precursor cells and indicate an increased risk of AML development which may be relevant for targeted treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/genética , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/metabolismo , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas ras/genética , Proteínas ras/metabolismo , Análise Citogenética , Progressão da Doença , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/mortalidade , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Drugs R D ; 19(3): 267-275, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data from a trial of first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI (folinic acid, infusional 5-fluorouracil and irinotecan) in metastatic colorectal cancer were retrospectively analysed to investigate the effects of primary tumour location and early tumour shrinkage on outcomes. METHODS: Patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer from a single-arm, open-label phase II study (NCT00508404) were included. Tumours located from the splenic flexure to rectum and in the caecum to transverse colon were defined as left- and right-sided, respectively. Baseline characteristics were summarised by primary tumour location and the effects of primary tumour location on outcomes-including objective response rate, resection rate, depth of response, duration of response and progression-free survival-were analysed. Progression-free survival and objective response rate were analysed by early tumour shrinkage status. RESULTS: Primary tumour location was determined in 52/69 (75%) patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer; 45 (87%) had left-sided disease. Median progression-free survival was longer in patients with left-sided tumours (11.2 vs. 7.2 months for right-sided disease) and more of these patients experienced early tumour shrinkage ≥ 30% (53% vs. 29%). Early tumour shrinkage ≥ 30% was associated with improved progression-free survival irrespective of tumour location. More patients with early tumour shrinkage ≥ 30% achieved a partial or complete response. Objective response rate, duration of response, depth of response and resection rates were similar in patients with left- and right-sided tumours. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis has confirmed a prognostic effect of primary tumour location in patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer receiving first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI. Early tumour shrinkage was associated with improved progression-free survival irrespective of tumour location. In right-sided disease, early tumour shrinkage may identify a subgroup of patients who might respond to panitumumab. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00508404.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Panitumumabe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 131(17-18): 410-418, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321531

RESUMO

In the Austrian biodatabase for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (ABCMML) clinicolaboratory real-life data have been captured from 606 CMML patients from 14 different hospitals over the last 30 years. It is the only large biodatabase worldwide in which functional methods such as semisolid in vitro cultures complement modern molecular methods such as next generation sequencing. This provides the possibility to comprehensively study the biology of CMML. The aim of this study was to compare patient characteristics with published CMML cohorts and to validate established prognostic parameters in order to examine if this real-life database can serve as a representative and useful data source for further research. After exclusion of patients in transformation characteristics of 531 patients were compared with published CMML cohorts. Median values for age, leukocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and circulating blasts were within the ranges of reported CMML series. Established prognostic parameters including leukocytes, hemoglobin, blasts and adverse cytogenetics were able to discriminate patients with different outcome. Myeloproliferative (MP) as compared to myelodysplastic (MD)-CMML patients had higher values for circulating blasts, LDH, RAS-pathway mutations and for spontaneous myelomonocytic colony growth in vitro as well as more often splenomegaly. This study demonstrates that the patient cohort of the ABCMML shares clinicolaboratory characteristics with reported CMML cohorts from other countries and confirms phenotypic and genotypic differences between MP-CMML and MD-CMML. Therefore, results obtained from molecular and biological analyses using material from the national cohort will also be applicable to other CMML series and thus may have a more general significance.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Áustria , Feminino , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cancer Med ; 7(12): 5962-5972, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a well-known correlation between obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and breast cancer incidence and outcome. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentöse Tumortherapie (AGMT) exercise study was a multicenter, randomized clinical trial and assessed the feasibility and efficacy of physical training in 50 breast cancer patients undergoing aromatase inhibitor treatment. METHODS: Postmenopausal, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients under aromatase inhibitor treatment were randomized 1:1 to counseling and unsupervised training for 48 weeks (unsupervised arm) or counseling and a sequential training (supervised arm) with a supervised phase (24 weeks) followed by unsupervised physical training (further 24 weeks). Primary endpoint was the individual maximum power output on a cycle ergometer after 24 weeks of exercise. A key secondary endpoint was the feasibility of achieving 12 METh/week (metabolic equivalent of task hours per week). RESULTS: Twenty-three patients (92%) in the unsupervised arm and 19 patients (76%) in the supervised arm with early-stage breast cancer completed the study. After 24 weeks, the supervised arm achieved a significantly higher maximum output in watt (mean 132 ±  standard deviation [SD] 34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 117-147) compared to baseline (107 ± 25; 95%CI 97-117; P = 0.012) with a numerically higher output than the unsupervised arm (week 24 115 ± 25; 95%CI 105-125; P = 0.059). Significantly higher METh/week was reported in the supervised arm compared to the unsupervised arm during the whole study period (week 1-24 unsupervised: 18.3 (7.6-58.3); supervised: 28.5 (6.7-40.1); P = 0.043; week 25-48; P = 0.041)). CONCLUSION: This trial indicates that patients in an exercise program achieve higher fitness levels during supervised than unsupervised training.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Ann Hematol ; 97(10): 1825-1839, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862437

RESUMO

Despite recent advances, chemoimmunotherapy remains a standard for fit previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients. Lenalidomide had activity in early monotherapy trials, but tumour lysis and flare proved major obstacles in its development. We combined lenalidomide in increasing doses with six cycles of fludarabine and rituximab (FR), followed by lenalidomide/rituximab maintenance. In 45 chemo-naive patients, included in this trial, individual tolerability of the combination was highly divergent and no systematic toxicity determining a maximum tolerated dose was found. Grade 3/4 neutropenia (71%) was high, but only 7% experienced grade 3 infections. No tumour lysis or flare > grade 2 was observed, but skin toxicity proved dose-limiting in nine patients (20%). Overall and complete response rates after induction were 89 and 44% by intention-to-treat, respectively. At a median follow-up of 78.7 months, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 60.3 months. Minimal residual disease and immunoglobulin variable region heavy chain mutation state predicted PFS and TP53 mutation most strongly predicted OS. Baseline clinical factors did not predict tolerance to the immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide, but pretreatment immunophenotypes of T cells showed exhausted memory CD4 cells to predict early dose-limiting non-haematologic events. Overall, combining lenalidomide with FR was feasible and effective, but individual changes in the immune system seemed associated with limiting side effects. clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00738829) and EU Clinical Trials Register ( www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu , 2008-001430-27).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Erupção por Droga/etiologia , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lenalidomida , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Contagem de Linfócitos , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Talidomida/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem , Vidarabina/efeitos adversos , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados
18.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 11, 2018 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), the localization of the primary tumour has been shown to be of prognostic as well as predictive relevance. METHODS: With the aim to investigate clinical and molecular disease characteristics with respect to sidedness in a real-world cohort, we analyzed 161 mCRC patients included in the KRAS Registry of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Medikamentöse Tumortherapie (AGMT) between January 2006 and October 2013. RESULTS: Right-sided mCRC displayed a worse median overall survival (OS) in comparison to left-sided disease (18.1 months [95%-CI: 14.3-40.7] versus 32.3 months [95%-CI: 25.5-38.6]; HR: 1.63 [95%-CI: 1.13-2.84]; p = 0.013). The choice of the biological agent in front-line therapy had a statistically significant impact on median OS in patients with right-sided tumours (anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR): 10.6 months [95%-CI: 5.2-NA]; anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): 26.2 months [95%-CI: 17.9-NA]; HR: 2.69 [95%-CI: 1.30-12.28]; p = 0.015) but not in patients with left-sided tumours (anti-EGFR: 37.0 months [95%-CI: 20.2-56.6]; anti-VEGF: 32.3 months [95%-CI: 23.6-41.1]; HR: 0.97 [95%-CI: 0.56-1.66]; p = 0.905). When evaluating molecular characteristics of tumour samples, we found a clinically meaningful trend towards an inferior OS in TP53 mutant mCRC treated with anti-EGFR based therapy compared to anti-VEGF based therapy (17.1 months [95%-CI: 8.7-NA] versus 38.3 months [95%-CI: 23.6-48.0], HR = 1.95 [95%-CI: 0.95-5.88]; p = 0.066), which was not significantly dependent on sidedness. This was not the case in patients with TP53 wild-type tumours. Therefore we evaluated the combined impact of sidedness and TP53 mutation status in the anti-EGFR treated cohort and patients with left-sided/TP53 wild-type mCRC showed the longest median OS (38.9 months) of all groups (right-sided/TP53 mutant: 12.1 months; right-sided/TP53 wild-type: 8.9 months; left-sided/TP53 mutant: 18.4 months; p = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: TP53 mutation and right-sidedness are associated with shorter OS in patients treated with anti-EGFR based therapy but not with anti-VEGF based therapy. The confirmation of the predictive value of TP53 mutation status in a larger cohort is warranted.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/mortalidade , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/genética , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 59(5): 1121-1126, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28853315

RESUMO

According to former classification systems chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is listed within myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Therefore data regarding treatment of CMML is largely derived from MDS trials. Two published studies suggest efficacy of lenalidomide in a proportion of patients with CMML, but the number of patients included was very low. We initiated this phase I trial with lenalidomide in patients with CMML. Primary objective of the current study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Secondary objectives were safety, tolerability and response. Twenty patients were enrolled and received lenalidomide using a classical 3 + 3 design. Lenalidomide 5 mg daily was confirmed as MTD. Best response achieved was partial remission in one patient and stable disease in nine patients. Lack of response with primary progressive disease was seen in three patients. Lenalidomide had a good toxicity profile in this study with thrombocytopenia being the main toxicity observed. Efficacy needs to be confirmed in further trials.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/patologia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(7): e173695, 2018 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167892

RESUMO

Importance: We know of no data on the prognostic value of primary tumor location (PTL) according to BRAF, RAS, and microsatellite instability (MSI) status in patients who have undergone resection for colon cancer (CC) and have been treated with current standard adjuvant chemotherapy. Objective: To determine the prognostic and predictive value of PTL according to BRAF, RAS, and MSI status in patients with stage III CC receiving adjuvant treatment with FOLFOX (folinic acid [leucovorin calcium], fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) with or without cetuximab. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis included patients with available tumor blocks of resected stage III colon adenocarcinoma who participated in the Pan-European Trials in Alimentary Tract Cancer (PETACC)-8 phase 3 randomized trial. Among the 2559 patients who underwent randomization, 1900 were screened by next-generation sequencing, which showed that 1869 had full information concerning PTL. We categorized primary tumor site as located proximal (right) or distal (left) to the splenic flexure. Main Outcomes and Measures: The associations between PTL (right- vs left-sided) and disease-free survival (DFS), survival after relapse (SAR), and overall survival (OS) were assessed by Cox models and adjusted for clinical and pathological features, treatment, and MSI, BRAF, and RAS status. Results: Among the 1869 patients (1056 [57%] male; mean [SD] age, 59.4 [9.5] years) with full molecular data analyzed, 755 (40%) had a right-sided tumor, 164 (10%) had MSI, 942 (50%) had RAS mutations, and 212 (11%) had BRAF mutations. Right-sided tumor location was not prognostic for DFS in the whole population but was associated with a shorter SAR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% CI, 1.23-1.93; P = .001) and OS (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.54; P = .03). When looking at DFS in the different molecular subgroups, we found similar results for microsatellite-stable tumors and tumors with MSI; a better DFS in right-sided vs left-sided tumors in patients with RAS mutations (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.64-1.00; P = .046); and a worse DFS in right-sided vs left-sided tumors in patients with RAS and BRAF double wild type (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01-1.92; P = .04). These results were found independently of the treatment received, and no beneficial effect of cetuximab on DFS or OS was observed in left-sided tumors. Conclusions and Relevance: Although right-sided tumor location is associated with poor survival in patients with metastatic CC as previously reported, the association with disease recurrence appears to vary for patients with stage III CC and RAS or BRAF mutations vs those with double wild type.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico
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