Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 65
Filtrar
1.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 51(1): 22, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory disease that may require biological therapy. Omalizumab is an anti-IgE biologic that was recently approved by the FDA and Health Canada for use in severe CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) recalcitrant to intranasal corticosteroids. Dosing is based on weight and pre-treatment serum IgE, with elevated levels of the latter being an indication for biologic treatment according to EPOS and EUFOREA guidelines. The goal of this study was to identify variables that predict IgE-high type 2 inflammation and serve as indicators for biologic treatment in CRS. METHODS: Patients ≥ 19 yo diagnosed with CRS undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery were included retrospectively. Demographics, past medical history, preoperative blood work, Lund-Mackay (LM), Lund Kennedy (LK), and SNOT-22 scores were extracted. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Model superiority was based on Nagelkerke R2 scores and receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients, average age 49.96 ± 13.59 years, were included. Sixty-one binary logistic regression models for elevated serum IgE were created. Among the top 3 models, the best model had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of 82.1, 69.2, 80.0, and 72.0. All performance measures except sensitivity exceeded the Canadian Biologics Guideline model. Serum eosinophils ≥ 300 cell/uL, CRSwNP and LM ≥ 17 increased the odds of elevated IgE. CONCLUSIONS: IgE-high type-2 inflammation can be predicted by a model that includes eosinophil ≥ 300 cell/uL, CRSwNP, LM ≥ 17, asthma diagnosis and SNOT-22 ≥ 40. Patients meeting these parameters have a high pretest probability for elevated IgE and would benefit from IgE serology to determine qualification for omalizumab. This could reduce unwarranted IgE serology in patients with CRSwNP but also target a patient population for further workup that will lead to optimization of resource allocation and improve healthcare equity in rural and remote areas within Canada.

2.
Drug Discov Today ; 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452791

RESUMO

In this review, we present the potential of nasal dry powders to deliver stable bioactive compounds and their manufacture using spray-drying (SD) techniques to achieve encapsulation. We also review currently approved and experimental excipients used for powder manufacturing for specific target drugs. Polymers, sugars, and amino acids are recommended for specific actions, such as mucoadhesive interactions, to increase residence time on the nasal mucosa; for example, high-molecular weight polymers, such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, or mannitol, which protect the bioactive compounds, increase their stability, and enhance drug absorption in the nasal mucosa; and leucine, which promotes particle formation and improves aerosol performance.

4.
J Oral Biosci ; 64(1): 108-113, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35091065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Understanding the role of certain salivary components, such as TNF-⍺, IL-6, IL-10, lactoferrin, lysozyme, IgG, IgA, and IgM, in airway defense during the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is essential. The salivary immune barrier of patients with COVID-19 may play a role in their prognosis. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on saliva composition. METHODS: A longitudinal study was carried out with male and female firefighters aged 24-48 years. The study sample (n = 34) was divided into 3 groups: asymptomatic volunteers with a negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 (group 1, Control, n = 21); patients with symptoms of COVID-19 of less than 7 days' duration and a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR (group 2, COVID-19, n = 13); and recovered patients from group 2 who were free of COVID-19 symptoms for at least 2 months (group 3, post-COVID-19 recovery, n = 13). All groups underwent real-time PCR to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2, as well as analysis of the salivary concentrations of TNF-⍺, IL-6, IL-10, lactoferrin, lysozyme, IgG, IgA, and IgM by the ELISA method. RESULTS: Lactoferrin concentrations were significantly decreased in the infected group (COVID-19) when compared to those not infected by SARS-CoV-2 (control) (p = 0.032). IgA concentrations were decreased in the COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 groups compared to the control group (p = 0.005 and p = 0.016, respectively). Comparison of the COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 groups also revealed an increase in IgM concentrations during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 alters the composition of the salivary immune barrier.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-6 , Lactoferrina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Muramidase , Saliva , Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suprasellar meningioma resection via either the transcranial approach (TCA) or the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) is an area of controversy and active evaluation. Skull base surgeons increasingly consider patient-reported outcomes (PROs) when choosing an approach. No PRO measure currently exists to assess quality of life for suprasellar meningiomas. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing suprasellar meningioma resection between 2013 and 2019 via EEA (n = 14) or TCA (n = 14) underwent semistructured interviews. Transcripts were coded using a grounded theory approach to identify themes as the basis for a PRO measure that includes all uniquely reported symptoms. To assess content validity, 32 patients and 15 surgeons used a Likert scale to rate the relevance of items on the resulting questionnaire and the general Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-29 (PROMIS29). The mean scores were calculated for all items and compared for TCA versus EEA patient cohorts by using unpaired t-tests. Items on either questionnaire with mean scores ≥ 2.0 from patients were considered meaningful and were aggregated to form the novel Suprasellar Meningioma Patient-Reported Outcome Survey (SMPRO) instrument. RESULTS: Qualitative analyses resulted in 55 candidate items. Relative to patients who underwent the EEA, those who underwent the TCA reported significantly worse future outlook before surgery (p = 0.01), tiredness from medications 2 weeks after surgery (p = 0.001), and word-finding and memory difficulties 3 months after surgery (p = 0.05 and < 0.001, respectively). The items that patients who received a TCA were most concerned about included medication-induced lethargy after surgery (2.9 ± 1.3), blurry vision before surgery (2.7 ± 1.5), and difficulty reading due to blurry vision before surgery (2.7 ± 2.7). Items that patients who received an EEA were most concerned about included blurry vision before surgery (3.5 ± 1.3), difficulty reading due to blurry vision before surgery (2.4 ± 1.3), and problems with smell postsurgery (2.9 ± 1.3). Although surgeons overall overestimated how concerned patients were about questionnaire items (p < 0.0005), the greatest discrepancies between patient and surgeon relevance scores were for blurry vision pre- and postoperatively (p < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively) and problems with taste postoperatively (p < 0.001). Seventeen meningioma-specific items were considered meaningful, supplementing 8 significant PROMIS29 items to create the novel 25-item SMPRO. CONCLUSIONS: The authors developed a disease- and approach-specific measure for suprasellar meningiomas to compare quality of life by operative approach. If demonstrated to be reliable and valid in future studies, this instrument may assist patients and providers in choosing a personalized surgical approach.

6.
Head Neck ; 43(12): 3979-3995, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403174

RESUMO

Despite advances in the treatment of primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma, locoregional recurrence (lrNPC) occurs at 10%-50% at 5 years. This review aims to evaluate salvage treatment for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal cancer. A literature search for all original articles published on the treatment of lrNPC from January 1990 to January 2021 was conducted. Pooled analysis was performed using a random effects model and assessed statistical heterogeneity of the combined results with I2 index. Overall, 66 studies were included for analysis. A total of 5286 patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (39%), conformal radiotherapy (31%), open nasopharyngectomy (12%), endoscopic nasopharyngectomy (10%), stereotactic radiosurgery (4%), and brachytherapy (4%) were included. Surgical therapy has similar overall survival outcomes to re-irradiation but with decreased treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Both surgical and re-irradiation for lrNPC have similar long-term survival. Surgical approaches to lrNPC may offer similar survival while avoiding treatment-associated morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Terapia de Salvação , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(9): 811-819, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351376

RESUMO

Importance: The opioid epidemic has generated interest in optimizing opioid prescribing after common surgeries. Recent studies have shown a broad range of analgesic prescription patterns following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Objective: To compare the efficacy of different analgesic regimens after ESS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multi-institutional, nonblinded randomized clinical trial was conducted at 6 tertiary centers across the US and Canada and included participants who underwent ESS for acute or chronic rhinosinusitis. The study was conducted from March 2019 to March 2020, and the data were analyzed in November to December 2020. Interventions: All participants received acetaminophen, 650 mg, as the first-line analgesic. From there, patients were randomized to either oxycodone rescue (oxycodone, 5 mg, as second-line therapy) or ibuprofen rescue (ibuprofen, 600 mg, as second-line therapy, with oxycodone, 5 mg, reserved for breakthrough pain). Main Outcomes and Measures: Baseline characteristics and disease severity were collected at enrollment. Medication logs, pain scores, and epistaxis measures were collected until postoperative day 7. The primary outcome was the postoperative visual analog scale score for pain. Brief Pain Inventory Pain Severity and Pain Interference Scores were also collected. Results: A total of 118 patients were randomized (62 [52.5%] oxycodone rescue, 56 [47.5%] ibuprofen rescue; mean [SD] age, 46.7 [16.3] years; 44 women [44.0%]; 83 White [83.0%], 7 Black [7.0%], and 7 Asian individuals [7.0%]). After exclusions for loss to follow-up and noncompliance, 51 remained in the oxycodone rescue group and 49 in the ibuprofen rescue group. The groups had similar demographic characteristics and disease severity. Thirty-two (63%) in the oxycodone rescue group had adequate pain management with acetaminophen only, while 19 (37%) consumed at least 1 oxycodone dose. In the ibuprofen rescue group, 18 (16%) required only acetaminophen, 28 (57%) used only acetaminophen and ibuprofen, and the remaining 13 (26%) consumed 1 or more oxycodone doses. The groups had similar average acetaminophen (9.69 vs 7.96 doses; difference, 1.73; 95% CI, -1.37 to 4.83) and oxycodone (1.89 vs 0.77 doses; difference, 1.13; 95% CI, -0.11 to 2.36) use. Both groups had similar postoperative visual analog scale scores. A subanalysis that compared opioids users with nonusers showed clinically significant lower pain scores in nonusers at multiple postoperative points. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, most patients who underwent ESS could be treated postoperatively using a nonopioid regimen of either acetaminophen alone or acetaminophen and ibuprofen. Ibuprofen as a second-line therapy did not reduce overall narcotic consumption, but the overall narcotic use was low in both groups. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03783702.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Narcóticos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Endoscopia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Rinite/cirurgia , Rinoplastia , Sinusite/cirurgia , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxicodona/administração & dosagem , Oxicodona/uso terapêutico , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Rinoplastia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 11(12): 1626-1636, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) in the setting of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a disease that is difficult to treat and prone to recurrence. Dupilumab is a promising treatment for these patients, but its cost-effectiveness has not yet been compared with aspirin (acetylsalicyclic acid, or ASA) desensitization, a known and effective treatment. We aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of ASA desensitization with dupilumab therapy for the treatment of CRSwNP in AERD. METHODS: Analyses of cost-effectiveness, as measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and cost-utility, as measured in number of required revision endoscopic sinus surgeries (ESSs), were conducted. RESULTS: ASA desensitization after ESS was cost-effective and dominated appropriate medical management. Adding salvage dupilumab was also cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] $135,517.33), and upfront dupilumab therapy was not cost-effective in any scenario (ICER $273,181.32). The cost-utility analysis demonstrated that, over a 10-year period per patient, appropriate medical management after ESS cost $54,125.31 and resulted in 2.25 revision ESSs, ASA desensitization after ESS cost $53,775.15 and resulted in 2.02 revision ESSs, ASA desensitization with salvage dupilumab cost $121,176.25 and resulted in 1.68 revision ESSs, and upfront dupilumab cost $185,950.34 and resulted in 1.51 revision ESSs. CONCLUSION: Dupilumab for the treatment of severe CRSwNP was found to be cost-effective as salvage therapy under the willingness-to-pay threshold of $150,000. Further analysis highlighted that the cost-effectiveness of dupilumab was most sensitive to drug price and expected gains in quality of life. This suggests that additional investigation into improving patient population selection and tailoring treatment algorithms may improve the cost-effectiveness of dupilumab in specific scenarios.


Assuntos
Pólipos Nasais , Rinite , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Humanos , Pólipos Nasais/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Rinite/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Head Neck ; 43(9): 2795-2806, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973680

RESUMO

The incidence of cerebrospinal fluid leak after ventral skull base reconstruction is a primary outcome of interest to skull base surgeons. Exposure to pre-operative radiation may put patients at an increased risk of skull base reconstructive failure. A systematic search identified studies which included patients receiving ventral skull base reconstruction in the setting of pre-operative radiation. A meta-analysis using a random effects model was conducted to estimate an odds ratio of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak in patients exposed to pre-operative radiation. A meta-analysis of 13 studies demonstrated that the odds ratio of CSF leak was 1.73 (95% CI 0.98-3.05). The majority of studies (77%) used vascularized tissue grafts for reconstruction. We identified an increased incidence of CSF leak among patients undergoing ventral skull base reconstruction after prior radiation therapy, although not of statistical significance. Skull base surgeons should exercise caution when planning reconstruction in this population.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/epidemiologia , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/etiologia , Endoscopia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Base do Crânio/cirurgia
10.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 50(1): 24, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID) pandemic has resulted in an increase in virtual care. While some specialties are well suited to virtual care, Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery could be limited due to reliance on physical examination and nasal endoscopy, including Rhinology. It is likely virtual care will remain integrated for the foreseeable future and it is important to determine the strengths and weaknesses of this treatment modality for rhinology. METHODS: A survey on virtual care in rhinology was distributed to 61 Canadian rhinologists. The primary objective was to determine how virtual care compared to in-person care in each area of a typical appointment. Other areas focused on platforms used to deliver virtual care and which patients could be appropriately assessed by virtual visits. RESULTS: 43 participants responded (response rate 70.5%). The majority of participants use the telephone as their primary platform. History taking and reviewing results (lab work, imaging) were reported to be equivalent in virtual care. Non-urgent follow up and new patients were thought to be the most appropriate for virtual care. The inability to perform exams and nasal endoscopy were reported to be significant limitations. CONCLUSION: It is important to understand the strengths and limitations of virtual care. These results identify the perceived strengths and weaknesses of virtual care in rhinology, and will help rhinologists understand the role of virtual care in their practices.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Otolaringologia/organização & administração , Otorrinolaringopatias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Otorrinolaringopatias/terapia , Satisfação do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 50(1): 15, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that biologic therapy with targeted activity within the Type 2 inflammatory pathway can improve the clinical signs and symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP). There remains a population in CRSwNP that despite medical therapy and endoscopic sinus surgery have persistent signs and symptoms of disease. Therefore, biologics, monoclonal antibody agents, could be beneficial therapeutic treatments for these patients. There have been eight randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trails performed for CRSwNP targeted components of the Type 2 inflammatory pathway, notably interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13, IL-5R, IL-33, and immunoglobulin (Ig)E. However, there are no formal recommendations for the optimal use of biologics in managing Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS) within the Canadian health care environment. METHODS: A Delphi Method process was utilized involving three rounds of questionnaires in which the first two were completed individually online and the third was discussed on a virtual platform with all the panelists. 17 fellowship trained rhinologists across Canada evaluated the 28 original statements on a scale of 1-10 and provided comments. A rating within 1-3 indicated disagreement, 8-10 demonstrated agreement and 4-7 represented being neutral towards a statement. All ratings were quantitively reviewed by mean, median, mode, range and standard deviation. Consensus was defined by removing the highest and lowest of the scores and using the "3 point relaxed system". RESULTS: After three rounds, a total of 11 statements achieved consensus. This white paper only contains the final agreed upon statements and clear rationale and support for the statements regarding the use of biologics in patients with CRS. CONCLUSION: This white paper provides guidance to Canadian physicians on the use of biologic therapy for the management of patients with CRS, but the medical and surgical regimen should ultimately be individualized to the patient. As more biologics become available and additional trials are published we will provide updated versions of this white paper every few years.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Biológica/métodos , Rinite/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Canadá , Doença Crônica , Técnica Delfos , Humanos
12.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 165(5): 647-654, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nonabsorbable nasal packing is often placed for the treatment of epistaxis or after sinonasal or skull base surgery. Antibiotics are often prescribed to prevent toxic shock syndrome (TSS), a rare, potentially fatal occurrence. However, the risk of TSS must be balanced against the major risk of antibiotic use, specifically Clostridium difficile colitis (CDC). The purpose of this study is to evaluate in terms of cost-effectiveness whether antibiotics should be prescribed when nasal packing is placed. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical decision analysis was performed using a Markov model to evaluate whether antibiotics should be given. SETTING: Patients with nonabsorbable nasal packing placed. METHODS: Utility scores, probabilities, and costs were obtained from the literature. We assess the cost-effectiveness of antibiotic use when the risk of community-acquired CDC is balanced against the risk of TSS from nasal packing. Sensitivity analysis was performed for assumptions used in the model. RESULTS: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for antibiotic use was 334,493 US dollars (USD)/quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that not prescribing antibiotics was cost-effective in 98.0% of iterations at a willingness to pay of 50,000 USD/QALY. Sensitivity analysis showed that when the risk of CDC from antibiotics was greater than 910/100,000 or when the incidence of TSS after nasal packing was less than 49/100,000 cases, the decision to withhold antibiotics was cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Routine antibiotic prophylaxis in the setting of nasal packing is not cost-effective and should be reconsidered. Even if antibiotics are assumed to prevent TSS, the risk of complications from antibiotic use is of greater consequence. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3a.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/economia , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Epistaxe/terapia , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Choque Séptico/prevenção & controle , Tampões Cirúrgicos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Qualidade de Vida
13.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 50(1): 12, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (rNPC) can be salvaged with re-irradiation, open nasopharyngectomy, and more recently endoscopic nasopharyngectomy. However, long-term outcomes of endoscopic approaches are lacking. Thus, we report 5-year outcomes following endoscopic nasopharyngectomy for rNPC. METHODS: Patients who underwent endoscopic nasopharyngectomy for rNPC between January 2000 and January 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were included if they had their first endoscopic nasopharyngectomy at least 5 years prior to this study. Presenting (cTNM) status and recurrent (rTNM) status for each recurrence was determined. Outcomes included margin status, disease recurrence, death, and complication rates. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were included. Four patients had a prior open nasopharyngectomy. Mean time follow-up was 74.3 months (range = 56.4-96 months). Negative margins were achieved in 77% of initial cases. Positive margins were associated with higher rT stages. Re-recurrence was seen in 6 patients, which was also associated with a higher cStage and rStage. All patients with positive margins had re-recurrence. Four patients required repeat endoscopic nasopharyngectomy and two received chemoradiation. All four with a second endoscopic procedure had further disease recurrence. Five-year local disease-free and overall survival rates were 53.9 and 84.6%, respectively. The minor complication rate was 52.6%, major operative complication rate was 0.0%, and late complication rate was 23.1%. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic nasopharyngectomy demonstrates promising 5-year overall survival rate for rT1 and rT2 cases of rNPC with favorable complication rates. Lower rStages were associated with a higher disease-free rate, and lower cStages were associated with improved overall prognosis. Close surveillance and prompt management of recurrences can be associated with favorable long-term tumor control. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/cirurgia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/cirurgia , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Faringectomia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Nasais , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Oral Oncol ; 114: 105182, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503570

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is common in Southeast Asia. Due to the influx of immigrants from this region, the incidence in British Columbia is increasing. Current literature from non-endemic populations encompasses heterogeneous cohorts. This study examines NPC in a North American population, with a high incidence, to understand the population's characteristics, treatment outcomes and recurrence patterns. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective analysis of patients treated for primary and recurrent NPC over 15-years. Regression analyses were used to identify predictors of disease recurrence and death. A subgroup analysis of the locoregional recurrence cohort was conducted. Five-year survival outcomes were determined. RESULTS: 601 patients were included. Asian ethnicity comprised 77% and the majority had non-keratinizing carcinoma (81%). In total, 19.3% of patients experienced recurrence: 58% local, 22% regional and 20% distant. Five-year overall survival was 70%. Smoking, advancing T-stage, poorer performance status and advanced overall stage were all associated with worse overall survival (p < 0.05). Asian ethnicity improved overall survival but not recurrence free survival. Similar features in addition to non-keratinizing histology were associated with increased locoregional recurrence (p < 0.05). Competing risk analysis indicated radiotherapy alone had a higher recurrence relative to chemoradiotherapy (HR 1.91, CI 1.17-3.09, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We report the largest study evaluating treatment and outcomes of NPC in a non-endemic population. This unique population falls between described endemic and non-endemic populations. Non-keratinizing pathology and primary radiotherapy did not affect survival; however, both had a propensity for recurrence. Finally, patients experienced more locoregional and less distant recurrence, supporting that this cohort may be amenable to curative salvage therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 11(5): 902-909, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empty nose syndrome (ENS) is a controversial upper airway disorder most commonly associated with tissue loss from the inferior turbinates. The inferior meatus augmentation procedure (IMAP) has been shown to effectively reduce ENS symptoms in a durable manner, but the precise mechanisms that may govern this symptomatic improvement remain unknown. METHODS: Five patients with ENS who underwent bilateral IMAP via submucosal costal cartilage implant were assessed. Pre-implant and 6 months post-implant computed tomography (CT) imaging for each ENS patient was analyzed in a blinded fashion using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate intrapatient changes in airflow parameters. RESULTS: Following surgery, ENS patients have significantly improved symptoms as indexed by Empty Nose Syndrome 6-Item Questionnaire (ENS6Q) scoring (pre-implant: 14.00 ± 4.06 [mean ± standard deviation]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.44 to 17.56; post-implant: 4.8 ± 2.77; 95% CI, 2.37 to 7.23; Cohen's d = 2.64; p = 0.02). Using CFD, a significant shift in nasal airflow patterns was observed, where airflow deviates away from the middle meatus upon hitting the implant (pre-implant: 67.13% ± 11.14%; 95% CI, 60.22% to 74.04%; post-implant: 46.18% ± 12.81%; 95% CI, 38.23% to 54.12%; d = 1.74; p < 0.05) toward the inferior meatus (pre-implant: 30.55% ± 11.29%; 95% CI, 23.55% to 37.55%; post-implant: 42.59% ± 9.60%; 95% CI, 36.63 to 48.54%; d = 1.14; p < 0.05). No significant changes were found in nasal resistance (pre-implant: 0.102 ± 0.015; 95% CI, 0.092 to 0.112 Pa*s/mL; post-implant: 0.105 ± 0.041; 95% CI, 0.081 to 0.130 Pa*s/mL). In addition, the improvement of ENS6Q scoring significantly correlated with percent reduction in aberrant airflow through the middle meatus (R2 = 0.60, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: This study supports our prior working hypothesis that disordered vectors of nasal airflow congregate in the middle meatus contribute to ENS symptoms, not nasal resistance. Moreover, these data illuminate a paradoxical, but consistent, restoration of nasal airflow to the inferior meatus following the replacement of turbinate tissue volume in the inferior meatus via IMAP surgery, potentially due to the Coanda effect.


Assuntos
Obstrução Nasal , Doenças Nasais , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Obstrução Nasal/cirurgia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síndrome , Conchas Nasais/cirurgia
18.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 49(1): 81, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272328

RESUMO

Healthcare services in many countries have been partially or completely disrupted by the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic since its onset in the end of 2019. Amongst the most impacted are the elective medical and surgical services in order to conserve resources to care for COVID-19 patients. As the number of infected patients decrease across Canada, elective surgeries are being restarted in a staged manner. Since Otolaryngologists - Head & Neck Surgeons manage surgical diseases of the upper aerodigestive tract where the highest viral load reside, it is imperative that these surgeries resume in a safe manner. The aim of this document is to compile the current best evidence available and provide expert consensus on the safe restart of rhinologic and skull base surgeries while discussing the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative care and tips. Risk assessment, patient selection, case triage, and pre-operative COVID-19 testing will be analyzed and discussed. These guidelines will also consider the optimal use of personal protective equipment for specific cases, general and specific operative room precautions, and practical tips of intra-operative maneuvers to optimize patient and provider safety. Given that the literature surrounding COVID-19 is rapidly evolving, these recommendations will serve to start our specialty back into elective rhinologic surgeries over the next months and they may change as we learn more about this disease.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Nariz/cirurgia , Otolaringologia/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/normas , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/normas , Base do Crânio/cirurgia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Otolaringologia/métodos , Otorrinolaringopatias/cirurgia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/normas , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos
19.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 49(1): 25, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inverted papilloma (IP) is an unusual type of benign tumor that has high recurrence rates and the potential to transform into squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The mechanism of the transformation process from IP to IP-SCC is uncertain and there is no consensus regarding the best practice for IP-SCC detection. The goal of this study is to identify the best clinical methods to detect for IP-SCC. METHODS: An evidence-based review was performed using Medline and Ovid to obtain all articles up to October 10th, 2019 pertaining to identification of IP malignant transformation. All manuscripts discussing clinical methods or biomarkers were included. RESULTS: Based on clinical research studies, convoluted cerebriform pattern and apparent diffusion coefficient values on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can help differentiate benign IP from SCC and increased SUVmax on PET/CT is associated with higher probability of malignancy although not as specific. No consensus about the best biomarker for IP-SCC has been reached among researchers and continues to be exploratory. CONCLUSION: Endoscopy with biopsy is the gold standard practice to identify IP-SCC; however, MRI is the preferred imaging modality to recognize malignant transformation in cases where biopsy is difficult. Multiple biomarkers have shown positive results, but no single indicator with clinical significance for monitoring malignant transformation process has been found.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Papiloma Invertido/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biópsia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Papiloma Invertido/patologia , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 49(1): 28, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aerosol generating medical procedures (AGMPs) present risks to health care workers (HCW) due to airborne transmission of pathogens. During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is essential for HCWs to recognize which procedures are potentially aerosolizing so that appropriate infection prevention precautions can be taken. The aim of this literature review was to identify potential AGMPs in Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery and provide evidence-based recommendations. METHODS: A literature search was performed on Medline, Embase and Cochrane Review databases up to April 3, 2020. All titles and abstracts of retrieved studies were evaluated and all studies mentioning potential AGMPs were included for formal review. Full text of included studies were assessed by two reviewers and the quality of the studies was evaluated. Ten categories of potential AGMPs were developed and recommendations were provided for each category. RESULTS: Direct evidence indicates that CO2 laser ablation, the use of high-speed rotating devices, electrocautery and endotracheal suctioning are AGMPs. Indirect evidence indicates that tracheostomy should be considered as potential AGMPs. Nasal endoscopy and nasal packing/epistaxis management can result in droplet transmission, but it is unknown if these procedures also carry the risk of airborne transmission. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, special care should be taken when CO2 lasers, electrocautery and high-speed rotating devices are used in potentially infected tissue. Tracheal procedures like tracheostomy and endotracheal suctioning can also result in airborne transmission via small virus containing aerosols.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Otorrinolaringopatias/complicações , Otorrinolaringopatias/cirurgia , Otorrinolaringopatias/virologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...