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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(8): 1122-1134, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632487

RESUMO

Giant cell myocarditis is a rare, often rapidly progressive and potentially fatal, disease due to T-cell lymphocyte-mediated inflammation of the myocardium that typically affects young and middle-aged adults. Frequently, the disease course is marked by acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock, intractable ventricular arrhythmias, and/or heart block. Diagnosis is often difficult due to its varied clinical presentation and overlap with other cardiovascular conditions. Although cardiac biomarkers and multimodality imaging are often used as initial diagnostic tests, endomyocardial biopsy is required for definitive diagnosis. Combination immunosuppressive therapy, along with guideline-directed medical therapy, has led to a paradigm shift in the management of giant cell myocarditis resulting in an improvement in overall and transplant-free survival. Early diagnosis and prompt management can decrease the risk of transplantation or death, which remain common in patients who present with cardiogenic shock.

3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 8863789, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574985

RESUMO

Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) persists as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. Although many protective strategies have been evaluated, cardiotoxicity remains an ongoing threat. The mechanisms of AIC remain unclear; however, several pathways have been proposed, suggesting a multifactorial origin. When the central role of topoisomerase 2ß in the pathophysiology of AIC was described some years ago, the classical reactive oxygen species (ROS) hypothesis shifted to a secondary position. However, new insights have reemphasized the importance of the role of oxidative stress-mediated signaling as a common pathway and a critical modulator of the different mechanisms involved in AIC. A better understanding of the mechanisms of cardiotoxicity is crucial for the development of treatment strategies. It has been suggested that the available therapeutic interventions for AIC could act on the modulation of oxidative balance, leading to a reduction in oxidative stress injury. These indirect antioxidant effects make them an option for the primary prevention of AIC. In this review, our objective is to provide an update of the accumulated knowledge on the role of oxidative stress in AIC and the modulation of the redox balance by potential preventive strategies.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(2): e018393, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401953

RESUMO

Background Statins are hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiotoxicity associated with anthracyclines and trastuzumab. Our aim was to study the association of statin exposure with hospitalization or emergency department visits (hospital presentations) for heart failure (HF) after anthracycline- and/or trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy for early breast cancer. Methods and Results Using linked administrative databases, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of women aged ≥66 years without prior HF who received anthracyclines or trastuzumab for newly diagnosed early breast cancer in Ontario between 2007 to 2017. Statin-exposed and unexposed women were matched 1:1 using propensity scores. Trastuzumab-treated women were also matched on anthracycline exposure. We matched 666 statin-discordant pairs of anthracycline-treated women and 390 pairs of trastuzumab-treated women (median age, 69 and 71 years, respectively). The 5-year cumulative incidence of HF hospital presentations after anthracyclines was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.5%-2.6%) in statin-exposed women and 2.9% (95% CI, 1.7%-4.6%) in unexposed women (P value, 0.01). The cause-specific hazard ratio associated with statins in the anthracycline cohort was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.24-0.85; P value, 0.01). After trastuzumab, the 5-year cumulative incidence of HF hospital presentations was 2.7% (95% CI, 1.2%-5.2%) in statin-exposed women and 3.7% (95% CI, 2.0%-6.2%) in unexposed women (P value 0.09). The cause-specific hazard ratio associated with statins in the trastuzumab cohort was 0.46 (95% CI, 0.20-1.07; P value, 0.07). Conclusions Statin-exposed women had a lower risk of HF hospital presentations after early breast cancer chemotherapy involving anthracyclines, with non-significant trends towards lower risk following trastuzumab. These findings support the development of randomized controlled trials of statins for prevention of cardiotoxicity.

5.
Heart Fail Clin ; 17(1): 109-120, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220880

RESUMO

Disorders of the pericardium are common and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Advances in multimodality imaging have enhanced our ability to diagnose and stage pericardial disease and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. Cardiovascular MRI (CMR) can be used to define pericardial anatomy, identify the presence and extent of active pericardial inflammation, and assess the hemodynamic consequences of pericardial disease. In this way, CMR can guide the judicial use of antiinflammatory and immune modulatory medications and help with timing of pericardiectomy. CMR can also be used to diagnose congenital disorders of the pericardium. Furthermore, CMR can be used to define pericardial masses and understand their malignant potential.


Assuntos
Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Derrame Pericárdico/diagnóstico , Pericardite Constritiva/diagnóstico , Pericárdio/patologia , Humanos
7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients at risk of cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD), initiation of cardio-protective therapy (CPT) is constrained by the low sensitivity of EF for minor changes in LV function. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) is a robust and sensitive marker of LV dysfunction, but existing observational data have been insufficient to support a routine GLS-guided strategy for CPT. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether GLS-guided CPT prevents reduction in LVEF in patients undergoing potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy, compared with usual care. METHODS: In this international multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial, 331 anthracycline-treated patients with another heart failure risk factor were randomly allocated to CPT initiation guided by either ≥12% relative reduction in GLS (n=166) or >10% absolute reduction of LVEF (n=165). Patients were followed for EF and development of CTRCD (symptomatic EF reduction >5% or >10% asymptomatic to <55%) over 1 year. RESULTS: Of 331 randomized patients, 2 died and 22 withdrew consent or were lost to follow-up. Among 307 patients (age 54±12 years, 94% women, baseline LVEF 59±6%, GLS -20.6±2.4%) with a median (IQR) follow-up of 1.02 (0.98-1.07) years, most (n=278) had breast cancer. HF risk factors were prevalent: 29% had hypertension and 13% had diabetes mellitus. At 1-year follow-up, although the primary outcome of change in LVEF was not significantly different between the two arms, there was significantly greater use of CPT, and fewer patients met CTRCD criteria in the GLS-guided than the EF-guided arm (5.8% vs 13.7%, p=0.02), and 1-year EF was 57±6% versus 55±7% (p=0.05). Patients diagnosed with CTRCD in the EF-guided arm had a larger reduction in LVEF at follow-up than in the GLS-guided arm (9.1±10.9% versus 2.9±7.4%, p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Although the change in LVEF was not different between the two arms, GLS-guided CPT significantly reduced a meaningful fall of LVEF to the abnormal range. The results support the use of GLS in surveillance for CTRCD.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179744

RESUMO

In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, The Cardio-Oncology and Imaging Councils of the American College of Cardiology offers recommendations to clinicians regarding the cardiovascular care of cardio-oncology patients in this expert consensus statement. Cardio-oncology patients-individuals with an active or prior cancer history, and with or at risk of cardiovascular disease-are a rapidly growing population, who are both at increased risk of infection by COVID-19 and experiencing severe and/or lethal complications. Recommendations for optimizing screening and monitoring visits to detect cardiac dysfunction are discussed. In addition, judicious use of multimodality imaging and biomarkers are proposed to identify myocardial, valvular, vascular, pericardial involvement in cancer patients. The difficulties of diagnosing the etiology of cardiovascular complications in patients with cancer and COVID-19 are outlined, along with weighing the advantages against risks of exposure, with the modification of existing cardiovascular treatments and cardiotoxicity surveillance in patients with cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the prognostic value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) derived left ventricular (LV) strain, volumes, and ejection fraction for cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) in women with early stage breast cancer. BACKGROUND: There are limited comparative data on the association of CMR and 2DE derived strain, volumes, and LVEF with CTRCD. METHODS: A total of 125 prospectively recruited women with HER2+ early stage breast cancer receiving sequential anthracycline/trastuzumab underwent 5 serial CMR and 6 of 2DE studies before and during treatment. CMR LV volumes, left ventricular ejection fraction tagged-CMR, and feature-tracking (FT) derived global systolic longitudinal (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) and 2DE-based LV volumes, function, GLS, and GCS were measured. CTRCD was defined by the cardiac review and evaluation committee criteria. RESULTS: Twenty-eight percent of patients developed CTRCD by CMR and 22% by 2DE. A 15% relative reduction in 2DE-GLS increased the CTRCD odds by 133% at subsequent follow-up, compared with 47%/50% by tagged-CMR GLS/GCS and 87% by FT-GCS. CMR and 2DE-LVEF and indexed left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESVi) were also associated with subsequent CTRCD. The prognostic threshold change in CMR-left ventricular ejection fraction and FT strain for subsequent CTRCD was similar to the known minimum-detectable difference for these measures, whereas for tagged-CMR strain it was lower than the minimum-detectable difference; for 2DE, only the prognostic threshold for GLS was greater than the minimum-detectable difference. Of all strain methods, 2DE-GLS provided the highest increase in discriminatory value over baseline clinical risk factors for subsequent CTRCD. The combination of 2DE-left ventricular ejection fraction or LVESVi and strain provided greater increase in the area under the curve for subsequent CTRCD over clinical risk factors than CMR left ventricular ejection fraction or LVESVi and strain (18% to 22% vs. 9% to 14%). CONCLUSIONS: In women with HER2+ early stage breast cancer, changes in CMR and 2DE strain, left ventricular ejection fraction, and LVESVi were prognostic for subsequent CTRCD. When LVEF can be measured precisely by CMR, FT strain may function as an additional confirmatory prognostic measure, but with 2DE, GLS is the optimal prognostic measure. (Evaluation of Myocardial Changes During BReast Adenocarcinoma Therapy to Detect Cardiotoxicity Earlier With MRI [EMBRACE-MRI]; NCT02306538).

10.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(12): 1481-1489, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between appropriate use criteria for transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and clinical outcomes is unknown for patients with valvular heart disease (VHD). The aim of this study was to identify the association of TTE appropriateness with downstream cardiac tests and clinical outcomes in patients with VHD over 365 days. METHODS: A subset of 2,297 patients with VHD across six Ontario academic hospitals was selected from the Echo WISELY (Will Inappropriate Scenarios for Echocardiography Lessen Significantly) trial and linked to administrative databases. Each patient's index TTE was classified as "rarely appropriate" (rA) versus "appropriate" (comprising "appropriate" and "may be appropriate" TTE according to the 2011 appropriate use criteria). Overall, 431 of 452 patients with rA TTE were matched 1:1 with patients with appropriate TTE using propensity scores to account for measured confounding. RESULTS: Matched patients with rA TTE were less likely to undergo repeat TTE (relative risk, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.33-0.66) or cardiac catheterization (relative risk, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16-0.47) at 90 days compared with patients with appropriate TTE. rA TTE was significantly associated with a decreased hazard of aortic valve intervention (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.14-0.42), all-cause hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.34-0.57), and death (hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.15-0.66) over 365 days of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with appropriate TTE for VHD were more likely to undergo subsequent cardiac testing within 90 days and valve intervention within 1 year than those with a rA TTE. The 2011 appropriate use criteria for TTE have important clinical implications for outcomes in patient with VHD.

11.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 70(6): 480-504, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910493

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has given rise to a pandemic of unprecedented proportions in the modern era because of its highly contagious nature and impact on human health and society: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and established CV disease (CVD) are among those initially identified at the highest risk for serious complications, including death. Subsequent studies have pointed out that patients with cancer are also at high risk for a critical disease course. Therefore, the most vulnerable patients are seemingly those with both cancer and CVD, and a careful, unified approach in the evaluation and management of this patient population is especially needed in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. This review provides an overview of the unique implications of the viral outbreak for the field of cardio-oncology and outlines key modifications in the approach to this ever-increasing patient population. These modifications include a shift toward greater utilization of cardiac biomarkers and a more focused CV imaging approach in the broader context of modifications to typical practice pathways. The goal of this strategic adjustment is to minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (or other future viral outbreaks) while not becoming negligent of CVD and its important impact on the overall outcomes of patients who are being treated for cancer.

12.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(10): 1658-1666, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the yield of routine cardiac imaging for trastuzumab-treated patients with breast cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with breast cancer treated with adjuvant trastuzumab between 2007 and 2012 at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre (Toronto, Canada). We classified imaging tests as clinically prompted or routinely ordered and determined whether each test led to changes in patient care. A generalized estimating equation model was used to determine if patient characteristics predicted routine studies more likely to change care. We analysed routine tests that were exclusively preceded by consecutive tests that did not change care to determine if their yield differed by time since trastuzumab start and the number of prior tests that did not change care. RESULTS: We identified 448 patients who received 1735 cardiac imaging studies after trastuzumab initiation. Of 1555 routine tests, 44 led to changes in care (2.8%) for 43 patients, whereas 50 of 180 clinically prompted tests (27.8%) altered care in 29 patients (P-value < 0.001). Earlier stage cancer, diabetes, prior anthracyclines, and prior cardiovascular disease were associated with a higher likelihood of changes in care following routine tests (P-value < 0.05). Among routine tests that were exclusively preceded by consecutive tests that did not change care, tests ordered outside months 3-9 and those that followed ≥ 3 tests were even less likely to change care. CONCLUSIONS: Routine cardiac imaging tests rarely changed care for trastuzumab-treated patients with breast cancer, particularly among lower risk anthracycline-naïve women who had multiple prior tests that did not change care.

13.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(13): 1859-1885, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677679

RESUMO

Despite the known risk of cardiotoxicity, anthracyclines are widely prescribed chemotherapeutic agents. They are broadly characterized as being a robust effector of cellular apoptosis in rapidly proliferating cells through its actions in the nucleus and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). And, despite the early use of dexrazoxane, no effective treatment strategy has emerged to prevent the development of cardiomyopathy, despite decades of study, suggesting that much more insight into the underlying mechanism of the development of cardiomyopathy is needed. In this review, we detail the specific intracellular activities of anthracyclines, from the cell membrane to the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and highlight potential therapeutic windows that represent the forefront of research into the underlying causes of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy.

14.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 30(6): 315-325, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474135

RESUMO

Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease and risk factors are more likely to experience adverse outcomes associated with the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Additionally, consistent reports of cardiac injury and de novo cardiac complications, including possible myocarditis, arrhythmia, and heart failure in patients without prior cardiovascular disease or significant risk factors, are emerging, possibly due to an accentuated host immune response and cytokine release syndrome. As the spread of the virus increases exponentially, many patients will require medical care either for COVID-19 related or traditional cardiovascular issues. While the COVID-19 pandemic is dominating the attention of the healthcare system, there is an unmet need for a standardized approach to deal with COVID-19 associated and other traditional cardiovascular issues during this period. We provide consensus guidance for the management of various cardiovascular conditions during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic with the goal of providing the best care to all patients and minimizing the risk of exposure to frontline healthcare workers.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
16.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(11): 1945-1960, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463967

RESUMO

This position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology Cardio-Oncology Study Group in collaboration with the International Cardio-Oncology Society presents practical, easy-to-use and evidence-based risk stratification tools for oncologists, haemato-oncologists and cardiologists to use in their clinical practice to risk stratify oncology patients prior to receiving cancer therapies known to cause heart failure or other serious cardiovascular toxicities. Baseline risk stratification proformas are presented for oncology patients prior to receiving the following cancer therapies: anthracycline chemotherapy, HER2-targeted therapies such as trastuzumab, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, second and third generation multi-targeted kinase inhibitors for chronic myeloid leukaemia targeting BCR-ABL, multiple myeloma therapies (proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs), RAF and MEK inhibitors or androgen deprivation therapies. Applying these risk stratification proformas will allow clinicians to stratify cancer patients into low, medium, high and very high risk of cardiovascular complications prior to starting treatment, with the aim of improving personalised approaches to minimise the risk of cardiovascular toxicity from cancer therapies.

18.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(4): e010105, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular events. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a unique tissue-based marker that, in single-center studies, suggests strong prognostic value. We retrospectively studied associations between LGE presence and adverse cardiovascular events in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy in a multicenter setting as part of an emerging global consortium (MINICOR [Multi-Modal International Cardiovascular Outcomes Registry]). METHODS: Consecutive patients with dilated cardiomyopathy referred for cardiac magnetic resonance (2000-2017) at 12 institutions in 4 countries were studied. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazard and semiparametric Fine and Gray models, we evaluated the association between LGE and the composite primary end point of all-cause mortality, heart transplantation, or left ventricular assist device implant and a secondary arrhythmic end point of sudden cardiac death or appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock. RESULTS: We studied 1672 patients, mean age 56±14 years (29% female), left ventricular ejection fraction 33±11%, and 25% having New York Heart Association class III to IV; 650 patients (39%) had LGE. During 2.3 years (interquartile range, 1.0-4.3) follow-up, 160 patients experienced the primary end point, and 88 experienced the arrhythmic end point. In multivariable analyses, LGE was associated with 1.5-fold (hazard ratio, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.03-2.04]) risk of the primary end point and 1.8-fold (hazard ratio, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.20-3.06]) risk of the arrhythmic end point. Primary end point risk was increased in patients with multiple LGE patterns, although arrhythmic risk was higher among patients receiving primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and widening QRS. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multinational study of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, the presence of LGE showed strong prognostic value for identification of high-risk patients. Randomized controlled trials evaluating LGE-based care management strategies are warranted.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Gadolínio/farmacocinética , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Tempo , Estados Unidos
19.
Eur Heart J ; 41(18): 1733-1743, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112560

RESUMO

AIMS: Myocarditis is a potentially fatal complication of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Sparse data exist on the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in ICI-associated myocarditis. In this study, the CMR characteristics and the association between CMR features and cardiovascular events among patients with ICI-associated myocarditis are presented. METHODS AND RESULTS: From an international registry of patients with ICI-associated myocarditis, clinical, CMR, and histopathological findings were collected. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were a composite of cardiovascular death, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, and complete heart block. In 103 patients diagnosed with ICI-associated myocarditis who had a CMR, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 50%, and 61% of patients had an LVEF ≥50%. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was present in 48% overall, 55% of the reduced EF, and 43% of the preserved EF cohort. Elevated T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery (STIR) was present in 28% overall, 30% of the reduced EF, and 26% of the preserved EF cohort. The presence of LGE increased from 21.6%, when CMR was performed within 4 days of admission to 72.0% when CMR was performed on Day 4 of admission or later. Fifty-six patients had cardiac pathology. Late gadolinium enhancement was present in 35% of patients with pathological fibrosis and elevated T2-weighted STIR signal was present in 26% with a lymphocytic infiltration. Forty-one patients (40%) had MACE over a follow-up time of 5 months. The presence of LGE, LGE pattern, or elevated T2-weighted STIR were not associated with MACE. CONCLUSION: These data suggest caution in reliance on LGE or a qualitative T2-STIR-only approach for the exclusion of ICI-associated myocarditis.

20.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(7): 802-811.e6, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although echocardiography is widely used to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), its prognostic value has not been demonstrated in a broad range of patients including those acutely hospitalized for cardiac or noncardiac causes. We determined whether greater degrees of left ventricular systolic dysfunction were associated with progressively increasing risks of death or cardiovascular hospitalizations among patients in hospital or outpatient settings. METHODS: A total of 27,323 patients with LVEF measured and 19,445 matched controls were followed for 223,034 person-years. Outcomes of total mortality, cardiovascular death, cardiovascular hospitalizations, and heart failure hospitalizations were examined using cause-specific hazard competing-risks analysis. RESULTS: In the study cohort (median age, 68 [interquartile range, 58-77], 14,828 women [31.7%]), the hazard ratios (95% CI) for all-cause death were 1.67 (1.57-1.77), 1.30 (1.24-1.36), and 1.17 (1.11-1.23) when LVEF was <25%, 25%-35%, or 36%-45% compared with LVEF 46%-55% (all P < .001). Rates of cardiovascular death were similarly higher with lower LVEF. The hazard ratios for cardiovascular hospitalization were 1.35 (1.27-1.42), 1.21 (1.16-1.27), and 1.13 (1.07-1.18) for LVEFs <25%, 25%-35%, and 36%-45%, respectively (all P < .001). The rate of heart failure hospitalizations was amplified, with hazard ratios of 1.71 (1.59-1.85), 1.39 (1.31-1.48), and 1.21 (1.13-1.29) for LVEFs <25%, 25%-35%, or 36%-45% (all P < .001). The rate of mortality and hospitalizations increased comparably with greater reductions in LVEF during both inpatient cardiac or noncardiac admissions (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative echocardiographic LVEF stratified the risk of death and hospitalization in a wide range of clinical settings, including during noncardiac admissions.

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