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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111541, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272033

RESUMO

Here, we report the novel fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles using the Costus igneus leaf extract. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy to determine the bioactive components present in the plant extract. The synthesis of Ci-ZnO NPs (C. igneus- coated zinc oxide nanoparticles) was accomplished using a cost-effective and simple technique. Ci-ZnO NPs were specified using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, and TEM. Ci-ZnO NPs was authenticated by UV-Vis and exhibited a peak at 365 nm. The XRD spectra proved the crystalline character of the Ci-ZnO NPs synthesized as hexagonal wurtzite. The FTIR spectrum illustrated the presence of possible functional groups present in Ci-ZnO NPs. The TEM micrograph showed evidence of the presence of a hexagonal organization with a size of 26.55 nm typical of Ci-ZnO NPs. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assays demonstrated antidiabetic activity of Ci-ZnO NPs (74 % and 82 %, respectively), and the DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate] assay demonstrated the antioxidant activity of the nanoparticles (75%) at a concentration of 100 µg/ml. The Ci-ZnO NPs exhibited promising antibacterial and biofilm inhibition activity against the pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Proteus vulgaris, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Additionally, the Ci-ZnO NPs showed biocompatibility with mammalian RBCs with minimum hemolytic activity (0.633 % ±â€¯0.005 %) at a concentration of 200 µg/ml.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Costus/química , Costus/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/fisiologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/fisiologia , Química Verde , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Insulina/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
2.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 55: 170-179, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trace elements of copper (Cu) are one of the main forms of ecological noxious waste in freshwater systems that affect the survival and development of organisms. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to Cu on the growth, oxidative stress, immune and biochemical response in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. METHODS: Three groups of O. niloticus were tested as follows; the first group was used as the control (not treated with Cu in water), while the 2nd and 3rd groups were exposed to (low) 40 µg L-1 and (high) 400 µg L-1 concentrations of Cu added to water, respectively. The duration of the experiment, which was conducted in triplicate, was 60 d. End points were evaluated on days 30 and 60. Following 30 d and 60 d of exposure to Cu, the fish were removed from experimental tanks to determine growth. Consequently, blood samples were collected from caudal veins at the end of the trial period (30 d and 60 d) and serum was separated to evaluate different immunological parameters, such as lysozymes (LYZ), respiratory burst activity (RBA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Gill and liver tissues were collected for evaluation of Cu and certain biochemical parameters as follows: antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); non-enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT), and oxidative stress indicators such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO). The results pertaining to treatments and the control were compared using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. The level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Data were expressed as mean ±â€¯SD. RESULTS: Chronic exposure to Cu did not induce any mortality in fish during the test period. However, following exposure to Cu, growth of fish in the exposed groups was affected more than that in the control group (unexposed to Cu). In addition, accumulation of Cu in the liver tissue was higher than that in the gill tissues of fish exposed to Cu, compared to that in the control. Gill and liver tissues of Cu-exposed fish showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST, compared to those of unexposed fish. Non-enzymatic antioxidants, GSH and MT, in gill and liver tissues were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in fish exposed to both concentrations of Cu, compared to those in unexposed fish. Oxidative stress indicators, MDA and PCO in gills and liver of Cu-exposed fish was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at both tested concentrations, when compared to control group. Non-specific immune response of LYZ, RBA, and MPO activity in serum decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in Cu-exposed fish, compared with that of unexposed fish. CONCLUSION: Overall, the present results highlighted that chronic exposure to Cu ions may exert a strong effect on the antioxidant and immune responses of O. niloticus. Changes in antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress effects and immune parameters during post-chronic metal exposure may indicate the potential of these parameters as biomarkers of metal toxicity in aquatic ecosystems.

3.
Microb Pathog ; 114: 17-24, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138082

RESUMO

The successful treatment of multi-drug resistant microbial pathogens represents a major challenge for public health management. Here, chitosan-alginate (CS/ALG) microspheres with narrow size distribution were fabricated by ionically cross linking method using Ca2+ ions as agents for polymer solidification. The physicochemical properties of CS/ALG microspheres, such as surface morphology and size, were studied by SEM. The functional group interactions were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. SEM revealed that the CS/ALG microspheres were spherical in shape with smooth surfaces, size was 50-100 µm. The synthesized CS/ALG microspheres showed antibacterial and antibiofilm activity on bacteria of public health relevance. CS/ALG microspheres exhibited antibacterial activity at the concentration of 5-20 µg, with significant inhibitory zones on multiple antibiotic resistant pathogens, including Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. Furthermore, in situ light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that CS/ALG microspheres inhibited the bacterial biofilm formation in S. aureus, E. faecalis P. aeruginosa and P. vulgaris after a single treatment with 40 µg. Overall, our findings underlined that chemically synthesized CS/ALG biomaterial has high antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against a number of microbial pathogens of interest for human health, thus this synthesis route can be further exploited for drug development in current biomedical science.


Assuntos
Alginatos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/síntese química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Microesferas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Cálcio/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glucurônico/síntese química , Ácidos Hexurônicos/síntese química , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteus vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Propriedades de Superfície
4.
Microb Pathog ; 100: 124-132, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622344

RESUMO

In the present study, chitosan coated Ag/ZnO (CS/Ag/ZnO) nanocomposite was synthesized and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The CS/Ag/ZnO nanocomposite exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram positive (B. licheniformis and B. cereus) bacteria at 8 µg mL-1 compared to Gram negative (V. parahaemolyticus. and P. vulgaris) bacteria. CS/Ag/ZnO nanocomposite effectively inhibited the biofilm growth of Gram positive bacteria compared to Gram negative bacteria at 30 µg mL-1. The hydrophobicity index and EPS (extracellular polysaccharide) production of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria was decreased after treatment with 30 µg mL-1 of CS/Ag/ZnO nanocomposite. CS/Ag/ZnO nanocomposite showed effective control of fungal C. albicans biofilm (92%) at 50 µg mL-1. The inhibition of bacterial and fungal biofilms was clearly visualized under light and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). CS/Ag/ZnO nanocomposite was observed to be non toxic to RAW264.7 murine macrophages and no changes in the morphology of macrophages was observed under phase contrast microscopy. The study concludes that CS/Ag/ZnO nanocomposite is the promising candidate to be used as biomaterial against bacterial and fungal infections without any toxicity risk.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Quitosana/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanocompostos/química , Prata/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/metabolismo , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Células RAW 264.7 , Prata/toxicidade , Espectrofotometria , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade
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