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1.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 129: 105216, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964738

RESUMO

During pregnancy, there are significant physiological changes to support a healthy fetus. Parasympathetic activity normatively decreases across pregnancy, and psychological stress can promote even further decreased heart rate variability (HRV). This study evaluated (1) changes in vagally-mediated HRV from pregnancy to postpartum, (2) changes in vagally-mediated HRV from pregnancy to postpartum based on negative partner relationship qualities, and (3) changes in depressive symptoms from pregnancy to postpartum based on negative partner relationship qualities. 78 participants in their 3rd trimester self-reported their relationship quality with their partner at the first visit. Depressive symptoms and vagally-mediated HRV were evaluated at rest at five time points from 3rd trimester to 12 months postpartum. On average, the only significant increase in vagally-mediated HRV occurred between the 3rd trimester and 4-6 weeks postpartum. However, those who reported more negative partner relationship qualities during their 3rd trimester of pregnancy maintained lower vagally-mediated HRV levels across all of the first year postpartum and significantly lower vagally-mediated HRV at both 4 and 8 months postpartum as compared to people who reported fewer negative partner relationship qualities. Across the first year postpartum, people reporting more negative partner relationship qualities experienced more severe depressive symptoms than their counterparts with fewer negative partner relationship qualities; however, there was no difference in the rate of change of depressive symptoms across the first year postpartum based on negative partner relationship qualities. Because lower vagally-mediated HRV is associated with depressive symptoms, future work should explore the temporal relationship between vagally-mediated HRV and depressive symptoms in the postpartum period.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7960, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846417

RESUMO

Theoretically, panic disorder and agoraphobia pathology can be conceptualized as a cascade of dynamically changing defensive responses to threat cues from inside the body. Guided by this trans-diagnostic model we tested the interaction between defensive activation and vagal control as a marker of prefrontal inhibition of subcortical defensive activation. We investigated ultra-short-term changes of vagally controlled high frequency heart rate variability (HRV) during a standardized threat challenge (entrapment) in n = 232 patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia, and its interaction with various indices of defensive activation. We found a strong inverse relationship between HRV and heart rate during threat, which was stronger at the beginning of exposure. Patients with a strong increase in heart rate showed a deactivation of prefrontal vagal control while patients showing less heart rate acceleration showed an increase in vagal control. Moreover, vagal control collapsed in case of imminent threat, i.e., when body symptoms increase and seem to get out of control. In these cases of defensive action patients either fled from the situation or experienced a panic attack. Active avoidance, panic attacks, and increased sympathetic arousal are associated with an inability to maintain vagal control over the heart suggesting that teaching such regulation strategies during exposure treatment might be helpful to keep prefrontal control, particularly during the transition zone from post-encounter to circa strike defense.Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN80046034.

3.
Psychophysiology ; : e13833, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913180

RESUMO

Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is thought to index top-down control processes in emotion regulation. According to the Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS), resting vmHRV indexes top-down resources that are needed to inhibit subcortical threat circuits, which is important for context-appropriate affective responding. Although this notion has been supported by studies of affective startle (SR) modification, direct evidence that top-down resources are the linking mechanism between vmHRV and context-appropriate affective responding has been lacking. To investigate this possible mechanism, college-aged participants (n = 92) were recruited to complete a picture viewing task and a concurrent working memory (WM) task. Concurrent WM load was manipulated, and the auditory SR stimulus was delivered while viewing affective pictures. Electrocardiography and electromyography were recorded to assess vmHRV and SR eyeblink, respectively. Results showed that WM load attenuated affective SR modification. As expected, the attenuating effects of load on affective SR modification were stronger among low vmHRV relative to high vmHRV individuals, indicating that vmHRV is linked to context-appropriate affective responding through the mechanism of top-down resources. These results support the GUTS and suggest that atypical affective responding among low vmHRV individuals is attributed to the lack of WM resources. Our findings highlight the relation between vmHRV and top-down resources that have been implicated in emotion regulation and contribute to a better understanding of emotion dysregulation in psychopathology.

4.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 164: 112-120, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745964

RESUMO

Perceived social isolation, or loneliness, has been repeatedly linked to numerous adverse health outcomes. Much effort has been directed towards elucidating the mechanisms underlying its effects on the cardiovascular system, which may explain the deleterious effects on morbidity and mortality. It has been previously suggested that perceived social isolation can impair effective parasympathetic regulation and physiological adjustment to the demands of the social environment. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating the causal impact of an induction of loneliness on vagal activity during social stimuli processing. In the study, participants (N = 119) were led to anticipate either a future filled with satisfying relationships (Future Belong) or a lonely life (Future Alone). Then, they were asked to complete an implicit emotion regulation task while their cardiovascular activity was recorded. In the Future Belong group, a pattern of vagal suppression was observed between the resting period and task completion, which was followed by vagal recovery during the post-task resting period. However, in the Future Alone group, a change from the baseline HRV was observed only at the beginning of the task, but not during its consecutive stages. Moreover, in participants who believed in the given FA feedback, the initial vagal suppression was absent. These findings provide evidence that even a brief induction of loneliness can result in a blunted vagal suppression during social information processing. It can be hypothesized that the lack of the ability to regulate vagal activity while processing social cues may potentially underlie problems with social engagement and self-control.

5.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 320(5): H2058-H2065, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769914

RESUMO

African American (AA) individuals are at a greater risk for the development of cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension, compared with European Americans (EAs). Higher vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) is typically associated with lower blood pressure (BP) and total peripheral resistance (TPR). However, research has yet to examine the differential impact of HRV on longitudinal hemodynamic activity between AAs and EAs. We sought to rectify this in a sample of 385 normotensive youths (207 AAs, 178 EAs; mean age 23.16 ± 2.9 yr). Individuals participated in two laboratory evaluations spanning approximately 6 yr. Bioimpedance was used to assess HRV at time 1 and cardiac output at both time 1 and time 2. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured at both time points via an automated BP machine. TPR was calculated as MAP divided by cardiac output. Results showed AAs to have higher BP and higher TPR at time 2 compared with EAs, independent of several important covariates. Also, higher HRV at time 1 significantly predicted both lower TPR and BP at time 2 among EAs only; these associations were attenuated and not significant in AAs. HRV did not significantly predict cardiac output at time 2 in the full sample or split by ethnicity. Our findings highlight that AAs show TPR mediated long-term increases in BP irrespective of resting HRV, providing a physiological pathway linking AAs with a greater risk for mortality and morbidity from hypertension and potentially other cardiovascular disease.NEW & NEWSWORTHY African Americans and European Americans differ in hemodynamics underlying long-term blood pressure regulation. Over 6 yr, African Americans show total peripheral resistance-mediated increases in blood pressure compared with European Americans. Higher heart rate variability predicts lower blood pressure and total peripheral resistance 6 yr later in European Americans but not African Americans.

6.
J Psychosom Res ; 145: 110421, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Post-operative pain is a common clinical problem after surgery, yet its predictors are inconsistent and unclear. This study examined whether pre-surgical vagal cardiac efferent nerve activity, indirectly indexed by heart rate variability (HRV), predicts patients' pain after epileptic surgery. METHODS: Using a prospective design, HRV was measured at rest during 5 min in n = 30 patients, prior to undergoing epileptic surgery. Post-operative pain was assessed every 8 h during the first 2 days after surgery, and our analyses focused on the worse pain level. We used multiple regression analyses and statistically considered several confounders (age, surgical duration, and analgesics during various surgical phases). RESULTS: Multiple HRV indexes strongly and inversely predicted post-operative pain, with high-frequency HRV (HF-HRV) being the strongest predictor (r = -0.81, p < 0.001). In a hierarchical multiple regression, HF-HRV accounted for an additional and significant 18% of the variance in post-operative pain, after statistically considering effects of age, surgical duration and effects of two anaesthetics. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-surgical HF-HRV independently, strongly and inversely predicts post-operative pain. These results are in line with a neuromodulatory role of the vagus nerve in pain and have clinical implications for predicting and managing post-operative pain.

7.
Psychophysiology ; : e13804, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723899

RESUMO

Darwin emphasized the intimate relationship between the brain and the heart over 150 years ago. Healthy aging is associated with significant changes in both the brain and the heart. The changes between these, the two most important organs of the body, are linked via the vagus nerve. In this review, we examine the normative changes with aging and the effect that stress may have on how the brain-heart connection changes with age. We provide a framework based on the concept of neurovisceral integration and propose that stress regulation is emotion regulation. As such, studies that have investigated emotion regulation may yield insights into successful stress regulation that helps protect people from age-related decline. In addition, interventions that improve brain health also improve heart health and vice versa. We conclude by noting that significant sex and ethnic differences exist but that future studies are needed to more fully explicate how they may moderate the associations between stress and aging.

8.
Psychophysiology ; 58(4): e13776, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569774

RESUMO

Non-medical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) is at the heart of the opioid epidemic in the United States. Although chronic opioid use is commonly accompanied by deficits in social functioning, little is known about the impact of chronic NMPOU on social cognitive functions. Social neuroscience models suggest that empathy activates similar or even equivalent neural structures as those underpinning the first-hand experience in that emotional state (e.g., pain). Therefore, we measured subjective and psychophysiological responses during an empathy-for-pain task in 23 individuals with NMPOU, objectively confirmed by hair and urine testing, and compared them with 29 opioid-naïve healthy controls. NMPOU individuals showed lower other-related and self-related unpleasantness ratings when seeing others in pain than controls. No differences between the control and NMPOU group were found in skin conductance responses and heart rate variability (HRV) assessed by root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) in response to the task. However, RMSSD-HRV was strongly negatively correlated with self-related unpleasantness and craving in the NMPOU group. A subsequent mediation analysis showed a total effect of RMSSD-HRV on self-related unpleasantness with no mediation of craving. This indicates that stronger emotion regulation indexed by high RMSSD-HRV might have downregulating effects on sharing others' pain in NMPOU individuals but not in healthy controls, which was further accompanied by decreased ratings of personal distress and empathetic concern. These results contribute to a better understanding of social functioning in chronic opioid users, suggesting adequate emotion regulation and empathy trainings as therapeutic targets for future interventions of opioid use disorders and long-term pain treatment with opioids.

9.
Psychophysiology ; 58(4): e13765, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453074

RESUMO

Emotions have long been discussed in conjunction with the autonomic nervous system. Most research on emotion-autonomic linkages does not consider sex differences or an evident underlying mechanism for sex differences: menstrual cycle phase. Further, most research is limited to cross-sectional and laboratory studies. The degree to which emotion-autonomic associations manifest in everyday life may be different and may vary by sex and, for women, by menstrual cycle phase. This study employs the ambulatory monitoring of cardiovascular measures (e.g., heart rate and heart rate variability; HRV) and concurrent emotional states (e.g., sadness, stress, anxiety, anger, and happiness) in everyday life to better characterize emotion-autonomic associations as a function of sex and menstrual cycle phase. Participants (N = 174; 87 female) ages 18 to 46 (31.23 ± 6.49) were monitored over a 5-day observation period (one 2- and one 3-day session), using an ambulatory 24-hour electrocardiogram to monitor heart rate and ecological momentary assessment to record emotions every ~30 min. Women were monitored in both the early to mid-follicular and -luteal phases and men in two comparably distanced sessions. Multilevel models indicated that across sex, negative emotions and happiness were associated with elevated heart rate. Relative to men, women exhibited an elevated heart rate and reduced HRV during reports of anger. For women, during the luteal phase, but not follicular phase, momentary sadness, stress, and anxiety predicted increased heart rate and reduced HRV. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering sex and menstrual cycle phase in research investigating emotion-autonomic linkages.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2554, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510335

RESUMO

In recent clinical practice, a biomarker of vagal neuroimmunomodulation (NIM), namely the ratio of vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) and CRP, was proposed to index the functionality of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. This study aims to transfer and extend the previous findings to two general population-based samples to explore the hypothesis that NIM-ratio is associated with all-cause mortality. Two large population studies (MIDUS 2: N = 1255 and Whitehall II wave 5: N = 7870) with complete data from a total of N = 3860 participants (36.1% females; average age = 56.3 years; 11.1% deaths, last exit 18.1 years post inclusion) were available. NIM indices were calculated using the vagally-mediated HRV measure RMSSD divided by measures of CRP (NIMCRP) or IL-6 (NIMIL6). The NIM-ratios were quartiled and entered into age, ethnicity and body mass index adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. For NIMIL6 the lowest quartile was 45% more likely to die during the observed period (max. 18 years follow-up) compared to the highest quartile (HR = 0.55 CI 0.41-0.73; p < .0001). NIMCRP parallel these results. Here we show that an easily computable index of IL-6 inhibition is associated with all-cause mortality in two large general population samples. These results suggest that this index might be useful for risk stratification and warrant further examination.

11.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 37: 129-133, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461056

RESUMO

Psychophysiological research methods allow important insights into normative and pathological functioning of the human organism. This position paper briefly reviews existing studies, investigating the psychophysiological concomitants of personality pathology, with an emphasis on developmental aspects. Focussing on measures, indexing autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity at rest, and its reactivity to experimental challenge, the narrative synthesis of the literature highlights current challenges in the field. Findings on the psychophysiological concomitants of personality pathology are mixed. Inconsistencies among studies arise from differences between disorders and heterogeneity within distinct diagnostic categories. The majority of studies addressed borderline personality disorder, illustrating robust alterations in ANS function linked to severe experiences of early maltreatment and trauma, and associated symptoms of dissociation. However, important life-style and secondary health-related factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) influencing ANS function are frequently neglected. Adapting a dimensional approach to personality pathology and longitudinal research designs seem promising to advance the filed in the years to come.

12.
Blood Press ; : 1-7, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504215

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Elevated blood pressure is a risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Decreased vagally-mediated heart rate variability has previously been prospectively linked with increased blood pressure; however, to date, no such prospective data exist regarding this relationship among Blacks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined this association in 387 normotensive young adults (mean age, 23 years, 52% female, 54% Black) who participated in two laboratory evaluations spanning approximately six years. Blood pressure was measured at both timepoints with a non-invasive oscillometric device and heart rate variability was assessed via bio-impedance. RESULTS: In the total sample, heart rate variability significantly predicted systolic (p = .022) and diastolic (p < .001) blood pressure increases six years into the future. However, this pattern varied as a function of ethnicity and sex with the effect of heart rate variability on Time 2 systolic blood pressure only significant among White males (p = .007). Heart rate variability was also predictive of Time 2 diastolic blood pressure in White males (p = .038) as well as among both White (p = .032) and Black (p = .015) females, but was not related to blood pressure among Black males. CONCLUSION: We report for the first time significant ethnic and sex differences in the prospective relationship between heart rate variability and blood pressure change. These findings may give clues as to the underlying mechanisms that are involved in the well-known health disparities in blood pressure and hypertension-related cardiovascular diseases.

13.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 124: 105070, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310375

RESUMO

The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been implicated in the regulation of stress-related cognitive processes and physiological responses and is the principal target of noninvasive brain stimulation techniques applied to psychiatric conditions. However, existing studies are mostly correlational and causal evidence on the role of this region in mediating specific psychophysiological mechanisms underpinning stress-related responses are needed to make the application of such techniques more efficient. To fill this gap, this study used inhibitory continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) in healthy individuals to examine the extent to which activity of the left dlPFC is associated with cognitive (subjective focus on a tracking task), behavioral (reaction times and variability), and physiological responses (heart rate and its variability and cortisol level) following induction of perseverative cognition. Compared to sham and left ventral PreMotor area stimulation (as active control area), inhibition of left dlPFC determined sustained autonomic and neuroendocrine activation and increased the subjective perception of being task-focused, while not changing the behavioral and self-reported stress-related responses. Adopting a causative approach, we describe a role of left dlPFC in inhibitory control of the physiological stress-response associated to perseverative thinking.

14.
Dev Psychobiol ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314062

RESUMO

Early stressful events negatively affect emotional and physical well-being. Cardiac vagal tone (CVT), which is associated with better emotional and physical well-being, usually gradually increase in early childhood. Nonetheless, children's CVT developmental trajectories are greatly variable, such that CVT can increase or decrease across the years. The present study examines the longitudinal effects of early stressful events and the role of 4 years CVT developmental trajectory on children's emotional and physical well-being. Forty-two 4-year-old children were enrolled. Number of stressful events and resting electrocardiogram (ECG) were collected at T1. ECG was registered again after one (T2), two (T3) and three (T4) years. Children's emotional and physical well-being were assessed at T4 through the Child Health and Illness Profile - Child Edition (CHIP-CE). CVT development was calculated as the angular coefficient, reflecting the developmental trajectory of CVT across the four timepoints. Results yielded that higher experienced stressful events predicted poorer emotional and physical well-being after 4 years. The interaction between the number of stressful events and CVT development emerged on physical well-being. Early stressful events negatively affect long-term children's emotional and physical well-being while a positive CVT development seems to mitigate the negative effects of early stressful events on physical well-being.

15.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 564123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192251

RESUMO

Frequent or chronic reduction in heart rate variability (HRV) is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease, and psychological stress has been suggested to be a co-determinant of this reduction. Recently, we evaluated various methods to measure additional HRV reduction in everyday life and to relate these reductions to psychological stress. In the current paper, we thoroughly evaluate these methods and add two new methods in both newly acquired and reanalyzed datasets. All of these methods use a subset of 24 h worth of HRV and movement data to do so: either the first 10 min of every hour, the full 24 h, a combination of 10 min from three consecutive hours, a classification of level of movement, the data from day n to detect episodes in day n + 1, or a range of activities during lab calibration. The method that used the full 24 h worth of data detected the largest percentage of episodes of reduced additional HRV that matched with self-reported stress levels, making this method the most promising, while using the first 10 min from three consecutive hours was a good runner-up.

16.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 569359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132829

RESUMO

Paradoxically, some individuals who experience pathological worry also have good capacity for top-down control over their thoughts. Why such individuals would nevertheless worry excessively remains unclear. One explanation is suggested by research showing that those experiencing pathological worry are set apart from healthy controls by their beliefs that worry has utility and that effective worrying requires them to consider all possibilities before terminating a worry bout. This suggests that worriers with good capacity for cognitive control may engage in prolonged worry because they believe it is adaptive to do so. In a sample of 109 college students, among whom individuals reporting pathological worry were overrepresented, we tested this hypothesis using an objective index of top-down control capacity (i.e., resting vagally mediated heart rate variability [vmHRV]) and self-report measures of beliefs about worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptom severity/status. As predicted, GAD symptom severity and vmHRV interacted to predict beliefs about worry. Specifically, high GAD symptoms were most strongly associated with beliefs that worry has utility at higher levels of vmHRV. Furthermore, this pattern was mostly a function of the belief that worry serves to distract the worrier from more emotional things. Similarly, high GAD symptoms were most strongly associated with endorsement of an 'as many as can' (AMAC) problem-solving rule when vmHRV was high. From the opposite perspective, both worry utility beliefs and AMAC rule endorsement were associated with the highest GAD symptom severity at higher levels of vmHRV. This was also true for the belief that worry distracts from more emotional things predicting analog GAD status. These results suggest that worriers who have higher levels of top-down control capacity may initiate and persist in worry, at least initially, because they value it. However, why they nevertheless rate their worry as excessive and uncontrollable is an important question for future research.

17.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; : 1745691620950690, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006909

RESUMO

Several labels, such as neuroticism, negative emotionality, and dispositional negativity, indicate a broad dimension of psychopathology. However, largely separate, often disorder-specific research lines have developed that focus on different cognitive and affective characteristics that are associated with this dimension, such as perseverative cognition (worry, rumination), reduced autobiographical memory specificity, compromised fear learning, and enhanced somatic-symptom reporting. In this article, we present a theoretical perspective within a predictive-processing framework in which we trace these phenotypically different characteristics back to a common underlying "better-safe-than-sorry" processing strategy. This implies information processing that tends to be low in sensory-perceptual detail, which allows threat-related categorical priors to dominate conscious experience and for chronic uncertainty/surprise because of a stagnated error-reduction process. This common information-processing strategy has beneficial effects in the short term but important costs in the long term. From this perspective, we suggest that the phenomenally distinct cognitive and affective psychopathological characteristics mentioned above represent the same basic processing heuristic of the brain and are only different in relation to the particular type of information involved (e.g., in working memory, in autobiographical memory, in the external and internal world). Clinical implications of this view are discussed.

18.
Psychosom Med ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065585

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Greater negative affect has been associated with increased risk for the metabolic syndrome (METs). However, all studies to date have examined this association using explicit affect measures based on subjective ratings of emotional experiences. Prior studies suggest that implicit affect, representing the automatic, pre-reflective appraisal process involved in conscious emotional experiences, is associated with physiological stress responses independent of explicit affect. Further, low resting heart rate variability (HRV) may increase risk for stress-related diseases. The goals of this study were to evaluate the associations between implicit and explicit affect and METs and to assess whether these associations were amplified by lower HRV. METHODS: This secondary analysis of a larger study included 217 middle-aged women who completed measures of implicit affect, explicit affect, high-frequency HRV, and the different components of METs. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction between implicit negative affect and HRV predicting METs, OR = 0.57, 95% CI [0.35-0.92], such that the combination of higher implicit affect and lower HRV was associated with a greater likelihood of METs. Similarly, there was a main effect of implicit negative affect as well as an interaction between implicit negative affect and HRV on the lipid accumulation product, b (SE) = -0.06 (0.02), 95% CI [-.11, -.02], a combination of waist circumference and triglycerides. CONCLUSION: Higher implicit negative affect in the context of lower HRV may be related to greater risk for METs. The present findings highlight the relevance of including implicit affect measures in psychosomatic medicine research.

19.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 159: 60-70, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069780

RESUMO

The present study employed an ex-Gaussian model of response times (RTs) to elucidate the cognitive processes related to experimentally induced state anxiety (SA) and vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV), an indicator of adaptive responses in both cognitive and affective domains. Participants (n = 110) completed a dual task composed of (i) a flanker attention and (2) working memory load task, while SA was induced by threat of noise. Electrocardiography was measured during the dual task and during four baseline periods in order to calculate vmHRV. RTs on the flanker task were fit to an ex-Gaussian distribution, which estimated three RT parameters: mu (Gaussian mean), sigma (Gaussian SD), and tau (combination of exponential mean and SD). First, findings indicate that threat of noise was associated with reductions in mu and tau, suggesting that SA might improve attention and motor responding. Second, higher resting vmHRV was associated with lower tau (averaged across conditions) and stronger threat-related decreases in tau. Third, intra-individual decreases in vmHRV were accompanied by concomitant decreases in tau. These findings support roles for trait and state vagal control in guiding adaptive anxiety-related (and anxiety-unrelated) attentional responses. Findings are consistent with extant theories that emphasize functional interrelations among emotion, cognition, and vagal function.

20.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 159: 17-22, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075427

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown higher resting-state vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) to be related to greater memory retrieval. Research has not yet linked resting vmHRV with memory encoding and retrieval, as both are thought to play an important role in correctly distinguishing between true and false memories. The current study investigated this possible link in n = 71 undergraduate students. VmHRV was assessed during a 5-minute resting baseline period. Participants then completed the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) task, where they first viewed 6 word lists (12 words per list), and were later asked to identify previously shown words (true memories) and reject non-presented words. Results showed that participants with lower resting vmHRV were less able to discriminate true from false items. These data extend previous work on resting vmHRV and memory suggesting that resting vmHRV represents a psychophysiological pathway involved in both the proper encoding and retrieval of memories.

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