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1.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(3)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564548

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that a substantial proportion of people who complete anti-tuberculosis treatment experience significant morbidity and mortality which can negatively affect their quality of life. It is suggested that national tuberculosis programs conduct end-of-treatment assessments, but whether this is feasible is currently not known. We therefore assessed whether tuberculosis program staff could assess functional and general health status of patients at the end of treatment in five TB clinics in four provinces in China. There were 115 patients, aged 14-82 years, who completed anti-tuberculosis treatment and a post-TB assessment. There were 54 (47%) patients who continued to have symptoms, the commonest being cough, dyspnea and fatigue. Symptom continuation was significantly more common in the 22 patients with diabetes (p = 0.027) and the 12 patients previously treated for TB (p = 0.008). There were 12 (10%) current smokers, an abnormal chest X-ray was found in 106 (92%) patients and distance walked in the 6-min walking test (6MWT) ranged from 30-750 m (mean 452 ± 120); 24 (21%) patients walked less than 400 m. Time taken to perform the post-TB assessment, including the 6MWT, ranged from 8-45 min (mean 21 ± 8 min). In 98% of the completed questionnaires, health workers stated that conducting post-TB assessments was feasible and useful. This study shows that post-TB assessments can be conducted under routine programmatic conditions and that there is significant morbidity that needs to be addressed.

2.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201324

RESUMO

Real-time operational research can be defined as research on strategies or interventions to assess if they are feasible, working as planned, scalable and effective. The research involves primary data collection, periodic analysis during the conduct of the study and dissemination of the findings to policy makers for timely action. This paper aims to illustrate the use of real-time operational research and discuss how to make it happen. Four case studies are presented from the field of tuberculosis. These include (i) mis-registration of recurrent tuberculosis in Malawi; (ii) HIV testing and adjunctive cotrimoxazole to reduce mortality in TB patients in Malawi; (iii) screening TB patients for diabetes mellitus in India; and (iv) mitigating the impact of COVID-19 on TB case detection in capital cities in Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe. The important ingredients of real-time operational research are sound ethics; relevant research; adherence to international standards of conducting and reporting on research; consideration of comparison groups; timely data collection; dissemination to key stakeholders; capacity building; and funding. Operational research can improve the delivery of established health interventions and ensure the deployment of new interventions as they become available, irrespective of diseases. This is particularly important when public health emergencies, including pandemics, threaten health services.

3.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(5): 1912-1916, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195124

RESUMO

Introduction: Ensuring accessible and affordable primary healthcare services of optimal quality is a core component of universal health coverage (UHC). Though a substantial percentage of population avail healthcare services from informal healthcare providers (IHPs) in rural India, the information regarding the extent of out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure during such encounters is limited. Method: The study analyzed publicly available data of 75th National Sample Survey (NSS) to understand the household expenditure pattern on availing service from IHPs. OOP expenditure for services availed from IHPs were extracted from main data sets and analyzed for both out-patient care and hospitalization. The OOP was summarized across the five wealth quintiles based on monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) and disease groupings derived from the ailments recorded during the survey. Results: In total, 721 households accessed IHPs as part of out-patient consultation for infectious disease (67%). Households from rural areas (78%), households belonging to backward groups (75%), households from the poorest quintile and women (52%) access the services of IHPs. The median OOP for all services was INR 240 (IQR 120-600) and more than 90% of total OOP is accounted for medical expenditure. Conclusion: The programs need to define healthcare packages to engage IHPs to increase the reach and reduce OOP expenditure on households.

4.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208424

RESUMO

The Post-Ebola era (2017-2019) presented an opportunity for laboratory investments in Sierra Leone. US CDC supported the Ministry of Health and Sanitation to establish a microbiological unit for routine antimicrobial sensitivity testing in two referral (pediatric and maternity) hospitals in Freetown. This study describes resistance patterns among patients' laboratory samples from 2017 to 2019 using routine data. Samples included urine, stool, cerebrospinal fluid, pus-wound, pleural fluid, and high vaginal swabs. Selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of 200 samples received by the laboratory, 89 returned positive bacterial isolates with urine and pus-wound swabs accounting for 75% of positive isolates. The number of positive isolates increased annually from one in 2017 to 42 in 2018 and 46 in 2019. Resistance of the cultures to at least one antibiotic was high (91%), and even higher in the pediatric hospital (94%). Resistance was highest with penicillin (81%) for Gram-positive bacteria and lowest with nitrofurantoin (13%). Gram-negative bacteria were most resistant to ampicillin, gentamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin and penicillin (100%) and least resistant to novobiocin (0%). Antibiotic resistance for commonly prescribed antibiotics was high in two referral hospitals, highlighting the urgent need for antimicrobial stewardship and access to reserve antibiotics.

5.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062871

RESUMO

Globally, 5-15% of hospitalized patients acquire infections (often caused by antimicrobial-resistant microbes) due to inadequate infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. We used the World Health Organization's (WHO) 'Infection Prevention and Control Assessment Framework' (IPCAF) tool to assess the IPC compliance at Lira University hospital (LUH), a teaching hospital in Uganda. We also characterized challenges in completing the tool. This was a hospital-based, cross-sectional study conducted in November 2020. The IPC focal person at LUH completed the WHO IPCAF tool. Responses were validated, scored, and interpreted per WHO guidelines. The overall IPC compliance score at LUH was 225/800 (28.5%), implying a basic IPC compliance level. There was no IPC committee, no IPC team, and no budgets. Training was rarely or never conducted. There was no surveillance system and no monitoring/audit of IPC activities. Bed capacity, water, electricity, and disposal of hospital waste were adequate. Disposables and personal protective equipment were not available in appropriate quantities. Major challenges in completing the IPCAF tool were related to the detailed questions requiring repeated consultation with other hospital stakeholders and the long time it took to complete the tool. IPC compliance at LUH was not optimal. The gaps identified need to be addressed urgently.

6.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066602

RESUMO

Blood culture (BC) processes are critical to the utility of diagnostic testing, bloodstream infection (BSI) management, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. While Uganda has established BC guidelines, often laboratory practice does not meet the desired standards. This compromises pathogen recovery, reliability of antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and diagnostic test utility. This study assessed laboratory BC process outcomes among non-malarial febrile children below five years of age at five AMR surveillance sites in Uganda between 2017 and 2018. Secondary BC testing data was reviewed against established standards. Overall, 959 BC specimens were processed. Of these, 91% were from female patients, neonates, infants, and young children (1-48 months). A total of 37 AMR priority pathogens were identified; Staphylococcus aureus was predominant (54%), followed by Escherichia coli (19%). The diagnostic yield was low (4.9%). Only 6.3% of isolates were identified. AST was performed on 70% (18/26) of identified AMR priority isolates, and only 40% of these tests adhered to recommended standards. Interventions are needed to improve laboratory BC practices for effective patient management through targeted antimicrobial therapy and AMR surveillance in Uganda. Further research on process documentation, diagnostic yield, and a review of patient outcomes for all hospitalized febrile patients is needed.

7.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068611

RESUMO

Antimicrobials help in the prevention and treatment of infections and are crucial for animal production, but overuse can result in antimicrobial resistance. Hence, understanding data quality on livestock antimicrobial use is essential. We assessed frequency of reporting, completeness, and concordance of reported data and availability of human resources and infrastructure in 14 districts in Sierra Leone. This was a cross-sectional study involving a review of district and sub-district animal treatment forms submitted from January 2016 to August 2019. Out of the 14 districts, only 3 had filled forms available for review: A total of 6 (0.97% of 616 expected) district forms and 79 (1.15% of 6840 expected) sub-district forms. Data between district and sub-district treatment forms were fully discordant. Hence, completeness of data could not be assessed. All districts had livestock officers (barring one) and livestock assistants but no veterinarians. The gap in community animal health workers ranged from 14 to 100% per district. No districts had a functional computer or internet access. Reporting was non-existent in 11 districts and poor in the other 3. Resources are urgently needed to address critical gaps in human resources and capacity and computer and Internet connectivity to develop critical One Health surveillance functions at the national and sub-national levels.

8.
Fam Pract ; 38(Suppl 1): i23-i29, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a mitigation measure for COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown was implemented in India for a period of 2 months (24 March-31 May 2020). Disruption in antenatal care (ANC) provisions during lockdown is expected due to diversion of public health facilities on pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To assess the proportion of pregnant women who had not completed the ideal number of antenatal visits, availability of iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements and challenges in availing health services during the period of lockdown. METHODS: A concurrent mixed-methods study was conducted among pregnant women in Puducherry, India. Information on obstetric characteristics and details regarding antenatal visits were collected through telephonic interviews. In-depth interviews were conducted to understand the perceived challenges in availing health services during the lockdown period. RESULTS: Out of 150 pregnant women, 62 [41.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 33.6-49.3] did not complete the ideal number of visits and 61 (40.7%, 95% CI 32.7-49.0) developed health problems. Out of 44 women who received medical care for health problems, 11 (25%) used teleconsultation. Of all the women, 13 (8.7%, 95% CI 4.9-14.0) had not taken the IFA supplements as prescribed by the health provider. Economic hardship, restricted mobility, lack of information about the health system changes and psychological stress due to the fear of COVID were the challenges in accessing care. CONCLUSIONS: Two out of five pregnant women did not complete the ideal number of visits and developed health problems during the lockdown period.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/psicologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068615

RESUMO

There was concern that the COVID-19 pandemic would adversely affect TB and HIV programme services in Kenya. We set up real-time monthly surveillance of TB and HIV activities in 18 health facilities in Nairobi so that interventions could be implemented to counteract anticipated declining trends. Aggregate data were collected and reported monthly to programme heads during the COVID-19 period (March 2020-February 2021) using EpiCollect5 and compared with monthly data collected during the pre-COVID period (March 2019-February 2020). During the COVID-19 period, there was an overall decrease in people with presumptive pulmonary TB (31.2%), diagnosed and registered with TB (28.0%) and in those tested for HIV (50.5%). Interventions to improve TB case detection and HIV testing were implemented from August 2020 and were associated with improvements in all parameters during the second six months of the COVID-19 period. During the COVID-19 period, there were small increases in TB treatment success (65.0% to 67.0%) and referral of HIV-positive persons to antiretroviral therapy (91.2% to 92.9%): this was more apparent in the second six months after interventions were implemented. Programmatic interventions were associated with improved case detection and treatment outcomes during the COVID-19 period, suggesting that monthly real-time surveillance is useful during unprecedented events.

10.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069332

RESUMO

When the COVID-19 pandemic was announced in March 2020, there was concern that TB and HIV programme services in Malawi would be severely affected. We set up real-time monthly surveillance of TB and HIV activities in eight health facilities in Lilongwe to see if it was possible to counteract the anticipated negative impact on TB case detection and treatment and HIV testing. Aggregate data were collected monthly during the COVID-19 period (March 2020-February 2021) using an EpiCollect5 application and compared with monthly data collected during the pre-COVID-19 period (March 2019-February 2020); these reports were sent monthly to programme directors. During COVID-19, there was an overall decrease in persons presenting with presumptive pulmonary TB (45.6%), in patients registered for TB treatment (19.1%), and in individuals tested for HIV (39.0%). For presumptive TB, children and females were more affected, but for HIV testing, adults and males were more affected. During COVID-19, the TB treatment success rate (96.1% in pre-COVID-19 and 96.0% during COVID-19 period) and referral of HIV-positive persons to antiretroviral therapy (100% in pre-COVID-19 and 98.6% during COVID-19 period) remained high and largely unchanged. Declining trends in TB and HIV case detection were not redressed despite real-time monthly surveillance.

11.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069434

RESUMO

Antimicrobial consumption (AMC) surveillance at global and national levels is necessary to inform relevant interventions and policies. This study analyzed central warehouse antimicrobial supplies to health facilities providing inpatient care in Uganda. We collected data on antimicrobials supplied by National Medical Stores (NMS) and Joint Medical Stores (JMS) to 442 health facilities from 2017 to 2019. Data were analyzed using the World Health Organization methodology for AMC surveillance. Total quantity of antimicrobials in defined daily dose (DDD) were determined, classified into Access, Watch, Reserve (AWaRe) and AMC density was calculated. There was an increase in total DDDs distributed by NMS in 2019 by 4,166,572 DDD. In 2019, Amoxicillin (27%), Cotrimoxazole (20%), and Metronidazole (12%) were the most supplied antimicrobials by NMS while Doxycycline (10%), Amoxicillin (19%), and Metronidazole (10%) were the most supplied by JMS. The majority of antimicrobials supplied by NMS (81%) and JMS (66%) were from the Access category. Increasing antimicrobial consumption density (DDD per 100 patient days) was observed from national referral to lower-level health facilities. Except for NMS in 2019, total antimicrobials supplied by NMS and JMS remained the same from 2017 to 2019. This serves as a baseline for future assessments and monitoring of stewardship interventions.

12.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072803

RESUMO

When COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, there was concern that TB and HIV services in Zimbabwe would be severely affected. We set up real-time monthly surveillance of TB and HIV activities in 10 health facilities in Harare to capture trends in TB case detection, TB treatment outcomes and HIV testing and use these data to facilitate corrective action. Aggregate data were collected monthly during the COVID-19 period (March 2020-February 2021) using EpiCollect5 and compared with monthly data extracted for the pre-COVID-19 period (March 2019-February 2020). Monthly reports were sent to program directors. During the COVID-19 period, there was a decrease in persons with presumptive pulmonary TB (40.6%), in patients registered for TB treatment (33.7%) and in individuals tested for HIV (62.8%). The HIV testing decline improved in the second 6 months of the COVID-19 period. However, TB case finding deteriorated further, associated with expiry of diagnostic reagents. During the COVID-19 period, TB treatment success decreased from 80.9 to 69.3%, and referral of HIV-positive persons to antiretroviral therapy decreased from 95.7 to 91.7%. Declining trends in TB and HIV case detection and TB treatment outcomes were not fully redressed despite real-time monthly surveillance. More support is needed to transform this useful information into action.

13.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924746

RESUMO

Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the proportion of culture-confirmed sepsis, bacteriological pathogen profile, culture report turnaround times, antibiotic susceptibility patterns, and treatment outcomes of all with neonatal sepsis admitted in two tertiary care hospitals in Yangon, Myanmar, 2017-2019. This was a cross sectional study utilizing a standardized electronic database and paper-based records. Bacteriological profiles and associated factors were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Poisson Regression. Of those with suspected sepsis, 42% were bacteriologically confirmed and 74% of confirmed sepsis was resistant to at least first-line antibiotics. Neonates with late onset sepsis (LOS) (aPR: 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1-1.4, p = 0.008)) were more likely to have bacteriologically confirmed sepsis (45%) versus early onset sepsis (38%). Gram-negative organisms were most commonly isolated (63%), associated with multidrug-resistant organisms and with a high case-fatality rate (64%). These findings suggest that enhanced national guidance regarding infection control and prevention, antibiotic stewardship, and first-line antibiotic choices need to be provided. The link between LOS with infection and prevention protocols needs to be further explored in this context to decrease sepsis risk, neonatal mortality, and reduce further antimicrobial resistance.

14.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922404

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasing global concern, particularly in Southeast Asian countries like Nepal. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. among culture-positive bacterial isolates in blood and stool samples from 2015 to 2019 and their AMR pattern. Routinely collected data were abstracted from medical records and laboratory electronic databases of the Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Disease Hospital (STIDH), Kathmandu, Nepal. All culture-positive bacterial isolates from blood and stool samples were included in the study. Among 390 blood cultures positive for bacterial isolates, Salmonella spp. were isolated in 44%, with S. Typhi being the most frequent (34%). Antibiotic resistance was demonstrated among Salmonella spp. to ciprofloxacin (68%), ofloxacin (16%), amoxicillin (13%) and cotrimoxazole (5%). Of the 357 stool cultures positive for bacterial isolates, the proportion of Shigella spp. isolated was 31%. Antibiotic resistance among Shigella spp. was demonstrated to cotrimoxazole (59%), tetracycline (40%), amoxicillin (38%) and ciprofloxacin (25%). Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were the most predominant organisms among all the bacterial isolates in blood and stool cultures, respectively. Nalidixic acid was the antibiotic to which both Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were most resistant.

15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 29, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, an indigenously developed electronic medication monitor (EMM) was designed and used in 138 counties from three provinces. Previous studies showed positive results on accuracy, effectiveness, acceptability, and feasibility, but also found some ineffective implementations. In this paper, we assessed the effect of implementation of EMMs on treatment outcomes. METHODS: The longitudinal ecological method was used at the county level with aggregate secondary programmatic data. All the notified TB cases in 138 counties were involved in this study from April 2017 to June 2019, and rifampicin-resistant cases were excluded. We fitted a multilevel model to assess the relative change in the quarterly treatment success rate with increasing quarterly EMM coverage rate, in which a mixed effects maximum likelihood regression using random intercept model was applied, by adjusting for seasonal trends, population size, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and clustering within counties. RESULTS: Among all 69 678 notified TB cases, the treatment success rate was slightly increased from 93.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 93.0-94.0] in second quarter of 2018 to 94.9% (95% CI: 94.4-95.4) in second quarter of 2019 after implementing EMMs. There was a statistically significant effect between quarterly EMM coverage and treatment success rate after adjusting for potential confounders (P = 0.0036), increasing 10% of EMM coverage rate will lead to 0.2% treatment success rate augment. Besides, an increase of 10% of elderly or bacteriologically confirmed TB will lead to a decrease of 0.4% and 0.9% of the treatment success rate. CONCLUSIONS: Under programmatic settings, we found a statistically significant effect between increasing coverage of EMM and treatment success rate at the county level. More prospective studies are needed to confirm the effect of using EMM on TB treatment outcomes. We suggest performing operational research on EMMs that provides real-time data under programmatic conditions in the future.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , China , Eletrônica , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Sistemas de Alerta , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Indian J Tuberc ; 68(1): 32-39, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identifying the risk factors for deaths during tuberculosis (TB) treatment is important for achieving the vision of India's National Strategic Plan of 'Zero Deaths' by 2025. We aimed to determine the proportion of deaths during TB treatment and its risk factors among smear positive pulmonary TB patients aged more than 15 years. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a cohort study using data collected for RePORT India Consortium (Regional Prospective Observational Research in Tuberculosis). SETTING: Revised TB Control Program (RNTCP) in three districts of South India. PARTICIPANTS: The cohort consisted of newly diagnosed drug sensitive patients enrolled under the Revised National TB Control Program during 2014-2018 in three districts of southern India. Information on death was collected at homes by trained project staff. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We calculated 'all-cause mortality' during TB treatment and expressed this as a proportion with 95% confidence interval (CI). Risk factors for death were assessed by calculating unadjusted and adjusted relative risks with 95% CI. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was of the 1167 participants was 45 (14.5) years and 79% of them were males. Five participants (0.4%) were HIV infected. Among the males, 560 (61%) were tobacco users and 688 (75%) reported consuming alcohol. There were 47 deaths (4%; 95% CI 3.0-5.3) of which 28 deaths (60%) occurred during first two months of treatment. In a bi-variable analysis, age of more than 60 years (RR 2.27; 95%CI: 1.24-4.15), male gender (RR 3.98; 95% CI: 1.25-12.70), alcohol use in last 12 months (RR 2.03; 95%CI: 1.07-3.87), tobacco use (RR 1.87; 95%CI: 1.05-3.36) and severe anaemia (RR 3.53: 95%CI: 1.34-9.30) were associated with a higher risk of death. In adjusted analysis, participants with severe anaemia (<7gm/dl) had 2.4 times higher risk of death compared to their counterparts. CONCLUSION: Though deaths during TB treatment was not very high, early recognition of risk groups and targeted interventions are required to achieve zero TB deaths.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade
17.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(1)2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550792

RESUMO

In India, an estimated 50% of tuberculosis (TB) patients are diagnosed and managed by private providers (PPs). However, there is limited information on treatment outcomes among those treated by PPs largely because of a lack of systems for patient follow-up and documentation of the outcomes. Tuberculosis Health Action Learning Initiative (THALI) project implemented in six districts of West Bengal, supported PPs in managing TB patients and systematically documented the TB treatment outcomes of such patients. This provided us an opportunity to describe the treatment outcomes and assess factors associated with 'unsuccessful outcomes' among TB patients notified by PPs from January to April 2018. This was a retrospective cohort study using routinely collected data. During the study reference period, 2347 patients were notified from 389 PPs. The patient's mean (SD) age was 39.9 (17.2) years and 61% were males. Of the total, about 86% had pulmonary TB, 95% were new cases, and 23% were microbiologically confirmed (either on sputum smear microscopy or Xpert assay). Among 2347 patients, 19% received free drugs from the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) under the supervision of PPs while the rest purchased anti-TB drugs from the private pharmacies. The 'successful outcomes' (cured and treatment completed) were seen in 86.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 84.6%-87.4%) patients and 8.6% were 'not evaluated'. The patients who received free NTP drugs (adjusted relative risk-4.0 (95% CI: 3.1-5.0)) had a higher risk of 'unsuccessful outcomes' than those who availed of drugs from private pharmacies. The high 'successful outcomes' among TB patients treated by PPs are promising. However, higher 'unsuccessful outcomes' among patients on free NTP drugs need to be explored, and suitable corrective actions have to be taken.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Adulto , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Setor Privado , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): 226-234, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends the Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children. Though stool is a potential alternative to respiratory specimens among children, the diagnostic performance of Xpert Ultra on stool is unknown. Thus, we assessed the diagnostic performance of Xpert Ultra on stool to diagnose PTB in children. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among consecutively recruited children (< 15 years of age) with presumptive PTB admitted in 4 tertiary care hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh, between January 2018 and April 2019. Single induced sputum and stool specimens were subjected to culture, Xpert, and Xpert Ultra. We considered children as bacteriologically confirmed on induced sputum if any test performed on induced sputum was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bacteriologically confirmed if M. tuberculosis was detected on either induced sputum or stool. RESULTS: Of 447 children, 29 (6.5%) were bacteriologically confirmed on induced sputum and 72 (16.1%) were bacteriologically confirmed. With "bacteriologically confirmed on induced sputum" as a reference, the sensitivity and specificity of Xpert Ultra on stool were 58.6% and 88.1%, respectively. Xpert on stool had sensitivity and specificity of 37.9% and 100.0%, respectively. Among bacteriologically confirmed children, Xpert Ultra on stool was positive in 60 (83.3%), of whom 48 (80.0%) had "trace call." CONCLUSIONS: In children, Xpert Ultra on stool has better sensitivity but lesser specificity than Xpert. A high proportion of Xpert Ultra assays positive on stool had trace call. Future longitudinal studies on clinical evolution are required to provide insight on the management of children with trace call.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antituberculose , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Rifampina , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Indian J Tuberc ; 67(4S): S23-S32, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308668

RESUMO

Despite considerable progress over the years, tuberculosis (TB) still remains the top cause of death among the infectious diseases and has devastating socio-economic consequences for people in low- and middle-income countries. To add to this, the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has worsened delivery of TB care across the globe. As a global community, we have committed to end the TB epidemic by 2030. The World Health Organization has framed a strategy to achieve this goal which consists of three pillars namely i) integrated patient-centred care and prevention, ii) bold policies and systems and iii) intensified research and innovation. An analysis of the performance of national tuberculosis programmes (NTPs) across the globe against the ten priority indicators recommended for monitoring the end TB strategy show that there are huge gaps at every step in the cascade of care of TB patients. In our view, these gaps reflect suboptimal implementation of existing strategies known to be efficacious and operational research (OR) is one of the best available tools to plug the gaps. In this paper, we define what operational research is and how it differs from other kinds of research. We also share our views and experiences about how operational research can be used by NTPs to identify implementation gaps and their reasons, and develop and test possible solutions - which are then integrated to make changes to policy and practice and eventually improve programme outcomes. OR can be defined as research into interventions, strategies and tools which produces practical useable knowledge that can be used to enhance the quality, coverage, effectiveness and efficiency of disease control programmes, health services or health systems in which the research is conducted. The key steps in integrating operational research in the NTPs include: i) securing political commitment reflected by inclusion of OR in the national strategic plans of NTPs and earmarked funding, ii) having a critical mass of dedicated and trained human resources in OR within the NTP, iii) setting research priorities and steering the direction of research in the country, iv) using output-oriented models of capacity building such as the Structured Operational Research Training Initiative (SORT IT) model and building communities of practice, v) harnessing existing capacity in the country by forging partnerships with academia, vi) NTP-led nationwide, multicentre OR studies, vii) providing access to anonymized patient and programme surveillance data, vii) creating a forum for evidence dissemination and fostering policy change and ix) monitoring and accountability. In conclusion, ending the TB epidemic will not be possible without new tools (diagnostics, drugs, vaccines) and a multi-sectoral response involving stakeholders beyond the health ministry, including private providers, patients and communities. However, timely conduct of operational research to fine-tune programme implementation and ensuring proper deployment of new tools will be equally crucial to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions and ultimately contribute towards ending TB.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Pesquisa Operacional , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/terapia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 5(4)2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172059

RESUMO

Introduction: Observational studies are often inadequately reported, making it difficult to assess their validity and generalizability and judge whether they can be included in systematic reviews. We assessed the publication characteristics and quality of reporting of observational studies generated by the Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT). Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of original publications from SORT IT courses. SORT IT is a global partnership-based initiative aimed at building sustainable capacity for conducting operational research according to country priorities and using the generated evidence for informed decision-making to improve public health. Reporting quality was independently assessed using an adapted version of 'Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology' (STROBE) checklist. Results: In 392 publications, involving 72 countries, 50 journals, 28 publishers and 24 disease domains, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) first authorship was seen in 370 (94%) and LMIC last authorship in 214 (55%). Publications involved LMIC-LMIC collaboration in 90% and high-income-country-LMIC collaboration in 87%. The majority (89%) of publications were in immediate open access journals. A total of 346 (88.3%) publications achieved a STROBE reporting quality score of >85% (excellent), 41 (10.4%) achieved a score of 76-85% (good) and 5 (1.3%) a score of 65-75% (fair). Conclusion: The majority of publications from SORT IT adhere to STROBE guidelines, while also ensuring LMIC equity and collaborative partnerships. SORT IT is, thus, playing an important role in ensuring high-quality reporting of evidence for informed decision-making in public health.

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