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1.
Circulation ; 140(22): 1834-1850, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765261

RESUMO

Cardiac thromboembolism attributed to atrial fibrillation (AF) is responsible for up to one-third of ischemic strokes. Stroke may be the first manifestation of previously undetected AF. Given the efficacy of oral anticoagulants in preventing AF-related ischemic strokes, strategies of searching for AF after a stroke using ECG monitoring followed by oral anticoagulation (OAC) treatment have been proposed to prevent recurrent cardioembolic strokes. This white paper by experts from the AF-SCREEN International Collaboration summarizes existing evidence and knowledge gaps on searching for AF after a stroke by using ECG monitoring. New AF can be detected by routine plus intensive ECG monitoring in approximately one-quarter of patients with ischemic stroke. It may be causal, a bystander, or neurogenically induced by the stroke. AF after a stroke is a risk factor for thromboembolism and a strong marker for atrial myopathy. After acute ischemic stroke, patients should undergo 72 hours of electrocardiographic monitoring to detect AF. The diagnosis requires an ECG of sufficient quality for confirmation by a health professional with ECG rhythm expertise. AF detection rate is a function of monitoring duration and quality of analysis, AF episode definition, interval from stroke to monitoring commencement, and patient characteristics including old age, certain ECG alterations, and stroke type. Markers of atrial myopathy (eg, imaging, atrial ectopy, natriuretic peptides) may increase AF yield from monitoring and could be used to guide patient selection for more intensive/prolonged poststroke ECG monitoring. Atrial myopathy without detected AF is not currently sufficient to initiate OAC. The concept of embolic stroke of unknown source is not proven to identify patients who have had a stroke benefitting from empiric OAC treatment. However, some embolic stroke of unknown source subgroups (eg, advanced age, atrial enlargement) might benefit more from non-vitamin K-dependent OAC therapy than aspirin. Fulfilling embolic stroke of unknown source criteria is an indication neither for empiric non-vitamin K-dependent OAC treatment nor for withholding prolonged ECG monitoring for AF. Clinically diagnosed AF after a stroke or a transient ischemic attack is associated with significantly increased risk of recurrent stroke or systemic embolism, in particular, with additional stroke risk factors, and requires OAC rather than antiplatelet therapy. The minimum subclinical AF duration required on ECG monitoring poststroke/transient ischemic attack to recommend OAC therapy is debated.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 40(46): 3793-3799c, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755940

RESUMO

Recent innovations have the potential to improve rhythm control therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Controlled trials provide new evidence on the effectiveness and safety of rhythm control therapy, particularly in patients with AF and heart failure. This review summarizes evidence supporting the use of rhythm control therapy in patients with AF for different outcomes, discusses implications for indications, and highlights remaining clinical gaps in evidence. Rhythm control therapy improves symptoms and quality of life in patients with symptomatic AF and can be safely delivered in elderly patients with comorbidities (mean age 70 years, 3-7% complications at 1 year). Atrial fibrillation ablation maintains sinus rhythm more effectively than antiarrhythmic drug therapy, but recurrent AF remains common, highlighting the need for better patient selection (precision medicine). Antiarrhythmic drugs remain effective after AF ablation, underpinning the synergistic mechanisms of action of AF ablation and antiarrhythmic drugs. Atrial fibrillation ablation appears to improve left ventricular function in a subset of patients with AF and heart failure. Data on the prognostic effect of rhythm control therapy are heterogeneous without a clear signal for either benefit or harm. Rhythm control therapy has acceptable safety and improves quality of life in patients with symptomatic AF, including in elderly populations with stroke risk factors. There is a clinical need to better stratify patients for rhythm control therapy. Further studies are needed to determine whether rhythm control therapy, and particularly AF ablation, improves left ventricular function and reduces AF-related complications.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222762, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulant therapy (VKA) is nowadays the mainstay of treatment in primary and secondary stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Given the limited risk-benefit ratio of vitamin K antagonists, pharmacological research has been directed towards the development of products that could overcome these limits, new oral anticoagulants were recently introduced: dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. AIM: Scope of the present study was to examine patterns of use, effectiveness, safety and mean annual cost per patient of anticoagulant treatment for non-valvular AF in real clinical practice. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study, by using administrative databases (drugs, hospitalizations, clinical visits, lab tests, population registry), was conducted in the Local Health Unit (LHU) of Treviso, Italy, from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2016. RESULTS: 5597 subjects were selected, 2171 of which satisfied all inclusion criteria. In particular 1355 patients were treated with VKA, 577 patients were treated with NOAC, and 239 patients were treated initially with VKA and subsequently switched to NOAC (switch group). NOAC treatment showed to be superior to VKA and this superiority was statistically significant on both end-points: patients in the NOAC group reported less cardiovascular events (9,9%) and less bleeding episodes (5,5%) versus VKA patients (14,6% and 11,4%; p<,0001 and p = 0,0049, respectively). The mean cost per patient per year was respectively € 1323,9 for patients treated with NOAC versus € 1003,3 for patients treated with VKA. Cost difference appears to be largely driven by drug cost (€ 767,9 for NOAC versus € 17,7 for VKA patients) and by specialist visits and laboratory tests (€ 318,4 for NOAC versus € 733,4 for VKA patients). CONCLUSION: In this retrospective real-world study treatment with NOAC showed to be associated with significant reductions of CV events and bleeding events compared to VKA use, albeit at a higher NHS' direct cost per patient/year, mainly due to higher drug therapy cost.

4.
Europace ; 21(11): 1633-1638, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436835

RESUMO

AIMS: ENSURE-AF (NCT02072434) was the largest prospective randomized clinical trial of anticoagulation for cardioversion in atrial fibrillation (AF), which also provides the largest prospective dataset for transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) prior to cardioversion. This ancillary analysis investigated determinants of TOE-detected left atrium thrombi (LAT) in patients scheduled for electrical cardioversion (ECV). METHODS AND RESULTS: The ENSURE-AF multicentre PROBE evaluation trial compared edoxaban 60 mg once daily (QD) with enoxaparin/warfarin in 2199 subjects undergoing ECV of non-valvular AF. Patients were stratified by the use of TOE, anticoagulant experience, and selected edoxaban dose. Electrical cardioversion was cancelled or deferred when TOEdetected LAT. In total, 1183 subjects were stratified to the TOE arm and LAT was reported in 91 (8.2%). In univariate analysis, age ≥75 years (26.4% vs. 16.9%, P = 0.0308), lower weight (86.5 ± 15.0 vs. 90.7 ± 18.0 kg, P = 0.0309), lower creatinine clearance (80.1 ± 30.6 vs. 93.2 ± 33.9 mL/min, P = 0.0007), heart failure (59.3% vs. 43.0%, P = 0.0029), and diuretic treatment (53.9% vs. 40.1%, P = 0.0141) were more prevalent in the LAT group. Non-significant trends were seen for higher mean CHA2DS2-VASc score (3.0 ± 1.41 vs. 2.7 ± 1.48, P = 0.0571) and more prevalent anticoagulation use prior to enrolment (60.4% vs. 50.3%, P = 0.0795) in the LAT group. In logistic regression analysis, age (P = 0.0202) and heart failure (P = 0.0064) were independently associated with LAT. CONCLUSION: Elective ECV is commonly cancelled or deferred due to TOE-detected LAT in patients with non-valvular AF. Age ≥75 years and heart failure were associated with the presence of LAT.

5.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(4): 592-597, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527775

RESUMO

In the EdoxabaN versus warfarin in subjectS UndeRgoing cardiovErsion of Atrial Fibrillation study (NCT 02072434), edoxaban showed similar efficacy and safety versus enoxaparin-warfarin in patients underwent electrical cardioversion of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. In this ancillary analysis, we compared the primary efficacy (composite of stroke, systemic embolic event, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, and overall study period) and safety (composite of major and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, on-treatment) end points in relation to body mass index (BMI; <30 vs ≥30 kg/m2). We also compared cardioversion outcomes in relation to BMI. Of 2,199 patients enrolled, 1,095 were randomized to edoxaban and 1,104 to enoxaparin-warfarin. Mean age was 64 ± 10 and 64 ± 11 years and mean BMI 30.6 and 30.7 kg/m2, respectively. Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases were more prevalent in obese (n = 1067) than nonobese patients. Overall ischemic event rates were low; rates in the BMI <30 kg/m2 subgroup were numerically lower than the ≥30 kg/m2 subgroup, but not significantly different (odds ratio [OR], 0.74 [95% confidence interval 0.23, 2.24]). Composite major + clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding rates were low and numerically lower, but not significantly different (OR 0.88 [0.38, 2.04]), between the edoxaban and enoxaparin-warfarin arms and across weight categories. Successful cardioversion rate was higher in the BMI <30 versus ≥30 kg/m2 subgroup (73.9% vs 69.9%; OR 1.22 [1.01 to 1.48]). In EdoxabaN versus warfarin in subjectS UndeRgoing cardiovErsion of Atrial Fibrillation, BMI did not significantly impact the relative efficacy and safety of edoxaban versus enoxaparin-warfarin. Nevertheless, the nonobese group had a higher rate of cardioversion success than the obese group.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cardioversão Elétrica , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(4): 468-478, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is currently based on clinical parameters (CHA2 DS 2 -VASc score) that have been shown to predict cerebrovascular events (CVE). Controversy exists as to whether CVE risk persists unmodified after successful catheter ablation, as observational studies suggest a lower risk of CVE. Current guidelines recommend continued oral anticoagulation (OAC) based on the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score risk profile. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review of all studies published up to July 31, 2018, that reported CVE after catheter ablation of AF and compared patients on or off OAC. Random-effects models were used to demonstrate the risk of CVE and major bleeding in on-OAC vs off-OAC patients. This analysis was further stratified by CHADS2 and CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score. RESULTS: We retained 16 studies, 10 prospective cohort and 6 retrospective cohort, that met inclusion criteria, and which enrolled 25 177 patients: 13 166 off-OAC and 12 011 on-OAC. No significant difference in the incidence of CVE emerged between on-OAC and off-OAC patients after AF ablation (risk ratio, 0.66; confidence interval [CI], 0.38, 1.15). Similar results were found after stratification by CHADS2 and CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score. Off-OAC patients suffered significantly less bleeding than those on OAC (RR, 0.17; CI, 0.09, 0.34). Of note, the percentage of patients with AF recurrence impacts the treatment effect in the two groups ( P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this metanalysis, the risk-benefit ratio favored the suspension of OAT after successful AF ablation even in patients at moderate-high risk. Whether the reported results can be extended also to non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants warrants further investigations.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 39(32): 2942-2955, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579168

RESUMO

Aims: It is recommended to perform atrial fibrillation ablation with continuous anticoagulation. Continuous apixaban has not been tested. Methods and results: We compared continuous apixaban (5 mg b.i.d.) to vitamin K antagonists (VKA, international normalized ratio 2-3) in atrial fibrillation patients at risk of stroke a prospective, open, multi-centre study with blinded outcome assessment. Primary outcome was a composite of death, stroke, or bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 2-5). A high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sub-study quantified acute brain lesions. Cognitive function was assessed by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) at baseline and at end of follow-up. Overall, 674 patients (median age 64 years, 33% female, 42% non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, 49 sites) were randomized; 633 received study drug and underwent ablation; 335 undertook MRI (25 sites, 323 analysable scans). The primary outcome was observed in 22/318 patients randomized to apixaban, and in 23/315 randomized to VKA {difference -0.38% [90% confidence interval (CI) -4.0%, 3.3%], non-inferiority P = 0.0002 at the pre-specified absolute margin of 0.075}, including 2 (0.3%) deaths, 2 (0.3%) strokes, and 24 (3.8%) ISTH major bleeds. Acute small brain lesions were found in a similar number of patients in each arm [apixaban 44/162 (27.2%); VKA 40/161 (24.8%); P = 0.64]. Cognitive function increased at the end of follow-up (median 1 MoCA unit; P = 0.005) without differences between study groups. Conclusions: Continuous apixaban is safe and effective in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation at risk of stroke with respect to bleeding, stroke, and cognitive function. Further research is needed to reduce ablation-related acute brain lesions.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores
9.
Am J Cardiovasc Dis ; 8(5): 48-57, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke/TIA) score has been validated as a risk stratification score to predict stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The objective of this analysis was to assess whether patient risk factors, in particular CHADS2 score, identified patients at risk of mortality. METHODS: 821 patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator were prospectively followed-up in 11 cardiology centers. Patients were grouped in 3 groups according to pre-specified risk classes: low (CHADS2 = 0), moderate (CHADS2 = 1, 2), and high (CHADS2 = 3-6). Information on clinical status and events, were collected during scheduled and unscheduled follow-up visits. Deaths were retrieved from medical records, or through the Regional Office of Vital Statistics. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up of 44±26 months, 135 deaths occurred in the overall population: 6 (7.7%) in the low-risk population, 69 (13.8%) in moderate-risk patients and 60 (24.6%) in high-risk patients. Kaplan-Meier estimated of patient survival were significantly different in 3 patients groups (93.0%, 90.1%, 78.5% in low, moderate and high risk patients respectively, at 4 years P<0.001). A sub-analysis on patients without history of AF showed similar results. Multivariate regression analysis adjusted for baseline characteristics confirmed the high risk status (HR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27-2.80; P = 0.002) as an independent predictor of mortality adjusted for the baseline characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: In our multicenter research, the long-term mortality was higher in patients with high CHADS2 score than in those with lower risk score regardless the presence of history of AF. CHADS2 score could be considered a toll to predict all causes mortality.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 121(2): 193-198, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169605

RESUMO

In the EdoxabaN versus warfarin in subjectS UndeRgoing cardiovErsion of Atrial Fibrillation (ENSURE-AF) study, edoxaban was compared with enoxaparin-warfarin in patients who underwent electrical cardioversion of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, showing comparable low rates of bleeding and thromboembolism. The present study is an ancillary analysis investigating differences in relation to stroke and bleeding risk profiles. It also determined the relation of patients' clinical risk profiles to the quality of anticoagulation control in the warfarin arm. Primary efficacy (composite of stroke, systemic embolic event, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death) and safety (composite of major and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding) outcomes and time to therapeutic range (TtTR) and time in therapeutic range (TiTR) were analyzed in relation to CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years (2 points), diabetes mellitus, stroke (2 points), vascular disease, age 65-74 years, sex category) and HAS-BLED (hypertension, age, stroke, bleeding tendency/predisposition, labile INRs, elderly age/frailty, drugs such as concomitant aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or alcohol excess) scores. A total of 1,095 patients were randomized to edoxaban and 1,104 received enoxaparin-warfarin. Mean age was 64.3 ± 10 and 64.2 ± 11 years, respectively. Mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 2.6 (standard deviation [SD] 1.5 and 1.4, respectively) and mean HAS-BLED score was 0.9 (SD 0.8) in both arms. There were nonsignificant trends toward lower odds ratios (ORs) for the efficacy end point in patients with CHA2DS2-VASc scores >2 and higher ORs with HAS-BLED score ≥3. Mean TiTR was >67%, with no differences between stroke or bleeding risk strata. The correlation between CHA2DS2-VASc and TtTR (p = 0.0286) and HAS-BLED and TiTR (p = 0.0286) were statistically significant. In patients who were at high risk of stroke, edoxaban had numerically lower primary efficacy end-point events and showed a trend for higher ORs, with HAS-BLED scores ≥3 compared with enoxaparin-warfarin. TtTR was shorter with higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores, whereas bleeding risk was inversely correlated with quality of anticoagulation control.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Embolia/epidemiologia , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
11.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 40(12): 1350-1357, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023821

RESUMO

AIMS: Left ventricular (LV) lead positioning at the site of delayed electrical activation is associated with better response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We hypothesized that a long electrical conduction delay between right ventricular (RV) and coronary sinus (CS) leads during RV pacing (RLD index) is correlated with a better clinical outcome METHODS AND RESULTS: RLD is measured intraprocedurally, during RV pacing, as the time interval between the intracardiac electrograms of RV and CS leads. Initially, we did a prove-of-concept, feasibility, acute study in 97 patients who underwent CRT implantation. The CS lead position was assessed in the 40° right anterior oblique and 40° left anterior oblique views and assigned to one of 11 prespecified segments of a schematic eyeball depiction of the LV walls. Acute outcomes were QRS width during biventricular (BIV) pacing. The longest RLD were found in the basal and mid lateral segments; these accounted for 82% and 78%, respectively, of the total QRS width (%RLD). %RLD was inversely correlated with BIV-paced QRS (P  =  0.0001). A similar slope was present either in the 78 patients with preserved atrioventricular (AV) conduction and in the 19 without AV conduction (- 0.34 vs - 0.27, P  =  0.7). CONCLUSION: We showed that RLD can be used to guide lead placement at the time of CRT implantation and that it is correlated with BIV-QRS width, an indirect predictor of clinical outcome. Based on these findings we started the prospective, multicenter Optimal Pacing SITE 2 (OPSITE 2) trial with the objective to demonstrate a relationship between RLD and clinical outcomes assessed as death, hospitalization for heart failure, New York Heart Association class, and clinical composite score. The protocol is provided.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Seio Coronário , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/normas , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 19(Suppl D): D333-D353, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28751849

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and its prevalence is increasing due to the progressive aging of the population. About 20% of strokes are attributable to AF and AF patients are at five-fold increased risk of stroke. The mainstay of treatment of AF is the prevention of thromboembolic complications with oral anticoagulation therapy. Drug treatment for many years has been based on the use of vitamin K antagonists, but recently newer and safer molecules have been introduced (dabigatran etexilate, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban). Despite these advances, many patients still do not receive adequate anticoagulation therapy because of contraindications (relative and absolute) to this treatment. Over the last decade, percutaneous closure of left atrial appendage, main site of thrombus formation during AF, proved effective in reducing thromboembolic complications, thus offering a valid medical treatment especially in patients at increased bleeding risk. The aim of this consensus document is to review the main aspects of left atrial appendage occlusion (selection and multidisciplinary assessment of patients, currently available methods and devices, requirements for centres and operators, associated therapies and follow-up modalities) having as a ground the significant evolution of techniques and the available relevant clinical data.

13.
Acta Pharm ; 67(2): 227-236, 2017 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28590907

RESUMO

This retrospective observational study was based on databases of the Local Health Authority of Treviso, Italy. It evaluated the prevalence and the effectiveness of oral anticoagulation treatment (OAT) for the management of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in everyday clinical practice. Out of 6,138 NVAF patients, only 3,024 received vitamin K antagonist (VKA). Potential barriers decreasing the probability of being treated with VKA were female sex, older age, antiplatelet treatment and history of bleeding. In addition, VKA-treatment was not in line with current ESC and AIAC guidelines, since the patients at high or low risk of stroke were under- or over-treated, resp. Among VKAtreated patients, 73 % of subjects were not at target with anticoagulation. OAT resulted to be effective in reducing stroke risk. However, stroke events were significantly influenced also by previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (hazard ratio, HR = 2.99, p < 0.001) and by previous bleeding events (HR = 1.60, p < 0.001).


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hemorragia/complicações , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 241: 218-222, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28413114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is routinely performed before atrial fibrillation (AF) transcatheter ablation to exclude the presence of left atrial (LA) or LA appendage (LAA) thrombi. The aim of the study is to evaluate if easily accessible clinical parameters may relate to the presence of LA or LAA thrombi to identify patients who could potentially avoid TEE. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between January 2012 and September 2014, data from 1539 consecutive patients undergoing TEE, as a work-up before AF transcatheter ablation, in six large volume centers were collected. Baseline clinical features, CHA2DS2-VASc score, transthoracic echocardiography and presence of thrombi at TEE were recorded. Exclusion criteria were valvular, hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy, previous heart surgery or an ejection fraction ≤35%. Mean age was 59.6±10.4years, 1215 (78.9%) were males; 951 (62.9%) presented in sinus rhythm (SR) on admission, 324 (21.1%) had undergone at least one previous ablation and 900 (58.5%) had CHA2DS2-VASc score 0-1. Thrombi were encountered in 12 patients (0.8%). SR at TEE independently related to the absence of thrombi (OR 5.15, 95% CI 1.38-19.02, p=0.015); in addition to this, no patient with a CHA2DS2-VASc score 0-1 and SR on admission presented thrombi at TEE (specificity 100%, p=0.011). CONCLUSION: In a selected population of patients referred for AF ablation, LA/LAA thrombi prevalence is low. No patients in SR with CHA2DS2-VASc score 0-1 presented LAA thrombi at TEE, identifying a significant subset of patients who could potentially safely be spared from pre-procedural TEE.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Apêndice Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 68(18): 1929-1940, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27788847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longstanding persistent (LSP) atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most challenging type of AF. In addition to pulmonary vein isolation, substrate modification and triggers ablation have been reported to improve freedom from AF in patients with LSPAF. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess whether the empirical electrical isolation of the left atrial appendage (LAA) could improve success at follow-up. METHODS: This was an open-label, randomized study assessing the effectiveness of empirical electrical left atrial appendage isolation for the treatment of LSPAF. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo empirical electrical left atrial appendage isolation along with extensive ablation (group 1; n = 85) or extensive ablation alone (group 2; n = 88). Recurrence of atrial arrhythmias was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included cardiac-related hospitalization, all-cause mortality, and stroke at follow-up. RESULTS: Major clinical characteristics were not different between the 2 groups. At 12-month follow-up, 48 (56%) patients in group 1 and 25 (28%) in group 2 were recurrence free after a single procedure (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] for recurrence with standard ablation: 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3 to 2.9; log-rank p = 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and left atrial size, standard ablation was predictive of recurrence (HR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.29 to 3.81; p = 0.004). During repeat procedures, empirical electrical left atrial appendage isolation was performed in all patients. After an average of 1.3 procedures, cumulative success at 24-month follow-up was reported in 65 (76%) in group 1 and in 49 (56%) in group 2 (unadjusted HR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.8; log-rank p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This randomized study showed that both after a single procedure and after redo procedures in patients with LSPAF, empirical electrical isolation of the LAA improved long-term freedom from atrial arrhythmias without increasing complications. (Effect of Empirical Left Atrial Appendage Isolation on Long-term Procedure Outcome in Patients With Persistent or Longstanding Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Catheter Ablation [BELIEF]; NCT01362738).


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 68(18): 1990-1998, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27788854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scar homogenization improves long-term ventricular arrhythmia-free survival compared with standard limited-substrate ablation in patients with post-infarction ventricular tachycardia (VT). Whether such benefit extends to patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and scar-related VT is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the long-term efficacy of an endoepicardial scar homogenization approach compared with standard ablation in this population. METHODS: Consecutive patients with dilated nonischemic cardiomyopathy (n = 93), scar-related VTs, and evidence of low-voltage regions on the basis of pre-defined criteria on electroanatomic mapping (i.e., bipolar voltage <1.5 mV) underwent either standard VT ablation (group 1 [n = 57]) or endoepicardial ablation of all abnormal potentials within the electroanatomic scar (group 2 [n = 36]). Acute procedural success was defined as noninducibility of any VT at the end of the procedure; long-term success was defined as freedom from any ventricular arrhythmia at follow-up. RESULTS: Acute procedural success rates were 69.4% and 42.1% after scar homogenization and standard ablation, respectively (p = 0.01). During a mean follow-up period of 14 ± 2 months, single-procedure success rates were 63.9% after scar homogenization and 38.6% after standard ablation (p = 0.031). After multivariate analysis, scar homogenization and left ventricular ejection fraction were predictors of long-term success. During follow-up, the rehospitalization rate was significantly lower in the scar homogenization group (p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with dilated nonischemic cardiomyopathy, scar-related VT, and evidence of low-voltage regions on electroanatomic mapping, endoepicardial homogenization of the scar significantly increased freedom from any recurrent ventricular arrhythmia compared with a standard limited-substrate ablation. However, the success rate with this approach appeared to be lower than previously reported with ischemic cardiomyopathy, presumably because of the septal and midmyocardial distribution of the scar in some patients.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter , Cicatriz/cirurgia , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Cicatriz/complicações , Cicatriz/etiologia , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia
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