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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e26399, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many countries worldwide have developed mobile phone apps capable of supporting instantaneous contact tracing to control the COVID-19 pandemic. In France, a few people have downloaded and are using the StopCovid contact tracing app. Students in the health domain are of particular concern in terms of app uptake. Exploring their use and opinions about the app can inform improvements and diffusion of StopCovid among young people. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate health care students' knowledge of and attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) toward the StopCovid app. METHODS: A field survey was conducted among 318 students at the health sciences campus of the University of Bordeaux, France, between September 25 and October 16, 2020. A quota sampling method was used, and descriptive statistics and univariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Of the 318 respondents, 77.3% (n=246) had heard about the app, but only 11.3% (n=36) had downloaded it, and 4.7% (n=15) were still using it at the time of the survey. Among the 210 participants who had heard about the app but did not download it, the main reasons for not using the app were a belief that it was not effective given its limited diffusion (n=37, 17.6%), a lack of interest (n=37, 17.6%), and distrust in the data security and fear of being geolocated (n=33, 15.7%). Among the 72 students who had not heard of the app and were given a brief description of its functioning and confidentiality policy, 52.7% (n=38) said they would use it. Participants reported that the main solution for increasing the use of the app would be better communication about it (227/318, 71.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Even among health students, the contact tracing app was poorly used. The findings suggest that improved communication about its advantages and simplicity of use as well as clarifying false beliefs about it could help improve uptake.

2.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 31, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight gain (mainly gain of fat mass) occurs quickly after successful kidney transplantation and is associated with metabolic complications (alterations of glycaemic control, hyperlipidaemia). Determinants of weight gain are multifactorial and are mainly related to the transplant procedure itself (glucocorticoid use, increased appetite). In the modern era of transplantation, one challenge is to limit these metabolic alterations by promoting gain of muscle mass rather than fat mass. This prospective study was performed to assess determinants of fat mass, fat-free mass and body cell mass changes after kidney transplantation with a focus on physical activity and nutritional behaviour before and after transplantation. METHODS: Patients were included at the time of listing for deceased donor kidney transplantation. Body composition was determined using dual X-ray absorptiometry and bioimpedance spectroscopy to assess fat mass, fat-free mass and body cell mass (= fat-free mass - extracellular water) at the time of inclusion, 12 months later, and 1, 6, 12 and 24 months after transplantation. Recall dietary data and physical activity level were also collected. RESULTS: Eighty patients were included between 2007 and 2010. Sixty-five had a complete 24-month follow-up after kidney transplantation. Fat mass, fat-free mass and body cell mass decreased during the waiting period and early after kidney transplantation. The nadirs of body cell mass and fat-free mass occurred at 1 month and the nadir for fat mass occurred at 6 months. Maximum levels of all parameters of body composition were seen at 12 months, after which body cell mass and fat-free mass decreased, while fat mass remained stable. In multivariate analysis, male recipients, higher physical activity level and lower corticosteroid dose were significantly associated with better body cell mass recovery after kidney transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle factors, such as physical activity level, together with low dose of corticosteroids seem to influence body composition evolution following kidney transplantation with recovery of body cell mass. Specific strategies to promote physical activity in kidney transplant recipients should be provided before and after kidney transplantation.

3.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 19, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514756

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are implicated among immune effectors after vaccination against viral pathogens, including Ebola virus. The two-dose heterologous Ebola virus vaccine regimen, adenovirus type 26.ZEBOV followed by modified vaccinia Ankara-BN-Filo (EBOVAC2 consortium, EU Innovative Medicines Initiative), induces NK cell activation and anti-Ebola glycoprotein (GP) antibody-dependent NK cell activation post-dose 1, which is further elevated post-dose 2. Here, in a multicentre, phase 2 clinical trial (EBL2001), we demonstrate durable ex vivo NK cell activation 180 days after dose 2, with responses enriched in CD56bright NK cells. In vitro antibody-dependent responses to immobilised Ebola GP increased after dose 1, and remained elevated compared to pre-vaccination levels in serum collected 180 days later. Peak NK cell responses were observed post-dose 2 and NK cell IFN-γ responses remained significantly elevated at 180 days post-dose 2. Individual variation in NK cell responses were influenced by both anti-Ebola GP antibody concentrations and intrinsic interindividual differences in NK cell functional capacity. In summary, this study demonstrates durable NK cell responses after Ad26.ZEBOV, MVA-BN-Filo Ebola virus vaccination and could inform the immunological evaluation of future iterations of the vaccine regimen and vaccination schedules.

4.
J Pediatr ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe 4 subgroups of pediatric patients treated with splenectomy, hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, or rituximab as the first-option, second-line treatment for chronic immune thrombocytopenia. STUDY DESIGN: Selection of patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia from the French national prospective cohort of pediatric autoimmune cytopenia OBS'CEREVANCE and VIGICAIRE study, treated by splenectomy, hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, or rituximab as a first second-line treatment. RESULTS: For 137 patients, treated between 1989 and 2016, the median follow-up after diagnosis and after treatment initiation was 8.5 (2.8-26.4) years and 4.7 (1.1-25.1) years, respectively. Median age at diagnosis and at initiation of treatment were 9 (0.7; 16) and 12 (2; 18.1) years, respectively without significant difference between subgroups. For the whole cohort, 24-month event-free survival was 62% (95% CI 55; 71). It was 85% (95% CI 77; 95) for the 56 patients treated with splenectomy, 60% (95% CI 44; 84) for the 23 patients treated with rituximab, 46% (95% CI 30; 71) for the 24 patients treated with azathioprine, and 37% (95% CI 24; 59) for the 34 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine (log-rank P < .0001). For the splenectomy subgroup, being older than 10 years at splenectomy tended to improve event-free survival (P = .05). Female teenagers with antinuclear antibody positivity benefited from hydroxychloroquine therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This national study, limiting pitfalls in the analysis of the effects of second-line therapies, showed that splenectomy remains the treatment associated with the better response at 24 months.

6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To address the unmet medical need for an effective prophylactic vaccine against Ebola virus we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of three different two-dose heterologous vaccination regimens with a replication-deficient adenovirus type 26 vector-based vaccine (Ad26.ZEBOV), expressing Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein, and a non-replicating, recombinant, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector-based vaccine, encoding glycoproteins from Zaire Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Marburg virus, and nucleoprotein from the Tai Forest virus. METHODS: This randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial was done at seven hospitals in France and two research centres in the UK. Healthy adults (aged 18-65 years) with no history of Ebola vaccination were enrolled into four cohorts. Participants in cohorts I-III were randomly assigned (1:1:1) using computer-generated randomisation codes into three parallel groups (randomisation for cohorts II and III was stratified by country and age), in which participants were to receive an intramuscular injection of Ad26.ZEBOV on day 1, followed by intramuscular injection of MVA-BN-Filo at either 28 days (28-day interval group), 56 days (56-day interval group), or 84 days (84-day interval group) after the first vaccine. Within these three groups, participants in cohort II (14:1) and cohort III (10:3) were further randomly assigned to receive either Ad26.ZEBOV or placebo on day 1, followed by either MVA-BN-Filo or placebo on days 28, 56, or 84. Participants in cohort IV were randomly assigned (5:1) to receive one dose of either Ad26.ZEBOV or placebo on day 1 for vector shedding assessments. For cohorts II and III, study site personnel, sponsor personnel, and participants were masked to vaccine allocation until all participants in these cohorts had completed the post-MVA-BN-Filo vaccination visit at 6 months or had discontinued the trial, whereas cohort I was open-label. For cohort IV, study site personnel and participants were masked to vaccine allocation until all participants in this cohort had completed the post-vaccination visit at 28 days or had discontinued the trial. The primary outcome, analysed in all participants who had received at least one dose of vaccine or placebo (full analysis set), was the safety and tolerability of the three vaccination regimens, as assessed by participant-reported solicited local and systemic adverse events within 7 days of receiving both vaccines, unsolicited adverse events within 42 days of receiving the MVA-BN-Filo vaccine, and serious adverse events over 365 days of follow-up. The secondary outcome was humoral immunogenicity, as measured by the concentration of Ebola virus glycoprotein-binding antibodies at 21 days after receiving the MVA-BN-Filo vaccine. The secondary outcome was assessed in the per-protocol analysis set. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02416453, and EudraCT, 2015-000596-27. FINDINGS: Between June 23, 2015, and April 27, 2016, 423 participants were enrolled: 408 in cohorts I-III were randomly assigned to the 28-day interval group (123 to receive Ad26.ZEBOV and MVA-BN-Filo, and 13 to receive placebo), the 56-day interval group (124 to receive Ad26.ZEBOV and MVA-BN-Filo, and 13 to receive placebo), and the 84-day interval group (117 to receive Ad26.ZEBOV and MVA-BN-Filo, and 18 to receive placebo), and 15 participants in cohort IV were assigned to receive Ad26.ZEBOV and MVA-BN-Filo (n=13) or to receive placebo (n=2). 421 (99·5%) participants received at least one dose of vaccine or placebo. The trial was temporarily suspended after two serious neurological adverse events were reported, one of which was considered as possibly related to vaccination, and per-protocol vaccination was disrupted for some participants. Vaccinations were generally well tolerated. Mild or moderate local adverse events (mostly pain) were reported after 206 (62%) of 332 Ad26.ZEBOV vaccinations, 136 (58%) of 236 MVA-BN-Filo vaccinations, and 11 (15%) of 72 placebo injections. Systemic adverse events were reported after 255 (77%) Ad26.ZEBOV vaccinations, 116 (49%) MVA-BN-Filo vaccinations, and 33 (46%) placebo injections, and included mostly mild or moderate fatigue, headache, or myalgia. Unsolicited adverse events occurred after 115 (35%) of 332 Ad26.ZEBOV vaccinations, 81 (34%) of 236 MVA-BN-Filo vaccinations, and 24 (33%) of 72 placebo injections. At 21 days after receiving the MVA-BN-Filo vaccine, geometric mean concentrations of Ebola virus glycoprotein-binding antibodies were 4627 ELISA units (EU)/mL (95% CI 3649-5867) in the 28-day interval group, 10 131 EU/mL (8554-11 999) in the 56-day interval group, and 11 312 mL (9072-14106) in the 84-day interval group, with antibody concentrations persisting at 1149-1205 EU/mL up to day 365. INTERPRETATION: The two-dose heterologous regimen with Ad26.ZEBOV and MVA-BN-Filo was safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic, with humoral and cellular immune responses persisting for 1 year after vaccination. Taken together, these data support the intended prophylactic indication for the vaccine regimen. FUNDING: Innovative Medicines Initiative and Janssen Vaccines & Prevention BV.

8.
Trials ; 21(1): 846, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050924

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of several repurposed drugs to prevent hospitalisation or death in patients aged 65 or more with recent symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) and no criteria for hospitalisation. TRIAL DESIGN: Phase III, multi-arm (5) and multi-stage (MAMS), randomized, open-label controlled superiority trial. Participants will be randomly allocated 1:1:1:1:1 to the following strategies: Arm 1: Control arm Arms 2 to 5: Experimental treatment arms Planned interim analyses will be conducted at regular intervals. Their results will be reviewed by an Independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board. Experimental arms may be terminated for futility, efficacy or toxicity before the end of the trial. New experimental arms may be added if new evidence suggests that other treatments should be tested. A feasibility and acceptability substudy as well as an immunological substudy will be conducted alongside the trial. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria are: 65-year-old or more; Positive test for SARS-CoV-2 on a nasopharyngeal swab; Symptoms onset within 3 days before diagnosis; No hospitalisation criteria; Signed informed consent; Health insurance. Exclusion criteria are: Inability to make an informed decision to participate (e.g.: dementia, guardianship); Rockwood Clinical Frailty Scale ≥7; Long QT syndrome; QTc interval > 500 ms; Heart rate <50/min; Kalaemia >5.5 mmol/L or <3.5 mmol/L; Ongoing treatment with piperaquine, halofantrine, dasatinib, nilotinib, hydroxyzine, domperidone, citalopram, escitalopram, potent inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 isoenzyme, repaglinide, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, theophylline, pyrazinamide, warfarin; Known hypersensitivity to any of the trial drugs or to chloroquine and other 4-aminoquinolines, amodiaquine, mefloquine, glafenine, floctafenine, antrafenine, ARB; Hepatic porphyria; Liver failure (Child-Pugh stage ≥B); Stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease (GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m²); Dialysis; Hypersentivity to lactose; Lactase deficiency; Abnormalities in galactose metabolism; Malabsorption syndrome; Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; Symptomatic hyperuricemia; Ileus; Colitis; Enterocolitis; Chronic hepatitis B virus disease. The trial is being conducted in France in the Bordeaux, Corse, Dijon, Nancy, Paris and Toulouse areas as well as in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Participants are recruited either at home, nursing homes, general practices, primary care centres or hospital outpatient consultations. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The four experimental treatments planned in protocol version 1.2 (April 8th, 2020) are: (1) Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg, 2 tablets BID on day 0, 2 tablets QD from day 1 to 9; (2) Imatinib 400 mg, 1 tablet QD from day 0 to 9; (3) Favipiravir 200 mg, 12 tablets BID on day 0, 6 tablets BID from day 1 to 9; (4) Telmisartan 20 mg, 1 tablet QD from day 0 to 9. The comparator is a complex of vitamins and trace elements (AZINC Forme et Vitalité®), 1 capsule BID for 10 days, for which there is no reason to believe that they are active on the virus. In protocol version 1.2 (April 8th, 2020): People in the control arm will receive a combination of vitamins and trace elements; people in the experimental arms will receive hydroxychloroquine, or favipiravir, or imatinib, or telmisartan. MAIN OUTCOME: The primary outcome is the proportion of participants with an incidence of hospitalisation and/or death between inclusion and day 14 in each arm. RANDOMISATION: Participants are randomized in a 1:1:1:1:1 ratio to each arm using a web-based randomisation tool. Participants not treated with an ARB or ACEI prior to enrolment are randomized to receive the comparator or one of the four experimental drugs. Participants already treated with an ARB or ACEI are randomized to receive the comparator or one of the experimental drugs except telmisartan (i.e.: hydroxychloroquine, imatinib, or favipiravir). Randomisation is stratified on ACEI or ARBs treatment at inclusion and on the type of residence (personal home vs. nursing home). BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label trial. Participants, caregivers, investigators and statisticians are not blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 1057 participants will be enrolled if all arms are maintained until the final analysis and no additional arm is added. Three successive futility interim analyses are planned, when the number of participants reaches 30, 60 and 102 in the control arm. Two efficacy analyses (interim n°3 and final) will be performed successively. TRIAL STATUS: This describes the Version 1.2 (April 8th, 2020) of the COVERAGE protocol that was approved by the French regulatory authority and ethics committee. The trial was opened for enrolment on April 15th, 2020 in the Nouvelle Aquitaine region (South-West France). Given the current decline of the COVID-19 pandemic in France and its unforeseeable dynamic in the coming months, new trial sites in 5 other French regions and in Luxembourg are currently being opened. A revised version of the protocol was submitted to the regulatory authority and ethics committee on June 15th, 2020. It contains the following amendments: (i) Inclusion criteria: age ≥65 replaced by age ≥60; time since first symptoms <3 days replaced by time since first symptoms <5 days; (ii) Withdrawal of the hydroxychloroquine arm (due to external data); (iii) increase in the number of trial sites. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on Clinical Trials.gov on April 22nd, 2020 (Identifier: NCT04356495): and on EudraCT on April 10th, 2020 (Identifier: 2020-001435-27). FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapias em Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Estudos de Viabilidade , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Luxemburgo/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Telmisartan/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050708

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency viruses induce rare attenuated diseases due either to HIV-1 in the exceptional long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) or to HIV-2 in West Africa. To better understand characteristics of these two disease types we performed a multiplex comparative analysis of cell activation, exhaustion, and expression of coreceptors and restriction factors in CD4 T cells susceptible to harbor those viruses. We analyzed by flow cytometry the expression of HLA-DR, PD1, CCR5, CXCR6, SAMHD1, Blimp-1, and TRIM5α on CD4 T cell subsets from 10 HIV-1+ LTNPs and 14 HIV-2+ (12 nonprogressors and 2 progressors) of the ANRS CO-15 and CO-5 cohorts, respectively, and 12 HIV- healthy donors (HD). The V3 loop of the HIV-1 envelope from 6 HIV-1+ LTNPs was sequenced to determine the CXCR6-binding capacity. Proportions of HLA-DR+ and PD1+ cells were higher in memory CD4 T subsets from HIV-1 LTNPs compared with HIV-2 and HD. Similar findings were observed for CCR5+ cells although limited to central-memory CD4 T cell (TCM) and follicular helper T cell subsets, whereas all major subsets from HIV-1 LTNPs contained less CXCR6+ cells compared with HIV-2. All six V3 loop sequences from HIV-1 LTNPs contained a proline at position 326. Proportions of SAMHD1+ cells were higher in all resting CD4 T subsets from HIV-1 LTNPs compared with the other groups, whereas Blimp-1+ and Trim5α+ cells did not differ. The CD4 T cell subsets from HIV-1 LTNPs differ from those of HIV-2-infected subjects by higher levels of activation, exhaustion, and SAMHD1 expression that can reflect the distinct patterns of host/virus relationships.

10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1658, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903610

RESUMO

HIV-2 infection is characterized by low viremia and slow disease progression as compared to HIV-1 infection. Circulating CD14++CD16+ monocytes were found to accumulate and CD11c+ conventional dendritic cells (cDC) to be depleted in a Portuguese cohort of people living with HIV-2 (PLWHIV-2), compared to blood bank healthy donors (HD). We studied more precisely classical monocytes; CD16+ inflammatory (intermediate, non-classical and slan+ monocytes, known to accumulate during viremic HIV-1 infection); cDC1, important for cross-presentation, and cDC2, both depleted during HIV-1 infection. We analyzed by flow cytometry these PBMC subsets from Paris area residents: 29 asymptomatic, untreated PLWHIV-2 from the IMMUNOVIR-2 study, part of the ANRS-CO5 HIV-2 cohort: 19 long-term non-progressors (LTNP; infection ≥8 years, undetectable viral load, stable CD4 counts≥500/µL; 17 of West-African origin -WA), and 10 non-LTNP (P; progressive infection; 9 WA); and 30 age-and sex-matched controls: 16 blood bank HD with unknown geographical origin, and 10 HD of WA origin (GeoHD). We measured plasma bacterial translocation markers by ELISA. Non-classical monocyte counts were higher in GeoHD than in HD (54 vs. 32 cells/µL, p = 0.0002). Slan+ monocyte counts were twice as high in GeoHD than in HD (WA: 28 vs. 13 cells/µL, p = 0.0002). Thus cell counts were compared only between participants of WA origin. They were similar in LTNP, P and GeoHD, indicating that there were no HIV-2 related differences. cDC counts did not show major differences between the groups. Interestingly, inflammatory monocyte counts correlated with plasma sCD14 and LBP only in PLWHIV-2, especially LTNP, and not in GeoHD. In conclusion, in LTNP PLWHIV-2, inflammatory monocyte counts correlated with LBP or sCD14 plasma levels, indicating a potential innate immune response to subclinical bacterial translocation. As GeoHD had higher inflammatory monocyte counts than HD, our data also show that specific controls are important to refine innate immunity studies.

11.
Stat Methods Med Res ; : 962280220946080, 2020 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772626

RESUMO

Random forests are one of the state-of-the-art supervised machine learning methods and achieve good performance in high-dimensional settings where p, the number of predictors, is much larger than n, the number of observations. Repeated measurements provide, in general, additional information, hence they are worth accounted especially when analyzing high-dimensional data. Tree-based methods have already been adapted to clustered and longitudinal data by using a semi-parametric mixed effects model, in which the non-parametric part is estimated using regression trees or random forests. We propose a general approach of random forests for high-dimensional longitudinal data. It includes a flexible stochastic model which allows the covariance structure to vary over time. Furthermore, we introduce a new method which takes intra-individual covariance into consideration to build random forests. Through simulation experiments, we then study the behavior of different estimation methods, especially in the context of high-dimensional data. Finally, the proposed method has been applied to an HIV vaccine trial including 17 HIV-infected patients with 10 repeated measurements of 20,000 gene transcripts and blood concentration of human immunodeficiency virus RNA. The approach selected 21 gene transcripts for which the association with HIV viral load was fully relevant and consistent with results observed during primary infection.

12.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(8): 1082-1092, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829467

RESUMO

We report a longitudinal analysis of the immune response associated with a fatal case of COVID-19 in Europe. This patient exhibited a rapid evolution towards multiorgan failure. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in multiple nasopharyngeal, blood, and pleural samples, despite antiviral and immunomodulator treatment. Clinical evolution in the blood was marked by an increase (2-3-fold) in differentiated effector T cells expressing exhaustion (PD-1) and senescence (CD57) markers, an expansion of antibody-secreting cells, a 15-fold increase in γδ T cell and proliferating NK-cell populations, and the total disappearance of monocytes, suggesting lung trafficking. In the serum, waves of a pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, Th1 and Th2 activation, and markers of T cell exhaustion, apoptosis, cell cytotoxicity, and endothelial activation were observed until the fatal outcome. This case underscores the need for well-designed studies to investigate complementary approaches to control viral replication, the source of the hyperinflammatory status, and immunomodulation to target the pathophysiological response. The investigation was conducted as part of an overall French clinical cohort assessing patients with COVID-19 and registered in clinicaltrials.gov under the following number: NCT04262921.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , /imunologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Evolução Fatal , França , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/sangue , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/terapia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , /terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
13.
Yearb Med Inform ; 29(1): 231-234, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To introduce and summarize current research in the field of Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics. METHODS: PubMed searches of 2019 literature concerning public health and epidemiology informatics were conducted and the returned references were reviewed by the two section editors to select 14 candidate best papers. These papers were then peer-reviewed by external reviewers to allow the Editorial Committee a curated selection of the best papers. RESULTS: Among the 835 references retrieved from PubMed, two were finally selected as best papers. The first best paper leverages satellite images and deep learning to identify remote rural communities in low-income countries; the second paper describes the development of a worldwide human disease surveillance system based on near real-time news data from the GDELT project. Internet data and electronic health records are still widely used to detect and monitor disease activity. Identifying and targeting specific audiences for public health interventions is a growing subject of interest. CONCLUSIONS: The ever-increasing amount of data available offers endless opportunities to develop methods and tools that could assist public health surveillance and intervention belonging to the growing field of public health Data Science. The transition from proofs of concept to real world applications and adoption by health authorities remains a difficult leap to make.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3730, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709840

RESUMO

Long-term follow up studies from Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors (EBOV_S) are lacking. Here, we evaluate immune and gene expression profiles in 35 Guinean EBOV_S from the last West African outbreak, a median of 23 months (IQR [18-25]) after discharge from treatment center. Compared with healthy donors, EBOV_S exhibit increases of blood markers of inflammation, intestinal tissue damage, T cell and B cell activation and a depletion of circulating dendritic cells. All survivors have EBOV-specific IgG antibodies and robust and polyfunctional EBOV-specific memory T-cell responses. Deep sequencing of the genes expressed in blood reveals an enrichment in 'inflammation' and 'antiviral' pathways. Integrated analyses identify specific immune markers associated with the persistence of clinical symptoms. This study identifies a set of biological and genetic markers that could be used to define a signature of "chronic Ebola virus disease (CEVD)".


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/complicações , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Ebolavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ebolavirus/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/tratamento farmacológico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/genética , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Inflamação/genética , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Sobreviventes , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008522, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589686

RESUMO

DNA vectors have been widely used as a priming of poxvirus vaccine in prime/boost regimens. Whether the number of DNA impacts qualitatively or quantitatively the immune response is not fully explored. With the aim to reinforce T-cell responses by optimizing the prime-boost regimen, the multicentric EV03/ANRS VAC20 phase I/II trial, randomized 147 HIV-negative volunteers to either 3xDNA plus 1xNYVAC (weeks 0, 4, 8 plus 24; n = 74) or to 2xDNA plus 2xNYVAC (weeks 0, 4 plus 20, 24; n = 73) groups. T-cell responses (IFN-γ ELISPOT) to at least one peptide pool were higher in the 3xDNA than the 2xDNA groups (91% and 80% of vaccinees) (P = 0.049). In the 3xDNA arm, 26 (37%) recipients developed a broader T-cell response (Env plus at least to one of the Gag, Pol, Nef pools) than in the 2xDNA (15; 22%) arms (primary endpoint; P = 0.047) with a higher magnitude against Env (at week 26) (P<0.001). In both groups, vaccine regimens induced HIV-specific polyfunctional CD4 and CD8 T cells and the production of Th1, Th2 and Th17/IL-21 cytokines. Antibody responses were also elicited in up to 81% of vaccines. A higher percentage of IgG responders was noted in the 2xDNA arm compared to the 3xDNA arm, while the 3xDNA group tended to elicit a higher magnitude of IgG3 response against specific Env antigens. We show here that the modulation of the prime strategy, without modifying the route or the dose of administration, or the combination of vectors, may influence the quality of the responses.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Vetores Genéticos/imunologia , Antígenos HIV/imunologia , Poxviridae/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra a AIDS/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Antígenos HIV/administração & dosagem , Antígenos HIV/genética , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poxviridae/genética , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/administração & dosagem , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473007

RESUMO

To date, no specific estimate of R0 for SARS-CoV-2 is available for healthcare settings. Using inter-individual contact data, we highlight that R0 estimates from the community cannot translate directly to healthcare settings, with pre-pandemic R0 values ranging 1.3-7.7 in three illustrative healthcare institutions. This has implications for nosocomial Covid-19 control.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230772, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267847

RESUMO

In 31 participants who started first-line antiretroviral therapy in the NEAT 001/ANRS 143 clinical trial, we found after 96 weeks a statistically significant increase in blood telomere length (TL) of 0.04 (T/S Ratio) (p = 0.03). This increase was positively correlated with both the change in the percentage of CD4+ T-cells and with the decrease of CD38+ molecules on Central Memory CD8+ and negatively correlated with the change in the percentage of CD4+ Effector Memory cells. Increase in TL could be an expression of immune reconstitution and the associated decrease in immune activation. We acknowledge for the low statistical power due to the small sample size and the potential for false positive results due to multiple testing. Hence, further studies are needed to confirm these observations.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Telômero/imunologia , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/imunologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/métodos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carga Viral/imunologia
18.
J Theor Biol ; 495: 110254, 2020 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205143

RESUMO

The 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa has triggered accelerated development of several preventive vaccines against Ebola virus. Under the EBOVAC1 consortium, three phase I studies were carried out to assess safety and immunogenicity of a two-dose heterologous vaccination regimen developed by Janssen Vaccines and Prevention in collaboration with Bavarian Nordic. To describe the immune response induced by the two-dose heterologous vaccine regimen, we propose a mechanistic ODE based model, which takes into account the role of immunological memory. We perform identifiability and sensitivity analysis of the proposed model to establish which kind of biological data are ideally needed in order to accurately estimate parameters, and additionally, which of those are non-identifiable based on the available data. Antibody concentrations data from phase I studies have been used to calibrate the model and show its ability in reproducing the observed antibody dynamics. Together with other factors, the establishment of an effective and reactive immunological memory is of pivotal importance for several prophylactic vaccines. We show that introducing a memory compartment in our calibrated model allows to evaluate the magnitude of the immune response induced by a booster dose and its long-term persistence afterwards.

19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(5): 585-597, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PRIMVAC is a VAR2CSA-derived placental malaria vaccine candidate aiming to prevent serious clinical outcomes of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of PRIMVAC adjuvanted with Alhydrogel or glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in stable emulsion (GLA-SE) in French and Burkinabe women who were not pregnant. METHODS: This first-in-human, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalation trial was done in two staggered phases, a phase 1A trial in 18-35-year-old women who were malaria naive in a hospital in France and a subsequent phase 1B trial in women who were naturally exposed to P falciparum and nulligravid in the clinical site of a research centre in Burkina Faso. Volunteers were recruited into four sequential cohorts receiving PRIMVAC intramuscularly at day 0, 28, and 56: two cohorts in France receiving 20 µg or 50 µg of PRIMVAC and then two in Burkina Faso receiving 50 µg or 100 µg of PRIMVAC. Volunteers were randomly assigned (1:1) to two groups (PRIMVAC adjuvanted with either Alhydrogel or GLA-SE) in France and randomly assigned (2:2:1) to three groups (PRIMVAC adjuvanted with either Alhydrogel, GLA-SE, or placebo) in Burkina Faso. Randomisation was centralised, using stratification by cohort and blocks of variable size, and syringes were masked by opaque labels. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants with any grade 3 or higher adverse reaction to vaccination up until day 35. Safety at later time points as well as humoral and cellular immunogenicity were assessed in secondary endpoints. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02658253. FINDINGS: Between April 19, 2016, and July 13, 2017, 68 women (18 in France, 50 in Burkina Faso) of 101 assessed for eligibility were included. No serious adverse event related to the vaccine occurred. PRIMVAC antibody titres increased with each dose and seroconversion was observed in all women vaccinated with PRIMVAC (n=57). PRIMVAC antibody titres reached a peak (geometric mean 11 843·0, optical density [OD] 1·0, 95% CI 7559·8-18 552·9 with 100 µg dose and GLA-SE) 1 week after the third vaccination (day 63). Compared with Alhydrogel, GLA-SE tended to improve the PRIMVAC antibody response (geometric mean 2163·5, OD 1·0, 95% CI 1315·7-3557·7 with 100 µg dose and Alhydrogel at day 63). 1 year after the last vaccination, 20 (71%) of 28 women who were vaccinated with PRIMVAC/Alhydrogel and 26 (93%) of 28 women who were vaccinated with PRIMVAC/GLA-SE still had anti-PRIMVAC antibodies, although antibody magnitude was markedly lower (452·4, OD 1·0, 95% CI 321·8-636·1 with 100 µg dose and GLA-SE). These antibodies reacted with native homologous VAR2CSA expressed by NF54-CSA infected erythrocytes (fold change from baseline at day 63 with 100 µg dose and GLA-SE: 10·74, 95% CI 8·36-13·79). Limited cross-recognition, restricted to sera collected from women that received the 100 µg PRIMVAC dose, was observed against heterologous VAR2CSA variants expressed by FCR3-CSA (fold change from baseline at day 63: 1·49, 95% CI 1·19-1·88) and 7G8-CSA infected erythrocytes (1·2, 1·08-1·34). INTERPRETATION: PRIMVAC adjuvanted with Alhydrogel or GLA-SE had an acceptable safety profile, was immunogenic, and induced functional antibodies reacting with the homologous VAR2CSA variant expressed by NF54-CSA infected erythrocytes. Cross-reactivity against heterologous VAR2CSA variants was limited and only observed in the higher dose group. An alternate schedule of immunisation, antigen dose, and combinations with other VAR2CSA-based vaccines are envisaged to improve the cross-reactivity against heterologous VAR2CSA variants. FUNDING: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, through Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau, Germany; Inserm, and Institut National de Transfusion Sanguine, France; Irish Aid, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Ireland.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Hidróxido de Alumínio/imunologia , Glucosídeos/imunologia , Lipídeo A/imunologia , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Burkina Faso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , França , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3589, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108159

RESUMO

Lung infections play a critical role in cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogenesis. CF respiratory tract is now considered to be a polymicrobial niche and advances in high-throughput sequencing allowed to analyze its microbiota and mycobiota. However, no NGS studies until now have characterized both communities during CF pulmonary exacerbation (CFPE). Thirty-three sputa isolated from patients with and without CFPE were used for metagenomic high-throughput sequencing targeting 16S and ITS2 regions of bacterial and fungal rRNA. We built inter-kingdom network and adapted Phy-Lasso method to highlight correlations in compositional data. The decline in respiratory function was associated with a decrease in bacterial diversity. The inter-kingdom network revealed three main clusters organized around Aspergillus, Candida, and Scedosporium genera. Using Phy-Lasso method, we identified Aspergillus and Malassezia as relevantly associated with CFPE, and Scedosporium plus Pseudomonas with a decline in lung function. We corroborated in vitro the cross-domain interactions between Aspergillus and Streptococcus predicted by the correlation network. For the first time, we included documented mycobiome data into a version of the ecological Climax/Attack model that opens new lines of thoughts about the physiopathology of CF lung disease and future perspectives to improve its therapeutic management.

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