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1.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries(ccTGA) has many management strategies, with the emergence of anatomical repair increasing the available surgical options. Contemporary surgical practices have not been described in multi-center analyses. This study describes the distribution of heart surgery in patients with ccTGA and defines contemporary outcomes in a large, multi-center cohort. METHODS: Index cardiovascular operations in patients with primary or fundamental diagnosis of ccTGA were identified in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (STS-CHD) from 2010-2019. Operations of interest were combined into mutually exclusive groups designating overall ccTGA management strategies. Outcomes were defined with standard STS-CHD definitions. Pearson chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical comparisons. RESULTS: One-hundred-one centers performed 985 index operations, with anatomic repair being the most common approach. Twenty-six centers performed more than 10 operations. Atrial switch plus Rastelli operations had the highest rate of operative mortality (8.4%) and major complications (38.2%). Heart transplant operations had the longest postoperative length of stay among survivors (18 days [13.5-26]). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ccTGA remain a challenging cohort, with significant diversity in the operations employed and a substantial burden of operative mortality and morbidity.

2.
Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil ; 28(1): 1-12, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35145330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) is a debilitating neurological condition often associated with lifelong disability. Despite this, there are limited data on pediatric tSCI epidemiology in the United States. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to estimate tSCI hospitalization rates among children, including by age, sex, and race. Secondary objectives were to characterize tSCI hospitalizations and examine associations between sociodemographic characteristics and tSCI etiology. METHODS: We used the 2016 Kids' Inpatient Database to examine tSCI hospitalizations among children (<21 years). Descriptive statistics were used to report individual and care setting characteristics for initial tSCI hospitalizations. We used Census Bureau data to estimate tSCI hospitalization rates (number of pediatric tSCI hospitalizations / number of US children) and logistic regression modeling to assess associations between documented sociodemographic characteristics and injury etiology. RESULTS: There were 1.48 tSCI admissions per 100,000 children; highest rates of hospitalization involved older (15-20 years), male, and Black children. Hospitalization involving male (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.43; 95% CI, 0.33-0.58) or Black (AOR 0.37; 95% CI, 0.25-0.55) children were less likely to involve a motor traffic accident. Hospitalizations of Black children were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of tSCI resulting from a firearm incident (AOR 18.97; 95% CI, 11.50-31.28) or assault (AOR 11.76; 95% CI, 6.75-20.50) compared with hospitalizations of White children. CONCLUSION: Older, male, and Black children are disproportionately burdened by tSCI. Implementation of broad health policies over time may be most effective in reducing pediatric tSCI hospitalizations and preventable injuries.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Acidentes de Trânsito , Criança , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Neurology ; 98(15): e1545-e1554, 2022 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35169012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare maternal obstetric complications and nonelective readmissions in women with common neurologic comorbidities (WWN) vs women without neurologic disorders. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of index characteristics and acute postpartum, nonelective rehospitalizations from the 2015-2017 National Readmissions Database using ICD-10 codes. Wald χ2 testing compared baseline demographic, hospital, and clinical characteristics and postpartum complications between WWN (including previous stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis [MS], and myasthenia gravis [MG]) and controls. Multivariable logistic regression models examined odds of postpartum complications and nonelective readmissions within 30 and 90 days for each neurologic comorbidity compared to controls (α = 0.05). RESULTS: A total of 7,612 women with previous stroke, 83,430 women with migraine, 6,760 women with MS, 843 women with MG, and 8,136,335 controls met the criteria for index admission after viable infant delivery. WWN were more likely than controls to have inpatient diagnoses of edema, proteinuria, or hypertensive disorders and to have received maternal care for poor fetal growth. The adjusted odds of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention severe maternal morbidity indicator were greater for women with previous stroke (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 8.53, 95% CI 7.24-10.06), migraine (AOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.85-2.26), and MG (AOR 4.45, 95% CI 2.45-8.08) (all p < 0.0001). Readmission rates at 30 and 90 days for WWN were higher than for controls (30 days: previous stroke 2.9%, migraine 1.7%, MS 1.8%, MG 4.3%, controls 1.1%; 90 days: previous stroke 3.7%, migraine 2.5%, MS 5.1%, MG 6.0%, controls 1.6%). Women with MG had the highest adjusted odds of readmission (30 days: AOR 3.96, 95% CI 2.37-6.65, p < 0.0001; 90 days: AOR 3.30, 95% CI 1.88-5.78, p < 0.0001). DISCUSSION: WWN may be at higher risk of severe maternal morbidity at the time of index delivery and postpartum readmission. More real-world evidence is needed to develop research infrastructure and create efficacious interventions to optimize maternal-fetal outcomes in WWN, especially for women with previous stroke or MG.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Esclerose Múltipla , Miastenia Gravis , Complicações na Gravidez , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Miastenia Gravis/epidemiologia , Readmissão do Paciente , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
4.
J Vasc Surg ; 75(4): 1286-1292, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Head and neck malignancies are often treated with radiotherapy (RT). Nearly 80% of patients who have undergone RT will develop carotid radiation arteritis to some degree and 29% will develop stenosis >50%. Surgery in a radiated neck has higher rates of complications, and carotid artery stenting (CAS) has become the primary therapy. The outcomes for CAS in patients with radiation arteritis have not been rigorously evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the differences in perioperative outcomes, restenosis rates, the need for reintervention, and freedom from mortality between RT patients and patients with atherosclerotic disease who had undergone CAS. METHODS: The national Vascular Quality Initiative CAS dataset from 2016 to 2019 comprised the sample for analyses (n = 7343). The primary independent variable was previous head and/or neck RT. The primary endpoint was the interval to mortality. The secondary endpoints were the cumulative incidence of restenosis (>50% and >70% by duplex ultrasound) and reintervention. We also examined the following secondary perioperative endpoints: myocardial infarction, in-hospital mortality (death before discharge), neurologic events, ipsilateral stroke, and contralateral stroke. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess for mortality, and cumulative incidence function estimates were used for the nonfatal endpoints. RESULTS: Of the 7218 patients, 1199 (17%) had undergone prior RT. We found a significant difference in the 3-year estimates of mortality for those with and without prior RT (9.4% and 7.5%, respectively; P = .03). Furthermore, on adjusted analysis, we observed a 58% increase in the risk of mortality for those with prior RT (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.21). We did not observe any differences in the risk of perioperative complications (myocardial infarction, in-hospital mortality, ipsilateral or contralateral stroke), restenosis (>50% or >70%), or reintervention for the prior RT group compared with those without RT. CONCLUSIONS: The CAS patients with RT had significantly greater mortality at all time points compared with those without RT, even after adjusting for other covariates. No significant difference was found in the incidence of perioperative complications, reintervention, or restenosis between the two groups. The present study is unique because of the large sample size and length of follow-up. The results suggest that for this high-risk group, CAS provides the same patency as it does for atherosclerotic carotid stenosis and avoids potentially morbid cranial nerve injury and wound healing complications.


Assuntos
Arterite , Estenose das Carótidas , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Infarto do Miocárdio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Angioplastia/efeitos adversos , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Stents/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 113(2): 511-518, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Quality Measurement Task Force has developed risk models and composite performance measures for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR), isolated mitral valve replacement or repair (MVRR), AVR+CABG, and MVRR+CABG. To further enhance its portfolio of risk-adjusted performance metrics, STS has developed new risk models for multiple valve operations ± CABG procedures. METHODS: Using July 2011 to June 2019 STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database data, risk models for AVR+MVRR (n = 31,968) and AVR+MVRR+CABG (n = 12,650) were developed with the following endpoints: Operative Mortality, major morbidity (any 1 or more of the following: cardiac reoperation, deep sternal wound infection/mediastinitis, stroke, prolonged ventilation, and renal failure), and combined mortality and/or major morbidity. Data were divided into development (July 2011 to June 2017; n = 35,109) and validation (July 2017 to June 2019; n = 9509) samples. Predictors were selected by assessing model performance and clinical face validity of full and progressively more parsimonious models. Performance of the resulting models was evaluated by assessing discrimination and calibration. RESULTS: C-statistics for the overall population of multiple valve ± CABG procedures were 0.7086, 0.6734, and 0.6840 for mortality, morbidity, and combined mortality and/or morbidity in the development sample, and 0.6953, 0.6561, and 0.6634 for the same outcomes, respectively, in the validation sample. CONCLUSIONS: New STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database risk models have been developed for multiple valve ± CABG operations, and these models will be used in subsequent STS performance metrics.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Modelos Estatísticos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sociedades Médicas , Cirurgia Torácica , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Causas de Morte/tendências , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Cirurgiões , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 113(3): 866-873, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the more than 40,000 children in the United States undergoing congenital heart surgery annually, the relationship between hospital quality and costs remains unclear. Prior studies report conflicting results and clinical outcomes have continued to improve over time. We examined a large contemporary cohort, aiming to better inform ongoing initiatives seeking to optimize health care value in this population. METHODS: Clinical information (The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Database) was merged with standardized cost data (Pediatric Health Information Systems) for children undergoing heart surgery from 2010 to 2015. In-hospital cost variability was analyzed using Bayesian hierarchical models adjusted for case-mix. Quality metrics examined included in-hospital mortality, postoperative complications, postoperative length of stay (PLOS), and a composite. RESULTS: Overall, 32 hospitals (n = 45,315 patients) were included. Median adjusted cost per case varied across hospitals from $67,700 to $51,200 in the high vs low cost tertile (ratio 1.32; 95% credible interval, 1.29 to 1.35), and all quality metrics also varied across hospitals. Across cost tertiles, there were no significant differences in the quality metrics examined, with the exception of PLOS. The PLOS findings were driven by high-risk The Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery categories 4 and 5 cases (adjusted median length of stay 16.8 vs 14.9 days in high vs low cost tertile [ratio 1.13, 1.05 to 1.24]), and intensive care unit PLOS. CONCLUSIONS: Contemporary congenital heart surgery costs vary across hospitals but were not associated with most quality metrics examined, highlighting that performance in one area does not necessarily convey to others. Cost variability was associated with PLOS, particularly related to intensive care unit PLOS and high-risk cases. Care processes influencing PLOS may provide targets for value-based initiatives in this population.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Cirurgia Torácica , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Estados Unidos
7.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34875263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study sought to characterize the current US experience of aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) compared with native valve endocarditis (NVE). METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database was queried for entries of active aortic infective endocarditis (IE). Two analyses were performed: (1) trends of surgical volume and operative mortality (2011-2019); and (2) descriptive and risk-adjusted comparisons between PVE and NVE (2014-2019) using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: From 2011 to 2019, there was a yearly increase in the proportion of PVE (20.9% to 25.9%; P < .001) with a concurrent decrease in operative mortality (PVE, 22.5% to 10.4%; P < .001; NVE, 10.9% to 8.5%; P < .001). From 2014 to 2019, active aortic IE was identified in 9768 patients (NVE, 6842; PVE, 2926). Aortic root abscess (50.1% vs 25.2%; P < .001), aortic root replacement (50.1% vs 12.8%; P < .001), homograft implantation (27.2% vs 4.1%; P < .001), and operative mortality (12.2% vs 6.4%; P < .001) were higher in PVE. After risk adjustment, PVE (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% CI,1.16-1.94; P < .01), aortic root replacement (OR, 1.49; 95% CI,1.15-1.92; P < .001), Staphylococcus aureus (OR, 1.5; 95% CI,1.23-1.82; P < .001), and unplanned revascularization (OR, 5.83; 95% CI,4.12-8.23; P < .001) or mitral valve surgery (OR, 2.29; 95% CI,1.5-3.51; P < .001) correlated with a higher operative mortality, whereas prosthesis type (P = .68) was not an independent predictor. CONCLUSIONS: IE in the United States has risen over the past decade. However, operative mortality has decreased for both PVE and NVE. PVE, extension of IE requiring aortic root replacement, and additional unplanned surgical interventions carry an elevated mortality risk. Prosthesis selection did not affect operative mortality.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify the optimal temperature for moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest in patients undergoing elective hemiarch replacement with antegrade brain perfusion. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons adult cardiac surgery database was queried for elective hemiarch replacements using antegrade brain perfusion for aneurysmal disease (2014-2019). Generalized estimating equations and restricted cubic splines were used to determine the risk-adjusted relationships between temperature as a continuous variable and outcomes. RESULTS: Elective hemiarch replacement with antegrade brain perfusion occurred in 3898 patients at 374 centers with a median nadir temperature of 24.9 °C (first quartile, third quartile = 22.0 °C, 27.5 °C) and median circulatory arrest time of 19 minutes (first quartile, third quartile = 14.0 minutes, 27.0 minutes). After adjustment for comorbidities, circulatory arrest time, and individual surgeon, patients cooled between 25 and 28 °C had an early survival advantage compared with 24 °C, whereas those cooled between 21 and 23 °C had higher risks of mortality compared with 24 °C. A nadir temperature of 27 °C was associated with the lowest risk-adjusted odds of mortality (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.91). A nadir temperature of 21 °C had the highest risk of mortality (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.73). Risk of experiencing a major morbidity was elevated in patients cooled between 21 and 23 °C, with the highest risk occurring in patients cooled to 21 °C (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.24). CONCLUSIONS: For patients with aneurysmal disease undergoing elective hemiarch with antegrade brain perfusion, circulatory arrest with a nadir temperature of 27 °C confers the greatest early survival benefit and smallest risk of postoperative morbidity.

9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conversion to thoracotomy during minimally invasive lobectomy for lung cancer is occasionally necessary. Differences between video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS) lobectomy conversion have not been described. METHODS: We queried The Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2018. Patients with prior thoracic operations and metastatic disease were excluded. Univariable comparisons with χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests and multivariable logistic regression modeling were performed. RESULTS: There were 27,695 minimally invasive lobectomies from 269 centers. Conversion to thoracotomy occurred in 11.0% of VATS and 6.0% of RATS (P < .001). Conversion was associated with increased mortality (P < .001), major complications (P < .001), and intraoperative (P < .001) and postoperative (P < .001) blood transfusions. Conversion from RATS occurred emergently (P < .001) and for vascular injury (P < .001) more frequently than from VATS, but there was no difference in overall major complications or mortality. Mortality after conversion was 3.1% for RATS and 2.2% for VATS (P = .24). Clinical cancer stage II or III (P < .001), preoperative chemotherapy (P = .003), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P = .006), body mass index (P < .001), and left-sided resection (P = .0002) independently predicted VATS conversion. For RATS clinical stage III (P = .037), left-sided resection (P = .041), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P = .002) predicted conversion. Lower volume centers had increased rates of conversion (P < .001) in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Conversion from minimally invasive to open lobectomy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Conversion occurs more frequently during VATS compared with RATS, albeit less often emergently, and with similar rates of overall mortality and major complications. Predictors, urgency, and reasons for conversion differ between RATS and VATS lobectomy and may assist in patient selection.

10.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between institutional volume and operative mortality after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) remains unclear. METHODS: From January 2013 to June 2018, 234 556 patients underwent isolated SAVR (n = 144 177) or SAVR with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (n = 90 379) within the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database. The association between annualized SAVR volume (group 1 [1-25 SAVRs], group 2 [26-50 SAVRs], group 3 [51-100 SAVRs], and group 4 [>100 SAVRs]) and operative mortality and composite major morbidity or mortality was assessed. Random effects models were used to evaluate whether historical (2013-2015) SAVR volume or risk-adjusted outcomes explained future (2016-2018) risk-adjusted outcomes. RESULTS: The annualized median number of SAVRs per site was 35 (interquartile range, 22-59; isolated aortic valve replacement [AVR], 20; AVR with CABG, 13). Among isolated SAVR cases, the mean operative mortality and composite morbidity or mortality were 1.5% and 9.7%, respectively, at the highest-volume sites (group 4), with significantly higher rates among progressively lower-volume groups (P trend < .001). After adjustment, lower-volume centers had increased odds of operative mortality (group 1 vs group 4 [reference]: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for SAVR, 2.24 [95% CI, 1.91-2.64]; AOR for SAVR with CABG, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.67-2.30]) and major morbidity or mortality (AOR for SAVR, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.39-1.69]; AOR for SAVR with CABG, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.32-1.61]) compared with the highest-volume institutions. Substantial variation in outcomes was observed across hospitals within each volume category, and prior outcomes explained a greater proportion of hospital operative outcomes than did prior volume. CONCLUSIONS: Operative outcomes after SAVR with or without CABG is inversely associated with institutional procedure volumes; however, prior outcomes are more predictive of future outcomes than is prior volume. Given the excellent outcomes observed at many lower-volume hospitals, procedural outcomes may be preferable to procedural volumes as a quality metric.

11.
Neurol Clin Pract ; 11(5): e612-e619, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) to International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) coding transition on the point prevalence and longitudinal trends of 16 neurologic diagnoses. METHODS: We used 2014-2017 data from the National Inpatient Sample to identify hospitalizations with one of 16 common neurologic diagnoses. We used published ICD-9-CM codes to identify hospitalizations from January 1, 2014, to September 30, 2015, and used the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's MapIt tool to convert them to equivalent ICD-10-CM codes for October 1, 2015-December 31, 2017. We compared the prevalence of each diagnosis before vs after the ICD coding transition using logistic regression and used interrupted time series regression to model the longitudinal change in disease prevalence across time. RESULTS: The average monthly prevalence of subarachnoid hemorrhage was stable before the coding transition (average monthly increase of 4.32 admissions, 99.7% confidence interval [CI]: -8.38 to 17.01) but increased after the coding transition (average monthly increase of 24.32 admissions, 99.7% CI: 15.71-32.93). Otherwise, there were no significant differences in the longitudinal rate of change in disease prevalence over time between ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM. Six of 16 neurologic diagnoses (37.5%) experienced significant changes in cross-sectional prevalence during the coding transition, most notably for status epilepticus (odds ratio 0.30, 99.7% CI: 0.26-0.34). CONCLUSIONS: The transition from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM coding affects prevalence estimates for status epilepticus and other neurologic disorders, a potential source of bias for future longitudinal neurologic studies. Studies should limit to 1 coding system or use interrupted time series models to adjust for changes in coding patterns until new neurology-specific ICD-9 to ICD-10 conversion maps can be developed.

12.
J Vasc Access ; : 11297298211045495, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate differences in primary anesthetic type used in arteriovenous access creation with the hypothesis that administration of regional anesthesia and monitored anesthesia care (MAC) with local anesthesia as the primary anesthetic has increased over time. METHODS: National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry data were retrospectively evaluated. Covariates were selected a priori within multivariate models to determine predictors of anesthetic type in adults who underwent elective arteriovenous access creation between 2010 and 2018. RESULTS: A total of 144,392 patients met criteria; 90,741 (62.8%) received general anesthesia. The use of regional anesthesia and MAC decreased over time (8.0%-6.8%, 36.8%-27.8%, respectively; both p < 0.0001). Patients who underwent regional anesthesia were more likely to have ASA physical status >III and to reside in rural areas (52.3% and 12.9%, respectively; both p < 0.0001). Patients who underwent MAC were more likely to be older, male, receive care outside the South, and reside in urban areas (median age 65, 56.8%, 68.1%, and 70.8%, respectively; all p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that being male, having an ASA physical status >III, and each 5-year increase in age resulted in increased odds of receiving alternatives to general anesthesia (regional anesthesia adjusted odds ratios (AORs) 1.06, 1.12, and 1.26, MAC AORs 1.09, 1.2, and 1.1, respectively; all p < 0.0001). Treatment in the Midwest, South, or West was associated with decreased odds of receiving alternatives to general anesthesia compared to the Northeast (regional anesthesia AORs 0.28, 0.38, and 0.03, all p < 0.0001; MAC 0.76, 0.13, and 0.43, respectively; all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Use of regional anesthesia and MAC with local anesthesia for arteriovenous access creation has decreased over time with general anesthesia remaining the primary anesthetic type. Anesthetic choice, however, varies with patient characteristics and geography.

13.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-7, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine who is involved in the care of a trauma patient. METHODS: We recorded hospital personnel involved in 24 adult Priority 1 trauma patient admissions for 12 h or until patient demise. Hospital personnel were delineated by professional background and role. RESULTS: We cataloged 19 males and 5 females with a median age of 50-y-old (interquartile range [IQR], 35.5-67.5). The average number of hospital personnel involved was 79.71 (standard deviation, 17.62; standard error 3.6). A median of 51.2% (IQR, 43.4%-59.8%) of personnel were first involved within hour 1. More personnel were involved in direct versus indirect care (median 54.5 [IQR, 47.5-67.0] vs 25.0 [IQR, 22.0-30.5]; P < 0.0001). Median number of health-care professionals and auxiliary staff were 74.5 (IQR, 63.5-90.5) and 6.0 (IQR, 5.0-7.0), respectively. More personnel were first involved in hospital locations external to the emergency department (median, 53.0 [IQR, 41.5-63.0] vs 27.5 [IQR, 24.0-30.0]; P < 0.0001). No differences existed in total personnel by Injury Severity Score (P = 0.1266), day (P = 0.7270), or time of admission (P = 0.2098). CONCLUSIONS: A large number of hospital personnel with varying job responsibilities respond to severe trauma. These data may guide hospital staffing and disaster preparedness policies.

14.
Prev Med Rep ; 23: 101505, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381667

RESUMO

Lower extremity amputation due to peripheral artery disease (PAD) and diabetes (DM) is a life-altering event that identifies disparities in access to healthcare and management of disease. West Virginia (WV), a highly rural state, is an ideal location to study these disparities. The WVU longitudinal health system database was used to identify 1) risk factors for amputation, 2) how disease management affects the risk of amputation, and 3) whether the event of amputation is associated with a change in HbA1c and LDL levels. Adults (≥18 years) with diagnoses of DM and/or PAD between 2011 and 2016 were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed on patients with lab information for both HbA1c and LDL while adjusting for patient factors to examine associations with amputations. In patients who underwent amputation, we compared laboratory values before and after using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. 50,276 patients were evaluated, 369 (7.3/1000) underwent amputation. On multivariable analyses, Male sex and Self-pay insurance had higher odds for amputation. Compared to patients with DM alone, PAD patients had 12.3 times higher odds of amputation, while patients with DM and PAD had 51.8 times higher odds of amputation compared to DM alone. We found significant associations between odds of amputation and HbA1c (OR 1.31,CI = 1.15-1.48), but not LDL. Following amputation, we identified significant decreases in lab values for HbA1c and LDL. These findings highlight the importance of medical optimization and patient education and suggest that an amputation event may provide an important opportunity for changes in disease management and patient behavior.

15.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic root translocation (Nikaidoh), Rastelli, and réparation à l'etage ventriculaire (REV) are repair options for transposition of the great arteries (TGA) with ventricular septal defects and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (VSD-LVOTO) or double outlet right ventricle TGA type (DORV-TGA). METHODS: This retrospective study using The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database evaluates surgical procedure utilization and outcomes of patients undergoing repair of TGA-VSD-LVOTO and DORV-TGA with a Nikaidoh, Rastelli, or REV procedure. RESULTS: A total of 293 patients underwent repair at 82 centers (January 2010 to June 2019). Most patients underwent a Rastelli (n = 165, 56.3%) or a Nikaidoh (n = 119, 40.6%) operation; only 3.1% (n = 9) underwent a REV. High-volume centers performed the majority of the repairs. Fewer Nikaidoh than Rastelli patients had prior cardiac operations (n = 57 [48.7%] vs n = 102 [63.0%]; P = .004). Nikaidohs had longer median cardiopulmonary bypass time (227 [interquartile range (IQR), 167-299] minutes vs 175 [IQR, 133-225] minutes; P < .001) and median aortic cross-clamp times (131 [IQR, 91-175] minutes vs 105 [IQR, 82-141] minutes; P = .0015). Operative mortality was 3.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0%-7.0%; n = 5) for Rastelli, 4.4% (95% CI, 1.4%-9.9%; n = 5) for Nikaidoh, and 11.1% (95% CI, 0.3%-48.3%, n = 1) for REV. The rates of cardiac arrest, unplanned reoperation, mechanical circulatory support, prolonged ventilation, and permanent pacemaker placement were higher in the Nikaidoh population but with 95% CIs overlapping those of the other procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Rastelli and Nikaidoh procedures are the prevalent repair strategies for patients with DORV-TGA and TGA-VSD-LVOTO. Most are performed at high-volume institutions, and early outcomes are similar.

16.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female patients with coronary artery disease have inferior outcomes compared with male patients, including higher mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). We aimed to evaluate the association of female sex with the use of guideline-concordant CABG revascularization techniques. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database was queried for adult patients who underwent first-time isolated CABG in the United States from 2011 to 2019. The association between female sex and the odds of (1) receiving a left internal mammary artery graft for revascularization of the left anterior descending artery, (2) undergoing complete revascularization, and (3) undergoing multiarterial grafting was assessed, adjusting for procedural anatomy. RESULTS: Among 1,212,487 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 75% were male (n = 911,178) and 25% were female (n = 301,309). Female sex was associated with lower unadjusted rates of revascularization with an internal mammary artery graft (93.9% vs 95.9%, P < .001), bilateral internal mammary artery graft (2.9% vs 5.6%, P < .001), or radial artery graft (3.2% vs 5.6%, P < .001). After adjustment, female patients had lower odds than males of receiving a left internal mammary artery graft to the left anterior descending artery (adjusted odds ratio 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 0.83; P < .001), undergoing complete revascularization (adjusted odds ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.90; P < .001), and undergoing multiarterial grafting (adjusted odds ratio 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 0.81; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Female sex was associated with 14% to 22% lower odds of undergoing guideline-concordant revascularization including left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending artery grafting, multiarterial grafting, and complete revascularization. Further investigation is necessary to determine why revascularization approaches differ by sex and to what degree sex disparities in coronary artery disease outcomes are due to surgical approach.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether sociodemographic and clinical factors were associated with nonelective readmission within 30 days of hospitalization for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Secondary objectives were to examine the effects of TBI severity on readmission and characterize primary reasons for readmission. SETTING: Hospitalized patients in the United States, using the 2014 Nationwide Readmission Database. PARTICIPANTS: All patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of TBI between January 1, 2014, and November 30, 2014. We excluded patients (1) with a missing or invalid length of stay or admission date, (2) who were nonresidents, and 3) who died during their index hospitalization. DESIGN: Observational study; cohort study. MAIN MEASURES: Survey weighting was used to compute national estimates of TBI hospitalization and nonelective 30-day readmission. Associations between sociodemographic and clinical factors with readmission were assessed using unconditional logistic regression with and without adjustment for suspected confounders. RESULTS: There were 135 542 individuals who were hospitalized for TBI; 8.9% of patients were readmitted within 30 days of discharge. Age (strongest association for 65-74 years vs 18-24 years: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.57; 95% CI: 2.02-3.27), documentation of a fall (AOR, 1.24; 95% CI: 1.13-1.35), and intentional self-injury (AOR, 3.13; 95% CI: 1.88-5.21) at the index admission were positively associated with readmission. Conversely, history of a motor vehicle (AOR, 0.69; 95% CI: 0.62-0.78) or cycling (AOR, 0.56; 95% CI: 0.40-0.77) accident was negatively associated with readmission. Females were also less likely to be readmitted following hospitalization for a TBI (AOR, 0.87; 95% CI: 0.82-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: Many sociodemographic and clinical factors were found to be associated with acute readmission following hospitalizations for TBI. Future studies are needed to determine the extent to which readmissions following TBI hospitalizations are preventable.

18.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 240, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics are used in Parkinson disease (PD) to treat psychosis, mood, and behavioral disturbances. Commonly used antipsychotics differ substantially in their potential to worsen motor symptoms through dopaminergic receptor blockade. Recent real-world data on the use and continuation of antipsychotic therapy in PD are lacking. The objectives of this study are to (1) examine the continuation of overall and initial antipsychotic therapy in individuals with PD and (2) determine whether continuation varies by drug dopamine receptor blocking activity. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using U.S. commercially insured individuals in Optum 2001-2019. Adults aged 40 years or older with PD initiating antipsychotic therapy, with continuous insurance coverage for at least 6 months following drug initiation, were included. Exposure to pimavanserin, quetiapine, clozapine, aripiprazole, risperidone, or olanzapine was identified based on pharmacy claims. Six-month continuation of overall and initial antipsychotic therapy was estimated by time to complete discontinuation or switching to a different antipsychotic. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated factors associated with discontinuation. RESULTS: Overall, 38.6% of 3566 PD patients in our sample discontinued antipsychotic therapy after the first prescription, 61.4% continued with overall treatment within 6 months of initiation. Clozapine use was too rare to include in statistical analyses. Overall therapy discontinuation was more likely for those who initiated medications with known dopamine-receptor blocking activity (adjusted hazard ratios 1.76 [95% confidence interval 1.40-2.20] for quetiapine, 2.15 [1.61-2.86] for aripiprazole, 2.12 [1.66-2.72] for risperidone, and 2.07 [1.60-2.67] for olanzapine), compared with serotonin receptor-specific pimavanserin. Initial antipsychotic therapy discontinuation also associated with greater dopamine-receptor blocking activity medication use - adjusted hazard ratios 1.57 (1.28-1.94), 1.88 (1.43-2.46), 2.00 (1.59-2.52) and 2.03 (1.60-2.58) for quetiapine, aripiprazole, risperidone, and olanzapine, respectively, compared with pimavanserin. Similar results were observed in sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Over one-third of individuals with PD discontinued antipsychotic therapy, especially if the initial drug has greater dopamine-receptor blocking activity. Understanding the drivers of antipsychotic discontinuation, including ineffectiveness, potentially inappropriate use, clinician inertia, patient adherence and adverse effects, is needed to inform clinical management of psychosis in PD and appropriate antipsychotic use in this population.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada , Cooperação do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(2): 112-122, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of utilization of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) at the time of isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on clinical decision making and associated outcomes is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the association of TEE with post-CABG mortality and changes to the operative plan. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of planned isolated CABG patients from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database between January 1, 2011, and June 30, 2019, was performed. The exposure variable of interest was use of intraoperative TEE during CABG compared with no TEE. The primary outcome was operative mortality. The association of TEE with unplanned valve surgery was also assessed. RESULTS: Of 1,255,860 planned isolated CABG procedures across 1218 centers, 676,803 (53.9%) had intraoperative TEE. The percentage of patients receiving intraoperative TEE increased over time from 39.9% in 2011 to 62.1% in 2019 (p trend <0.0001). CABG patients undergoing intraoperative TEE had lower odds of mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.91 to 0.99; p = 0.025), with heterogeneity across STS risk groups (p interaction = 0.015). TEE was associated with increased odds of unplanned valve procedure in lieu of planned isolated CABG (adjusted odds ratio: 4.98; 95% confidence interval: 3.98 to 6.22; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative TEE usage during planned isolated CABG is associated with lower operative mortality, particularly in higher-risk patients, as well as greater odds of unplanned valve procedure. These findings support usage of TEE to improve outcomes for isolated CABG for high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Neurosci Nurs ; 53(3): 116-122, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840807

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Persons with Parkinson disease (PD) have complex care needs that may benefit from enhanced nursing care provided in Magnet-designated hospitals. Our primary objective was to determine whether an association exists between hospital Magnet status and patient safety events for PD inpatients in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality databases from 2000 to 2010. Parkinson disease diagnosis and demographic variables were retrieved, along with Magnet designation and other hospital characteristics. Inpatient mortality and preventable adverse events in hospitals with and without Magnet status were then compared using relevant Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality patient safety indicators. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2010, 493 760 hospitalizations among PD patients were identified. Of those, 40 121 (8.1%) occurred at one of 389 Magnet hospitals. When comparing PD patients in Magnet versus non-Magnet hospitals, demographic characteristics were similar. Multivariate regression models adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics identified a 21% reduction in mortality among PD inpatients in Magnet hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.85). PD inpatients in Magnet hospitals also had a lower odds of experiencing any patient safety indicator (AOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68-0.79), pressure ulcers (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.55-0.67), death from a low mortality condition (AOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68-0.79), and a higher odds of postoperative bleeding (AOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.04-2.04). CONCLUSIONS: PD patients had a reduced risk of inpatient mortality and several nursing-sensitive patient safety events, highlighting the possible benefits of Magnet status on inpatient safety in PD.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Doença de Parkinson , Hospitais , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
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